Cambria County, Pennsylvania
Cambria County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 143,679, its county seat is Ebensburg. The county was created on March 26, 1804, from parts of Bedford and Somerset Counties and organized in 1807, it was named for the nation of Wales, which in Latin is known as "Cambria". Cambria County comprises the Johnstown, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Johnstown-Somerset, PA Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 694 square miles, of which 688 square miles is land and 5.3 square miles is water. Clearfield County Blair County Bedford County Somerset County Westmoreland County Indiana County Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Johnstown Flood National Memorial As of the census of 2000, there were 152,598 people, 60,531 households, 40,616 families residing in the county; the population density was 222 people per square mile. There were 65,796 housing units at an average density of 96 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 95.80% White, 2.83% Black or African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races. 0.89% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 27.7% were of German, 10.2% Irish, 10.1% Italian, 10.0% Polish, 6.5% Slovak, 6.2% American and 5.6% English ancestry. There were 60,531 households out of which 27.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.80% were married couples living together, 10.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.90% were non-families. 29.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.00% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, 19.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years.
For every 100 females there were 94.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.30 males. As of November 2008, there were 92,456 registered voters in Cambria County. Democratic: 57,000 Republican: 28,285 Other Parties / No Party: 7,171 Despite being overwhelmingly Democratic in registration and the Democrats holding all row offices, Cambria has been a swing county in statewide elections since the 1990s, with all four statewide winners carrying it in 2008. Cambria County is one of Pennsylvania's most competitive counties; that is due to its mixed urban-rural ratio. Al Gore received 50.3% of the county vote to 46.4% for George W. Bush in 2000, but Bush carried it with 50.8% of the vote to 48.7% for John Kerry in 2004–only the third time since 1928 that the county had supported a Republican for president. Cambria returned to the Democratic Presidential column in 2008, with Barack Obama receiving 49.4% of the vote to 48.7% for John McCain. In 2011 the GOP won a majority on the county commissioners board and in 2012 gave Mitt Romney 58.1% of the vote to Barack Obama's 40.1%.
In 2016, Donald Trump carried the county with 66.5% of the vote to Hillary Clinton's 29.7%, winning the county by 36.8%. This broke the modern record for margin of victory in the county of 35.4% set by Lyndon Johnson in 1964. Mark Wissinger, Republican William Smith, Democrat Thomas C. Chernisky, Democrat District Attorney, Kelly Callihan, Democrat Clerk of Courts, Susan Kuhar, Democrat Controller, Ed Cernic Jr. Democrat Coroner, Jeffrey Lees, Democrat Prothonotary, Patty Berkebile, Democrat Recorder of Deeds, Ray Wendekier, Democrat Register of Wills, Patty Sharbaugh, Democrat Sheriff, Bob Kolar, Democrat Treasurer, Barbara J. Kline, Democrat Wayne Langerholc, Pennsylvania's 35th Senatorial District Christ the Saviour Seminary, Johnstown Mount Aloysius College Saint Francis University University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown Tipple Town Tech. Cambria-Rowe Business College Pennsylvania Highlands Community College Commonwealth Technical Institute, Johnstown Wrightco Technologies Technical Training Institute, Ebensburg Blacklick Valley School District Cambria Heights School District Central Cambria School District Conemaugh Valley School District Ferndale Area School District Forest Hills School District Glendale School District Greater Johnstown School District Northern Cambria School District Penn Cambria School District Portage Area School District Richland School District Westmont Hilltop School District Windber Area School District There are 11 public,cyber charter schools in Pennsylvania that are available for free statewide, to children K-12.
