A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
A television show is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, cable, or internet and viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are placed between shows. Television shows are most scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings. A television show might be called a television program if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is released in episodes that follow a narrative, are divided into seasons or series – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film is a film, broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video. Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time, be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet; the first television shows were experimental, sporadic broadcasts viewable only within a short range from the broadcast tower starting in the 1930s.
Televised events such as the 1936 Summer Olympics in Germany, the 1937 coronation of King George VI in the UK, David Sarnoff's famous introduction at the 1939 New York World's Fair in the US spurred a growth in the medium, but World War II put a halt to development until after the war. The 1947 World Series inspired many Americans to buy their first television set and in 1948, the popular radio show Texaco Star Theater made the move and became the first weekly televised variety show, earning host Milton Berle the name "Mr Television" and demonstrating that the medium was a stable, modern form of entertainment which could attract advertisers; the first national live television broadcast in the US took place on September 4, 1951 when President Harry Truman's speech at the Japanese Peace Treaty Conference in San Francisco was transmitted over AT&T's transcontinental cable and microwave radio relay system to broadcast stations in local markets. The first national color broadcast in the US occurred on January 1, 1954.
During the following ten years most network broadcasts, nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white. A color transition was announced for the fall of 1965, during which over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color; the first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In 1972, the last holdout among daytime network shows converted to color, resulting in the first all-color network season. Television shows are more varied than most other forms of media due wide variety formats and genres that can be presented. A show may non-fictional, it may be historical. They could be instructional or educational, or entertaining as is the case in situation comedy and game shows. A drama program features a set of actors playing characters in a historical or contemporary setting; the program follows their adventures. Except for soap opera-type serials, many shows before the 1980s, remained static without story arcs, the main characters and premise changed little.
If some change happened to the characters' lives during the episode, it was undone by the end. Because of this, the episodes could be broadcast in any order. Since the 1980s, there are many series that feature progressive change to the plot, the characters, or both. For instance, Hill Street Blues and St. Elsewhere were two of the first American prime time drama television series to have this kind of dramatic structure. While the series, Babylon 5 is an extreme example of such production that had a predetermined story running over its intended five-season run. In 2012, it was reported that television was growing into a larger component of major media companies' revenues than film; some noted the increase in quality of some television programs. In 2012, Academy-Award-winning film director Steven Soderbergh, commenting on ambiguity and complexity of character and narrative, stated: "I think those qualities are now being seen on television and that people who want to see stories that have those kinds of qualities are watching television."
When a person or company decides to create a new series, they develop the show's elements, consisting of the concept, the characters, the crew, cast. They "pitch" it to the various networks in an attempt to find one interested enough to order a prototype first episode of the series, known as a pilot. Eric Coleman, an animation executive at Disney, told an interviewer, "One misconception is that it's difficult to get in and pitch your show, when the truth is that development executives at networks want much to hear ideas, they want much to get the word out on what types of shows they're looking for."To create the pilot, the structure and team of the whole series must be put together. If audiences respond well to the pilot, the network will pick up the show to air it the next season. Sometimes they save it for mid-season, or father review. Other times, they pass forcing the show's creator to "shop it around" to other networks. Many shows never make it past the pilot stage; the show hires a stable of writers, who usually
Collision detection is the computational problem of detecting the intersection of two or more objects. While collision detection is most associated with its use in video games and other physical simulations, it has applications in robotics. In addition to determining whether two objects have collided, collision detection systems may calculate time of impact, report a contact manifold. Collision response deals with simulating. Solving collision detection problems requires extensive use of concepts from linear algebra and computational geometry. In physical simulation, such as playing billiards, are conducted; the physics of bouncing billiard balls are well understood, under the umbrella of rigid body motion and elastic collisions. An initial description of the situation would be given, with a precise physical description of the billiard table and balls, as well as initial positions of all the balls. Given a force applied to the cue ball, we want to calculate the trajectories, precise motion, eventual resting places of all the balls with a computer program.
