Rome, New York
Rome is a city in Oneida County, New York, United States, located in the central part of the state. The population was 33,725 at the 2010 census. Rome is one of two principal cities in the Utica–Rome Metropolitan Statistical Area, which lies in the "Leatherstocking Country" made famous by James Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales, set in frontier days before the American Revolutionary War. Rome is in New York's 22nd congressional district; the city developed at an ancient portage site of Native Americans, including the historic Iroquois nations. This portage continued to be strategically important to Europeans, who used the main 18th and 19th-century waterways, based on the Mohawk and Hudson rivers, that connected New York City and the Atlantic seaboard to the Great Lakes; the original European settlements developed around fortifications erected in the 1750s to defend the waterway, in particular the British Fort Stanwix built in western New York. Following the American Revolution, the settlement began to grow with the construction of the Rome Canal in 1796, to connect Wood Creek and the headwaters of the Mohawk River.
In the same year the state created the Town of Rome as a section of Oneida County. For a time, the small community next to the canal was informally known as Lynchville, after the original owner of the property; the New York State Legislature converted the Town of Rome into a city on February 23, 1870. The residents have called Rome the City of American History. Rome was founded along an ancient Native American portage path known as the Oneida Carrying Place, Deo-Wain-Sta, or The Great Carrying Place to the Six Nations, or the Haudenosaunee in their language; these names refer to a portage road or path between the Mohawk River to the east, which flows east to the Hudson River. Now located within the modern Rome city limits, this short portage path was the only overland section of a water trade route stretching more than 1,000 miles between Lake Ontario and the lower Hudson. Travelers and traders coming up the Mohawk River from the Hudson had to transfer their cargo and boats and transport them overland between 1.7 and six miles to continue west on Wood Creek to Lake Ontario.
This ancient trade route joined the Great Lakes and Canada via the Mohawk River to the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean. During the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, this region was the scene of much fighting; the British colonists had erected several small forts to guard the Oneida Carrying Place and the lucrative fur trade against French incursions from Canada. In 1758, after several abortive attempts to fortify the area, the British sent a large force to secure the Oneida Carry and build a stronger rampart complex, which they named Fort Stanwix. Following defeat by the English during the war, the French ceded their territory in North America east of the Mississippi River to England; the English signed the Treaty of Fort Stanwix with the Iroquois, under the terms of which they promised to preserve areas west of the Appalachian Mountains as an Indian reserve and to prohibit colonial settlement. It has been described as "one of the worst treaties in the History of Anglo-Indian relationships".
The treaty has been described as "the last desperate effort of the British to create order west of the Appalachians. The British were unable to enforce their promise, as Anglo colonists continued to move west of the Appalachians, causing conflicts with native tribes; the British abandoned Ft. Stanwix after that war. At the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, American Continental forces took control of the Fort Stanwix site and improving the fort; the installation survived a siege by the British in the Saratoga Campaign of 1777, it became renowned as "the fort that never surrendered". Patriot militia and their Oneida Nation allies under the command of Col. Peter Gansevoort repelled a prolonged siege in August 1777 by British, German and Canadian troops and warriors from several Native American nations, all commanded by British Gen. Barry St. Leger; the failed siege, combined with the battle at nearby Oriskany as well as the battles of Bennington, Saratoga, thwarted a coordinated British effort to take the northern colonies.
Following this success, the Americans were able to gain alliances with France and the Netherlands, as both countries were becoming more confident that the rebels had a chance to win. After the repulsion of the British at Fort Stanwix, bloody fighting erupted along the American northern frontier and throughout the Mohawk Valley. There were heavy losses for both American settlers and the people of the Six Nations, as each side made retaliatory raids against the other in a round of violence; because many of the Oneida were fighting with the rebels and against the four nations allied with the British the Mohawk and Seneca, the Iroquois had members attacking each other, which they had avoided doing earlier in this century. The Americans used Fort Stanwix as the primary staging point for attacks against British loyalist units and their Haudenosaunee allies; the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 was launched from here as a scorched earth campaign against villages of Iroquois nations that were allied with the British.