See: Education in Pennsylvania. All Saints Catholic School, Cresson Appalachian Youth Service Arbutus Park Manor, Johnstown Bishop Carroll High School Bishop McCort High School, Johnstown Cambria County Child Development Center, Ebensburg Cambria County Christian School, Johnstown Carousel Learning & Development Center, Johnstown Cathedral Catholic Academy, Johnstown Center for Achievement Childrens Express Inc, Cresson Easter Seal Day Care Center, Johnstown Genesis Christian Academy, Johnstown Holy Name School, Ebensburg Houston House, Johnstown Laurel Highlands Therapeutic Academy, Ebensburg Little Learning Lamp, Johnstown Northern Cambria Catholic School, Nicktown Occupational Preparation School, Ebensburg Our Mother of Sorrow School, Johnstown Richland Academy, Johnstown Sean Davison School of Driving, Lilly St Michael School, Loretto St Sophia Orthodox Christian Academy, JohnstownAccording
WRKW is a commercially licensed radio station, licensed to Ebensburg, Pennsylvania. The station is owned by Forever Broadcasting of Johnstown and maintains studios and offices at 109 Plaza Drive in Johnstown. WRKW operates at the federally assigned frequency of 99.1 Megahertz with an effective radiated power of 50,000 watts. A 175 watt subchannel W230BK is on 93.9 to serve Johnstown. There is a relation with WRKY in Altoona, Pennsylvania in that they are part of Forever Broadcasting. For much of its existence, WRKW was known as WIYQ, first signing on the air as WEND-FM on July 15, 1962 from studios on Center Street in downtown Ebensburg, its licensed community; the station, along with its like-named AM sister station was founded by Cary H. Simpson, who founded the Allegheny Mountain Network based in Tyrone just 11 years before; this station broadcast on the frequency of 103.9 FM, but moved to 99.1 in 1966, which brought a power increase to 10,000 watts. Years as Johnstown's economy prospered, the station moved to 1240 Scalp Avenue in Richland Township, where it became more of a regional station serving West Central Pennsylvania.
Throughout its existence, WIYQ went through a series of different formats, from middle-of-the-road to a brief period of top-40 in the late-1980s programmed by John Harlow who did mornings with Tor Michaels. Matt Swayne did middays, Brian Tercek did Dave Snyder did nights. What WIYQ became well known for was a local polka show broadcast every Sunday afternoon. "Jo-Jo's Polka Swing" debuted in 1972, remained a staple of WIYQ's programming for twenty years, becoming one of the most successful programs on the station, with listeners calling in from as far away as Pittsburgh's eastern suburbs. Joe Vesnesky, a Glendale High School History Teacher by trade who did sports play-by-play for another area station, hosted the show, gaining an strong following because of his mastery of the native Polish language and the powerful signal of WIYQ, which reached 27 counties in three states. Air personality "Country Ron" took over the morning show at WIYQ in 1974 and soon developed a huge following among the areas Country Music fans and hosted several live broadcasts from the nearby Cambria County Fairgrounds.
Ron Kauffman had been a student of Joe Vesnesky. Ron once introduced the'Queen of Country Music' to the stage at a local high school. After 31 years, the station's history as WIYQ came to sad end as the station was sold to TMZ Broadcasting of State College for $440,000. Gone were the popular oldies music and Jo-Jo's Polka Swing, which would resurface years at a 5,000 watt AM radio station in Philipsburg. WIYQ became known as WQKK, or "Quick Rock", operating as a satellite of rocker WQWK in State College; the station was purchased by TMZ as part of a strategic move to increase its presence in Johnstown and Altoona. WQWK's weaker signal at 97.1 did not have the ability to reach Johnstown at all, while touching Altoona. The much-stronger 99.1 signal helped WQWK penetrate these areas. WQKK and WGLU would swap frequencies, with WQKK moving to the much weaker 92.1 signal, while WGLU took over 99.1, branding itself "Power 99.1". After the move to 92.1, WQKK rebranded itself "The Rock", played a mix of classic and new rock.
WQKK aired specialty shows on weeknights such as "The'80s at 8", "Led Before Bed", "Mandatory Metallica" at 11pm. In 2005 both WQKK and WGLU were purchased by Forever Broadcasting reverted to their original frequencies so the CHR station could serve the populated areas, 99.1 could reach a wider portion of the market and took its current call sign of WRKW from 92.1, a new name, Rocky 99. At the same time the rock based station began a shift within its format playing'classic' rock and oldies songs over 30 years old, while still playing newer rock, similar to the former 92.1 The Rock. This changed in November 2014 when the station began airing Westwood One Rock 2.0 playing rock from the 90s to today while still playing classic rock and airing Alice Cooper at night. In June 2016 Rocky 99 became a full classic rock station with Westwood One Classic Rock Local providing the programming; the slogan still says that they are a "Rock" station but the playlist is all "Classic Rock". Despite the Westwood One affiliation, they still air a local morning and afternoon show with some weekend programming local as well.