A program to simulate this game would consist of several portions, one of which would be responsible for calculating the precise impacts between the billiard balls. This particular example turns out to be ill conditioned: a small error in any calculation will cause drastic changes in the final position of the billiard balls. Video games have similar requirements, with some crucial differences. While physical simulation needs to simulate real-world physics as as possible, video games need to simulate real-world physics in an acceptable way, in real time and robustly. Compromises are allowed. Physical simulators differ in the way; some use the softness of the material to calculate a force, which will resolve the collision in the following time steps like it is in reality. Due to the low softness of some materials this is CPU intensive; some simulators estimate the time of collision by linear interpolation, roll back the simulation, calculate the collision by the more abstract methods of conservation laws.
Some iterate the linear interpolation to calculate the time of collision with a much higher precision than the rest of the simulation. Collision detection utilizes time coherence to allow finer time steps without much increasing CPU demand, such as in air traffic control. After an inelastic collision, special states of sliding and resting can occur and, for example, the Open Dynamics Engine uses constraints to simulate them. Constraints avoid inertia and thus instability. Implementation of rest by means of a scene graph avoids drift. In other words, physical simulators function one of two ways, where the collision is detected a posteriori or a priori. In addition to the a posteriori and a priori distinction all modern collision detection algorithms are broken into a hierarchy of algorithms; the terms "discrete" and "continuous" are used rather than a posteriori and a priori. In the a posteriori case, we advance the physical simulation by a small time step check if any objects are intersecting, or are somehow so close to each other that we deem them to be intersecting.
At each simulation step, a list of all intersecting bodies is created, the positions and trajectories of these objects are somehow "fixed" to account for the collision. We say that this method is a posteriori because we miss the actual instant of collision, only catch the collision after it has happened. In the a priori methods, we write a collision detection algorithm which will be able to predict precisely the trajectories of the physical bodies; the instants of collision are calculated with high precision, the physical bodies never interpenetrate. We call this a priori because we calculate the instants of collision before we update the configuration of the physical bodies; the main benefits of the a posteriori methods are as follows. In this case, the collision detection algorithm need not be aware of the myriad of physical variables; the collision detection algorithm doesn't need to understand friction, elastic collisions, or worse, nonelastic collisions and deformable bodies. In addition, the a posteriori algorithms are in effect one dimension simpler than the a priori algorithms.
Indeed, an a priori algorithm must deal with the time variable, absent from the a posteriori problem. On the other hand, a posteriori algorithms cause problems in the "fixing" step, where intersections need to be corrected. Moreover, if the discrete step is too large, the collision could go undetected, resulting in an object which passes through another if it is sufficiently fast or small; the benefits of the a priori algorithms are increased stability. It is difficult to separate the physical simulation from the collision detection algorithm. However, in all but the simplest cases, the problem of determining ahead of time when two bodies will collide has no closed form solution—a numerical root finder is involved; some objects are in resting contact, that is, in collision, but neither bouncing off, nor interpenetrating, such as a vase resting on a table. In all cases, resting contact requires special treatment: If two objects collide or sl
Berkshire Hathaway Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Omaha, United States. The company wholly owns GEICO, Dairy Queen, BNSF, Fruit of the Loom, Helzberg Diamonds, Long & Foster, FlightSafety International, Pampered Chef, NetJets, owns 38.6% of Pilot Flying J. Since 2016, the company has acquired large holdings in the major US airline carriers, is the largest shareholder in United Airlines and Delta Air Lines, a top three shareholder in Southwest Airlines and American Airlines. Berkshire Hathaway has averaged an annual growth in book value of 19.0% to its shareholders since 1965, while employing large amounts of capital, minimal debt. The company is known for its control and leadership by Warren Buffett, who serves as chairman and chief executive, Charlie Munger, the company's vice chairman. In the early part of his career at Berkshire, Buffett focused on long-term investments in publicly traded companies, but more he has more bought whole companies.