Commander George Washington ordered the campaign in retaliation for the fierce frontier attacks in New York, such as the Cherry Valley Massacre by Loyalist irregulars
TLC (TV network)
TLC is an American pay television channel, owned by Discovery, Inc. Focused on educational and learning content, by the late 1990s, the network began to focus towards reality series involving lifestyles, family life, personal stories; as of February 2015, TLC was available to watch in 95 million American households in the United States. The channel was founded in 1972 by the Department of Health and Welfare and NASA as the Appalachian Community Service Network, was an informative and instructional network focused on providing real education through the medium of television. ACSN was privatized in 1980, its name was changed to The Learning Channel in November of that year; the channel featured documentary content pertaining to nature, history, current events, technology, home improvement, other information-based topics. These are agreed to have been more focused, more technical, of a more academic nature than the content, being broadcast at the time on its rival, The Discovery Channel; the channel was geared toward an inquisitive and narrow audience during this time, had modest ratings except for the boating safety series Captain's Log and hosted by Mark Graves, a.k.a.
Captain Mark Gray. Captain's Log aired weekly in primetime on TLC from 1987 to 1990, it achieved between a 4.5 to 6 share in the ratings and was the highest compensated series in the history of TLC with over 30 times the compensation of any other TLC series. By the early 1990s, The Learning Channel was a sister channel to the Financial News Network, which owned 51 percent of the channel with Infotechnology Inc. After FNN went into bankruptcy in 1991, the Discovery Channel's owners went into discussions to purchase The Learning Channel. An agreement was made with Infotech to buy their shares for $12.75 million. The non-profit Appalachian Community Service Network owned 35 percent of the network, was bought out; the Learning Channel continued to focus on instructional and educational programming through much of the 1990s, but began to air shows less focused on education and themed more toward popular consumption and mass marketing. TLC still aired educational programs such as Paleoworld, though more and more of its programming began to be devoted to niche audiences for shows regarding subjects like home improvement and crafts, crime programs such as The New Detectives, medical programming, other shows that appealed to daytime audiences housewives.
This was to be indicative of a major change in programming content and target audience over the next few years. Due to poor ratings from a narrow target audience, TLC began to explore new avenues starting in the late 1990s, deemphasizing educational material in favor of entertainment. "Ready Set Learn", the network's children's program block, was reduced through the years as the network deliberately redirected viewers towards the full-day lineup of children's programming on Discovery Kids. The block was dropped in late 2008, Cable in the Classroom programming, meant for recording by teachers, had disappeared by the early 2000s. In 1998, the channel began to distance itself from its original name "The Learning Channel", instead began to advertise itself only as "TLC". During this period, there was a huge shift in content, with most new programming being geared towards reality-drama and interior design shows; the huge success of shows like Trading Spaces, Junkyard Wars, A Wedding Story, A Baby Story exemplified this new shift in programming towards more mass-appeal shows.
This came at a time when Discovery itself was overhauling much of its own programming, introducing shows like American Chopper. Much of the old, more educationally focused programming can still be found dispersed amongst other channels owned by Discovery Communications. Most of TLC's programming today is geared towards reality-based drama or interests such as home design, emergency room or medical dramas, extreme weather, law enforcement and human interest programs. On March 27, 2006, the network launched a new look and promotional campaign, dropping the "Life Unscripted" tag and introducing a new theme, "Live and learn", trying to turn around the network's reliance on decorating shows and reality programming; as part of the new campaign, the channel's original name, "The Learning Channel", returned to occasional usage in promotions. The new theme played on life lessons, which featured in the network's advertising and promotional clips; this campaign used humor to appeal to a target audience in their 30s.
In early March 2008, TLC launched a refreshed look and promotional campaign, alongside a new slogan: "Life surprises". This new slogan came as TLC began to shift more to personal stories, away from the once-dominating home improvement shows. Programs focused on family life became the core of the channel. Jon & Kate Plus 8, which by 2008 was the highest-rated program on TLC, Little People, Big World were joined by 17 Kids and Counting, Table for 12 in 20
Planning permission or developmental approval refers to the approval needed for construction or expansion in some jurisdictions. It is given in the form of a building permit; the new construction must be inspected during construction and after completion to ensure compliance with national and local building codes. Planning is dependent on the site's zone – for example, one cannot obtain permission to build a nightclub in an area where it is inappropriate such as a high-density suburb. Failure to obtain a permit can result in fines and demolition of unauthorized construction if it cannot be made to meet code. House building permits, for example, are subject to local housing statutes; the criteria for planning permission are a part of urban planning and construction law, are managed by town planners employed by local governments. Since building permits precede outlays for construction, employment and furnishings, they are used as a leading indicator for developments in other areas of the economy.