WRKW is a part of the Pittsburgh Steelers Radio Network, carrying pre-game and post-game coverage along with the games themselves. The Steeler games are run by legendary board-op, John Walko, of Windber. John has been running sporting events in the Johnstown area for parts of three decades. To note, John did mornings on WIYQ. 1963 Broadcasting Yearbook 1965 Broadcasting Yearbook WRKW official website Query the FCC's FM station database for WRKW Radio-Locator information on WRKW Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WRKW
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
Johnstown is a city in Cambria County, United States, 43 miles west-southwest of Altoona and 67 miles east of Pittsburgh. The population was 20,978 at the 2010 census and estimated to be 20,402 in 2013, it is the principal city of the Johnstown, Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Cambria County. Johnstown, settled in 1770, has experienced three major floods in its history; the "Great Flood" of May 31, 1889, occurred after the South Fork Dam collapsed 14.1 miles upstream from the city during heavy rains. At least 2,209 people died as a result of the flood and subsequent fire that raged through the debris. Another major flood occurred in 1936. Despite a pledge by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt to make the city flood free, subsequent work to do so, another major flood occurred in 1977; the 1977 flood—in what was to have been a "flood free" city—may have contributed to Johnstown's subsequent population decline and inability to attract new residents and businesses. The city is home to five national historic districts: the Downtown Johnstown Historic District, Cambria City Historic District, Minersville Historic District, Moxham Historic District, Old Conemaugh Borough Historic District.
Individual listings on the National Register of Historic Places are the Grand Army of the Republic Hall, Cambria Iron Company, Cambria Public Library Building, Bridge in Johnstown City, Nathan's Department Store, Johnstown Inclined Railway. Archaeological evidence shows. Penn's Woods saw much Native American activity as well as the Quemahoming area. Three distinct tribes migrated and fished in the area. Johnstown was called Conemaugh Old Town in the native Algonquin language. Old Town was linked to the outlying areas by the Stoney Creek, Quemahoming Creek and Conemuagh Rivers joining Johnstown to older settlements on the river including New Florence and Kickenapaulin's. Johnstown was formally organized as a town in 1800 by the Swiss German immigrant Joseph Johns; the settlement was known as "Schantzstadt", but was soon anglicized to Johnstown. From 1834 to 1854, the city was a port and key transfer point along the Pennsylvania Main Line Canal. Johnstown was at the head of the canal's western branch, with canal boats having been transported over the mountains via the Allegheny Portage Railroad and refloated here, to continue the trip by water to Pittsburgh and the Ohio Valley.
The most famous passenger who traveled via the canal to visit Johnstown was Charles Dickens in 1842. By 1854, canal transport became redundant with the completion of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which now spanned the state. With the coming of the railroads, the city's growth improved. Johnstown became a stop on the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad and was connected with the Baltimore & Ohio; the railroads provided large-scale development of the region's mineral wealth. Iron and steel became central to the town of Johnstown. By 1860, the Cambria Iron Company of Johnstown was the leading steel producer in the United States, outproducing steel giants in Pittsburgh and Cleveland. Through the second half of the 19th century, Johnstown made much of the nation's barbed wire. Johnstown prospered from skyrocketing demand in the western United States for barbed wire. Twenty years after its founding, the Cambria Works was a huge enterprise sprawling over 60 acres in Johnstown and employing 7,000, it owned 40,000 acres of valuable mineral lands in a region with a ready supply of iron and limestone.
Floods were a yearly event in the valley during the 1880s. On the afternoon of May 30, 1889, following a quiet Memorial Day ceremony and a parade, it began raining in the valley; the next day water filled the streets, rumors began that a dam holding an artificial lake in the mountains to the northeast might give way. It did, an estimated 20 million tons of water began spilling into the winding gorge that led to Johnstown some 14 miles away; the destruction in Johnstown occurred in only about 10 minutes. What had been a thriving steel town with homes, saloons, a library, a railroad station, electric street lights, a roller rink, two opera houses was buried under mud and debris. Out of a population of 30,000 at the time, at least 2,209 people are known to have perished in the disaster. An infamous site of a major fire during the flood was the old stone Pennsylvania Railroad bridge located where the Stonycreek and Little Conemaugh rivers join to form the Conemaugh River; the bridge still stands today.