As part of broadcast law, the term is used in broadcasting, where individual radio and television stations must apply for and receive permission to construct radio towers and radio antennas. This type of permit is issued by a national broadcasting authority, but does not imply zoning any other permission that must be given by local government; the permit itself does not imply permission to operate the station once constructed. In the U. S. a construction permit is valid for three years. Afterwards, the station must receive a full license to operate, good for seven years; this is provided by a separate broadcast license called a "license to cover" by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States. Further permission or registration for towers may be needed from aviation authorities. In the U. S. construction permits for commercial stations are now assigned by auction, rather than the former process of determining who would serve the community of license best. If the given frequency allocation is sought by at least one non-commercial educational applicant, or is on an NCE-reserved TV channel or in the FM reserved band, the comparative process still takes place, though the FCC refuses to consider which radio format the applicants propose.
In Canada, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission maintains a comparative process in issuing permits, ensuring that a variety of programming is available in each area, that as many groups as possible have access to free speech over radio waves
Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, wire and cable. The FCC serves the public in the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, homeland security; the FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission; the FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Territories of the United States. The FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America; the FCC is funded by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US $388 million, it has 1,688 federal employees, made up of 50% males and 50% females as of December, 2017. The FCC's mission, specified in Section One of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is to "make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, efficient and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges."
The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications."Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1999 Government Performance and Results Act, the FCC has identified four goals in its 2018-22 Strategic Plan. They are: Closing the Digital Divide, Promoting Innovation, Protecting Consumers & Public Safety, Reforming the FCC's Processes; the FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. † Commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session no than noon on January 4; the FCC is organized into seven Bureaus, which process applications for licenses and other filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations and implement regulations, participate in hearings. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCC's consumer policies, including disability access. CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains collaborative partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness and implementation of new technologies; the Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, terms and conditions of station authorizations.
Major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, homeland security. The International Bureau develops international policies in telecommunications, such as coordination of frequency allocation and orbital assignments so as to minimize cases of international electromagnetic interference involving U. S. licensees. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations and other international agreements; the Media Bureau develops and administers the policy and licensing programs relating to electronic media, including cable television, broadcast television, radio in the United States and its territories. The Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service; the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, including licensing. The bureau implements competitive bidding for spectrum auctions and regulates wireless communications services including mobile phones, public safety, other commercial and private radio services.
The Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureau's main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in wireline technology infrastructure, development and services; the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau was launched in 2006 with a focus on critical communications infrastructure. The FCC has eleven Staff Offices; the FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus. The Office of Administrative Law Judges is responsible for conducting hearings ordered by the Commission; the hearing function includes acting on interlocutory requests filed in the proceedings such as petitions to intervene, petitions to enlarge issues, contested discovery requests. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed under the Administrative Procedure Act, presides at the hearing during which documents and sworn testimony are received in evidence, witnesses are cross-examined. At the co
Low-power broadcasting refers to a broadcast station operating at a low electrical power to a smaller service area than "full power" stations within the same region, but distinguished from "micropower broadcasting" and broadcast translators. LPAM, LPFM and LPTV are in various levels of use across the world, varying based on the laws and their enforcement. Radio communications in Canada are regulated by the Radio Communications and Broadcasting Regulatory Branch, a branch of Industry Canada, in conjunction with the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. Interested parties must apply for both a certificate from Industry Canada and a license from CRTC in order to operate a radio station. Industry Canada manages the technicalities of spectrum space and technological requirements whereas content regulation is conducted more so by CRTC. LPFM is broken up into two classes in Canada and Very Low; the transmitters therefore range from 1 to 50 watts, as opposed to 1 to 100 watts in the U.