The Johnstown flood of 1889 established the American Red Cross as the pre-eminent emergency relief organization in the United States. Founder Clara Barton 67, came to Johnstown with 50 doctors and nurses and set up tent hospitals as well as temporary "hotels" for the homeless, stayed on for five months to coordinate relief efforts; the mills were back in operation within a month. The Cambria Works grew, Johnstown became more prosperous than ever; the disaster strengthened it. Generations would draw on lessons learned in 1889. In the early 20th century, the population reached 75,000 people; the city's first commercial radio station, WJAC, began broadcasts in 1925. The downtown boasted at least five major department stores, including Glosser Brothers, which in the 1950s gave birth to the Gee Bee chain of department stores. However, the St Patrick's Day flood of 1936 combined with the gnawing effects of the Great Depression left Johnstown struggling again, but only temporarily. Johnstown's citizens mobilized to achieve a permanent solution to the
Somerset County, Pennsylvania
Somerset County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 77,742, its county seat is Somerset. The county was created from part of Bedford County on April 17, 1795, named after the county of Somerset in England. Somerset County comprises the Somerset, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Johnstown–Somerset, PA Combined Statistical Area. Southwestern Pennsylvania began; as population increased, the area was split into smaller counties. Bedford County was formed from part from Cumberland in 1771 and is referred to as "Old Bedford County" and contained what are now 20 smaller counties. In 1773 part of Bedford County was split off to form Westmoreland County. In 1787 Bedford County was split in half with northern part becoming Huntingdon County and southern part remained as a smaller Bedford County. Somerset County was split off from western part Bedford County 17 April 1795. In 1804 the northern half of Somerset County was split off to form Cambria County.
No further splits from Somerset County occurred since 1804. George Washington passed through the area of Somerset County in 1753 on a scouting expedition at the beginning of the French-Indian War; the Forbes Road cuts through Somerset County. This 200-mile stretch from Carlisle to what is now Pittsburgh was created by Brigadier General John Forbes in the British Expedition of 1758 to Fort Duquesne. Forbes Ford was one of two great western land routes cut through the wilderness to create supply lines from the east, it was the primary route of pioneers travelling to Ohio Country. Fur trappers and hunters were first to stay in the region; the earliest permanent white settlement in what is now Somerset County is a region known as Turkeyfoot. People of "The Jersey Settlement" emigrated from Essex and Morris Counties, New Jersey about 1770. Somerset County gained worldwide attention in 2001 when a hijacked airliner, United Airlines Flight 93, crashed in Stonycreek Township, near the town of Shanksville as part of the September 11 attacks.
The first confirmed report of the plane's crash came from Somerset County Airport as reported on NBC's The Today Show. The most target of this flight was the U. S. Capitol in Washington, D. C; the terrorists' plans for this plane were thwarted by the actions of crew. Their bravery is honored and the crash site, the final resting place of the passengers and crew, is now protected as part of the Flight 93 National Memorial, under the care of the National Park System. See USS Somerset, a U. S. Navy warship, named in commemoration of the Flight 93 tragedy. In July 2002, Somerset County again made worldwide news when nine coal miners were rescued from several hundred feet underground at the Quecreek mine after an intense multi-day struggle. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,081 square miles, of which 1,074 square miles is land and 6.6 square miles is water. Somerset County is one of the far southern counties of Pennsylvania, along its straight southern edge; the county borders Garrett and Allegany Counties in Maryland, the Pennsylvania counties of Fayette, Westmoreland and Bedford.
Somerset County along with Garrett County is one of the snowiest inhabited locations in the United States, with the highest elevations of the county averaging 150+ inches of snow each winter. The county's elevation and general proximity to both the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean causes snow from both Nor'easters and lake effect upslope snow events to fall from late October through early April. Snow has been recorded in Somerset County in every month except July, although local lore has it that July saw snow in 1816, "the year without a summer." Mount Davis, the highest natural point in the state of Pennsylvania at 3,213 feet, is located in the southern part of the County. Cambria County Bedford County Allegany County, Maryland Garrett County, Maryland Fayette County Westmoreland County Flight 93 National Memorial Kooser State Park Laurel Hill State Park Laurel Mountain State Park Laurel Ridge State Park Somerset County is situated along the eastern border of the Allegheny Plateau physiographic province, characterized by folded to flat-lying sedimentary rocks of middle to late Paleozoic age.
The eastern border of the county is at the Allegheny Front, a geological boundary between the Allegheny Plateau and the Ridge and Valley Province. The stratigraphic record of sedimentary rocks within the county spans from the Devonian Scherr Formation to the Pennsylvanian Monongahela Formation. Most of these rocks are clastics, there is little or no limestone exposed at the surface. No igneous or metamorphic rocks of any kind exist within the county. Structurally, Somerset County has many gentle folds, the axes of which trend north-northeast. Synclines include the Youghiogheny Syncline, New Lexington/Johnstown Syncline, Somerset Syncline, Berlin Syncline, Wellersburg Syncline; the southern end of Wilmore Syncline is at the town of Windber. Anticlines include the Laurel Hill Anticline, Centerville Dome, Boswell Dome, Negro Mountain Anticline, an unnamed anticline between the Berlin and Wellersburg Synclines; the primary mountains within the county are Laurel Hill, Negro Mountain, Meadow Mountain, Savage Mountain, Allegheny Mountain.
Negro Mountain includes Mount Davis, the highest peak in Pennsylvania. Each mountain trends northeast. Al
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, is still used worldwide for medium wave transmissions, but on the longwave and shortwave radio bands; the earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have greatly shrunk due to competition from FM radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting, satellite radio, HD radio and Internet streaming. AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, have lower audio fidelity.
Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music to FM and digital stations. The idea of broadcasting — the unrestricted transmission of signals to a widespread audience — dates back to the founding period of radio development though the earliest radio transmissions known as "Hertzian radiation" and "wireless telegraphy", used spark-gap transmitters that could only transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. In October 1898 a London publication, The Electrician, noted that "there are rare cases where, as Dr. Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, it was recognized that this would involve significant financial issues, as that same year The Electrician commented "did not Prof. Lodge forget that no one wants to pay for shouting to the world on a system by which it would be impossible to prevent non-subscribers from benefiting gratuitously?"On January 1, 1902, Nathan Stubblefield gave a short-range "wireless telephone" demonstration, that included broadcasting speech and music to seven locations throughout Murray, Kentucky.
However, this was transmitted using induction rather than radio signals, although Stubblefield predicted that his system would be perfected so that "it will be possible to communicate with hundreds of homes at the same time", "a single message can be sent from a central station to all parts of the United States", he was unable to overcome the inherent distance limitations of this technology. The earliest public radiotelegraph broadcasts were provided as government services, beginning with daily time signals inaugurated on January 1, 1905, by a number of U. S. Navy stations. In Europe, signals transmitted from a station located on the Eiffel tower were received throughout much of Europe. In both the United States and France this led to a small market of receiver lines designed geared for jewelers who needed accurate time to set their clocks, including the Ondophone in France, the De Forest RS-100 Jewelers Time Receiver in the United States The ability to pick up time signal broadcasts, in addition to Morse code weather reports and news summaries attracted the interest of amateur radio enthusiasts.
It was recognized that, much like the telegraph had preceded the invention of the telephone, the ability to make audio radio transmissions would be a significant technical advance. Despite this knowledge, it still took two decades to perfect the technology needed to make quality audio transmissions. In addition, the telephone had been used for distributing entertainment, outside of a few "telephone newspaper" systems, most of which were established in Europe. With this in mind, most early radiotelephone development envisioned that the device would be more profitably developed as a "wireless telephone" for personal communication, or for providing links where regular telephone lines could not be run, rather than for the uncertain finances of broadcasting; the person credited as the primary early developer of AM technology is Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden. The original spark-gap radio transmitters were impractical for transmitting audio, since they produced discontinuous pulses known as "damped waves".
Fessenden realized that what was needed was a new type of radio transmitter that produced steady "undamped" signals, which could be "modulated" to reflect the sounds being transmitted. Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. S. Patent 706,737, which he applied for on May 29, 1901, was issued the next year, it called for the use of a high-speed alternator that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave transmitter. Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while doing developmental work for the United States Weather Service on Cobb Island, Maryland; because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves. He reported that, in the fall of 1900, he transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers, which appears to have been the first successful audio transmission using radio signals.
However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical. For a time he continued working with more sophist
K-Love is a contemporary Christian music radio programming service in the United States operated by the Educational Media Foundation. The network is one of three formats produced by the Educational Media Foundation, the other two being K-Love Classics and Air1; as of March 2013, the network's programming is simulcast on over 440 FM stations and translators in 47 U. S. states and 1 U. S. Territory. K-Love has over 12 million listeners weekly online and in cities across the United States on FM radio including Anchorage, Denver, Los Angeles and New York City, it is the sixth-most online-streamed station in the world. K-Love began in 1980 as a single radio station with the call sign KCLB, it was a full-time contemporary Christian music radio station, launched by radio personality Bob Anthony, in Middletown, California. After several tries at purchasing a station in San Francisco, a small, non-commercial radio station was acquired just north of San Francisco for $67,000. On October 15, 1982, 91.9 KCLB came on the air for the first time with Bob Anthony as announcer.