S. As of 2000, 500 licenses have been issued; these transmitters are only allowed in remote areas. Stations in the low-power class are subject to the same CRTC licensing requirements, will follow the same call sign format, as full-power stations. Stations in the low-power class had to have CRTC licenses as well, although a series of CRTC regulation changes in the early 2000s exempted most such stations from licensing; the regulation of spectrum space is strict in Canada, as well having restrictions on second and third adjacent channels, along with other protections for AM and FM commercial radio. In addition, because there have been a few cases that found that FM frequencies have caused interference to the aeronautical navigation and communications spectrum, pirate radio regulation has remained strict as well. However, the two regulating bodies do have certain exemptions. For example, low-power announcement transmitters that meet the requirement of Broadcasting Equipment Technical Standards 1, Limited Duration Special Events Distribution Undertakings, Temporary Resource Development Distribution Undertakings, Public Emergency Radio Undertakings are a few instances, which according to certain criteria, may be exempt from certificate/license requirements.
In Canada, there is no formal transmission power below which a television transmitter is broadcasting at low power. Industry Canada, in most cases, considers a television transmitter to be low-power if the noise-limited bounding contours are less than 20 km from the antenna. In New Zealand residents are allowed to broadcast licence free-of-charge at a maximum of 1 watt EIRP in the FM guardbands from 87.6 to 88.3 and from 106.7 to 107.7 MHz under a General User Radio License, issued by Radio Spectrum Management, managed by the Ministry of Economic Development. Prior to June 2010, the lower band was located between 88.1 and 88.8 and a maximum of 500 mW EIRP allowed. Broadcasters on these frequencies are required to cease operations if they interfere with other, licensed broadcasters and have no protection from interference from other licensed or unlicensed broadcasters. Contact details must be broadcast every hour. Further restrictions are in place for the protection of aeronautical services. Use of the following frequencies is not permitted within certain boundaries approaching Auckland and Wellington airports: 107.5 to 107.7 FM and 107.0 to 107.3, respectively.
There exists a 25 km broadcast translator rule: one licensee may operate two transmitters anywhere, but a third transmitter must be at least 25 km away from at least one of the first two transmitters. There are efforts on self-regulation of the broadcasters themselves; the NZRSM Radio Inspectors do, however monitor and make random unannounced visits to broadcasters, will impose fines for violations of the regulations. New broadcasters are subject to an initial compulsory inspection. Temporary low-power stations are allowed at times via a Restricted Service Licence. Since 2001, long-term LPFM licences have been available in remote areas of the country; these are used for many establishments, including military bases and hospitals with fixed boundaries. Low Power FM is a non-commercial educational broadcast radio service created by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States in 2000. LPFM licenses, which are limited to a maximum effective radiated power of 100 watts, may be issued to non-commercial educational entities, as well as public safety and transportation organizations.
Individuals and holders of other types of broadcast licenses are not eligible. In addition, LPFM stations are not protected from interference from other classes of FM stations. Class L1 is to 100 watts effective radiated power. Class L2 is at least 1 and up to 10 watts ERP. In addition, Class D educational licenses exist for stations of 10 watts transmitter power output or less, regardless of ERP; these stations are all grandfathered operations, as no new licenses of this type have been issued since 1978, except in Alaska. They are not considered to be LPFM stations, although they operate noncommercially and have similar coverage areas to Class L2 stations. In January 2000, the Federal Communications Commission established Low Power FM as a new designated class of radio station; these stations wer
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity; the use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations, there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram. In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose; this pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation. These were not globally unique, so a one-letter company identifier was added. By 1912, the need to identify stations operated by multiple companies in multiple nations required an international standard. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities.
In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned call signs beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were assigned call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters. Ships equipped with Morse code radiotelegraphy, or life boat radio sets, Aviation ground stations, broadcast stations were given four letter call signs. Maritime coast stations on high frequency were assigned three letter call signs; as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels with radiotelephony only were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US still wishing to have a radio license are under FCC class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped."
Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47-foot motor lifeboats; the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Aviation mobile stations equipped with radiotelegraphy were assigned five letter call signs.. Land Stations in Aviation were assigned four letter call signs; these call signs were phased out in the 1960s when flight radio officers were no longer required on international flights. USSR kept FRO's for the Moscow-Havana run until around 2000. All signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation and whether or not the caller is in an aircraft or at a ground facility.
In most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircraft's registration number. In this case, the call sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, followed by a unique identifier made up of letters and numbers. For example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would omit saying November, instead use the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the specific model. At times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters; this is true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions or at towered airports after establishing two-way communication with the tower controller. For example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base.