The first song played on KCLB was "Praise The Lord" by The Imperials, a hit on the Christian Music charts in 1979. With the slogan "The Positive Alternative, Christian Music Radio KCLB 92FM", the station continued to grow in listeners. In 1986, Dick Jenkins was hired as General Manager; that same year, Bob Anthony moved to Oregon, to start a new radio ministry. On September 12, 1988, a 9,000-acre brush fire destroyed KCLB's main transmitter building on Geyser Peak; the radio station transmitter was relocated to 4,000-foot Mount Saint Helena. The new location improved signal strength, listeners reported they could now hear the station as far as 125 miles away; as KCLB continued to expand its signal reach, in 1987 the signal could be heard on transmitters in San Rafael and Monterey, California that rebroadcast KCLB's signal. In 1988, KCLB changed its call letters to KLVR, adopted its on-air brand name K-Love and the slogan "Encouraging Words, Positive Music, K-Love Radio". By 1989, the signal could be heard in Santa Cruz, San Jose, Los Gatos, California via microwave transmission and television subcarriers.
K-Love expanded its reach during the 1990s by purchasing small stations and translators, repeating its signal. In 1992, K-Love began using satellite technology to expand to locations further away than just northern California; the Educational Media Foundation continued to purchase small translators in California but bought stations in Portland, Phoenix, Oklahoma City and San Antonio. During the 1990s, K-Love began to expand its on-air personalities. David Pierce joined in 1991. Mike Novak, JD Chandler and Larry Wayne started working air shifts in the late 1990s. In addition to expanding the on-air talent, K-Love expanded its facilities and moved its headquarters from Santa Rosa to Sacramento in 1993. In 1998 K-Love increased its reach online by streaming live on klove.com. During the decade of the 2000s, K-Love went through a period of expansion through the purchase of stations and translators across the United States. On October 5, 2000, Colorado Christian University sold KWBI Morrison / Denver, KJOL Grand Junction and KDRH Glenwood Springs, Colorado as well as 18 translators to K-Love.
The Colorado radio network was sold for a reported $16.6 million. A Colorado Christian University release said the board considered "many offers from Christian, as well as other suitors," but the priority was finding a buyer committed to "top-quality Christian programming." KWBI is now KLDV, is one of K-Love's most listened to signals. K-Love picked up the KWBI calls for their radio station in Kansas. In 2003, the EMF took advantage of a window of time where the Federal Communications Commission allowed for the filing of new applications for FM translators known as the "2003 Auction 83 filing window" and labelled as the "Great Translator Invasion of 2003." During that time, the FCC received over 13,000 applications for original construction permits on translators. EMF filled over 800 applications, of which over 250 have been approved, most of those now carry the K-Love network. In January 2007, the EMF purchased 94.3 WJKL Elgin, which broadcasts to the Chicago area, for $17 million. Shortly after the purchase, a flood hit the WJKL transmitter site that knocked the station off the air for more than a week.
WJKL now broadcasts from Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois to the Chicago market. On November 30, 2007, K-Love purchased 97.3 KCXM, an ESPN radio affiliate for Kansas City, for $16 million. The call letters were changed to KLRX shortly after and now broadcasts from Lee's Summit to the Kansas City area; as a result and other station purchases, plus the new translators approved during the 2003 filing window, the K-Love radio network grew to be the largest broadcaster of contemporary Christian music in the world. By 2010, K-Love had an estimated listenership of 6 million people, from both terrestrial stations and on-line streams. In 2002, the EMF moved its headquarters from California, to Rocklin; the new headquarters now housed K-Love, Air1 and Christian Music Planet magazine. On July 15, 2009, K-Love bought 101.9 WKLU, which broadcasts to Indianapolis, for $4.75 million, plus $1.55 million for the studio. The studio became the broadcast location for the K-Love Morning Show. In January 2004, K-Love partnered with Premier Christian Cruises and had its first annual "K-LOVE Friends & Family Music Cruise".
Passage on the cruise sold out 13 weeks after sales began in April 2003. In 2001, Christian radio personality Jon Rivers, along with his wife Sherry, became the K-Love Morning Show hosts, bro