In most countries, the aircraft call sign or "tail number"/"tail letters" are linked to the international radio call sign allocation table and follow a convention that aircraft radio stations receive call signs consisting of five letters. For example, all British civil aircraft have a five-letter call sign beginning with the letter G. Canadian aircraft have a call sign beginning with C–F or C–G, such as C–FABC. Wing In Ground-effect vehicles in Canada are eligible to receive C–Hxxx call signs, ultralight aircraft receive C-Ixxx call signs. In days gone by American aircraft used five letter call signs, such as KH–ABC, but they were replaced prior to World War II by the current American system of civilian aircraft call signs. Radio call signs used for communication in manned spaceflight is not formalized or regulated to the same degree as for aircraft; the three nations curren
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth. Most the term refers to a station which broadcasts structured content to an audience or it refers to the organization that operates the station. A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more via digital television signals. Television stations are differentiated from cable television or other video providers in that their content is broadcast via terrestrial radio waves. A group of television stations with common ownership or affiliation are known as a TV network and an individual station within the network is referred to as O&O or affiliate, respectively; because television station signals use the electromagnetic spectrum, which in the past has been a common, scarce resource, governments claim authority to regulate them.
Broadcast television systems standards vary around the world. Television stations broadcasting over an analog system were limited to one television channel, but digital television enables broadcasting via subchannels as well. Television stations require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements and limitations on the station. In the United States, for example, a television license defines the broadcast range, or geographic area, that the station is limited to, allocates the broadcast frequency of the radio spectrum for that station's transmissions, sets limits on what types of television programs can be programmed for broadcast and requires a station to broadcast a minimum amount of certain programs types, such as public affairs messages. Another form a television station may take is non-commercial educational and considered public broadcasting. To avoid concentration of media ownership of television stations, government regulations in most countries limit the ownership of television stations by television networks or other media operators, but these regulations vary considerably.
Some countries have set up nationwide television networks, in which individual television stations act as mere repeaters of nationwide programs. In those countries, the local television station has no station identification and, from a consumer's point of view, there is no practical distinction between a network and a station, with only small regional changes in programming, such as local television news. To broadcast its programs, a television station requires operators to operate equipment, a transmitter or radio antenna, located at the highest point available in the transmission area, such as on a summit, the top of a high skyscraper, or on a tall radio tower. To get a signal from the master control room to the transmitter, a studio/transmitter link is used; the link can be either by radio or T1/E1. A transmitter/studio link may send telemetry back to the station, but this may be embedded in subcarriers of the main broadcast. Stations which retransmit or simulcast another may pick-up that station over-the-air, or via STL or satellite.
The license specifies which other station it is allowed to carry. VHF stations have tall antennas due to their long wavelength, but require much less effective radiated power, therefore use much less transmitter power output saving on the electricity bill and emergency backup generators. In North America, full-power stations on band I are limited to 100 kW analog video and 10 kW analog audio, or 45 kW digital ERP. Stations on band III can go up by 31.6 kW audio, or 160 kW digital. Low-VHF stations are subject to long-distance reception just as with FM. There are no stations on Channel 1. UHF, by comparison, has a much shorter wavelength, thus requires a shorter antenna, but higher power. North American stations can go up to 5000 1000 kW digital. Low channels travel further than high ones at the same power, but UHF does not suffer from as much electromagnetic interference and background "noise" as VHF, making it much more desirable for TV. Despite this, in the U. S. the Federal Communications Commission is taking another large portion of this band away, in contrast to the rest of the world, taking VHF instead.
This means. Since at least 1974, there are no stations on channel 37 in North America for radio astronomy purposes. Most television stations are commercial broadcasting enterprises which are structured in a variety of ways to generate revenue from television commercials, they may be some other structure. They can produce some or all of their programs or buy some broadcast syndication programming for or all of it from other stations or independent production companies. Many stations have some sort of television studio, which on major-network stations is used for newscasts or other local programming. There is a news department, where journalists gather information. There is a section where electronic news-gathering operations are based, receiving remote broadcasts via remote pickup unit or satellite TV. Outside broadcasting vans, production trucks, or SUVs with electronic field production equipment are sent out with reporters, who may bring back news stories on video tape rather than sending them back live.
To keep pace with technology United States television stations have been replacing operators with broadcast automation systems to increas