Berkshire now owns a diverse range of businesses including confectionery, railroads, home furnishings, manufacturers of vacuum cleaners, jewelry sales, newspaper publishing and distribution of uniforms, several regional electric and gas utilities. According to the Forbes Global 2000 list and formula, Berkshire Hathaway is the third largest public company in the world, the tenth largest conglomerate by revenue and the largest financial services company by revenue in the world. Berkshire is the seventh largest company in the S&P 500 Index by market capitalization, is famous for having the most expensive share price in history with a Class A share costing around $300,000 each; this is due to the fact that there has never been a stock split and Buffett has stated in a 1984 letter to shareholders that he does not intend to do so. Berkshire Hathaway traces its roots to a textile manufacturing company established by Oliver Chace in 1839 as the Valley Falls Company in Valley Falls, Rhode Island. Chace had worked for Samuel Slater, the founder of the first successful textile mill in America.
Chace founded his first textile mill in 1806. In 1929, the Valley Falls Company merged with the Berkshire Cotton Manufacturing Company established in 1889, in Adams, Massachusetts; the combined company was known as Berkshire Fine Spinning Associates. In 1955, Berkshire Fine Spinning Associates merged with the Hathaway Manufacturing Company, founded in 1888 in New Bedford, Massachusetts by Horatio Hathaway with profits from whaling and the China Trade. Hathaway had been successful in its first decades, but it suffered during a general decline in the textile industry after World War I. At this time, Hathaway was run by Seabury Stanton, whose investment efforts were rewarded with renewed profitability after the Great Depression. After the merger, Berkshire Hathaway had 15 plants employing over 12,000 workers with over $120 million in revenue, was headquartered in New Bedford. However, seven of those locations were closed by the end of the decade, accompanied by large layoffs. In 1962, Warren Buffett began buying stock in Berkshire Hathaway after noticing a pattern in the price direction of its stock whenever the company closed a mill.
Buffett acknowledged that the textile business was waning and the company's financial situation was not going to improve. In 1964, Stanton made an oral tender offer of $111⁄2 per share for the company to buy back Buffett's shares. Buffett agreed to the deal. A few weeks Warren Buffett received the tender offer in writing, but the tender offer was for only $113⁄8. Buffett admitted that this lower, undercutting offer made him angry. Instead of selling at the lower price, Buffett decided to buy more of the stock to take control of the company and fire Stanton. However, this put Buffett in a situation where he was now majority owner of a textile business, failing. Buffett maintained Berkshire's core business of textiles, but by 1967, he was expanding into the insurance industry and other investments. Berkshire first ventured into the insurance business with the purchase of National Indemnity Company. In the late 1970s, Berkshire acquired an equity stake in the Government Employees Insurance Company, which forms the core of its insurance operations today.
In 1985, the last textile operations were shut down. In 2010, Buffett claimed that purchasing Berkshire Hathaway was the biggest investment mistake he had made, claimed that it had denied him compounded investment returns of about $200 billion over the subsequent 45 years. Buffett claimed that had he invested that money directly in insurance businesses instead of buying out Berkshire Hathaway, those investments would have paid off several hundredfold. Berkshire's class A shares sold for $313,350.00 as of February 1, 2019, making them the highest-priced shares on the New York Stock Exchange, in part because they have never had a stock split and have only paid a dividend once since Warren Buffett took over, retaining corporate earnings on its balance sheet in a manner, impermissible for mutual funds. Shares closed over $100,000 for the first time on October 23, 2006. Despite its size, Berkshire had for many years not been included in broad stock market indices such as
Fall Brawl (1999)
Fall Brawl was the seventh Fall Brawl professional wrestling pay-per-view event produced by World Championship Wrestling. It took place on September 12, 1999 from the Lawrence Joel Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Winston-Salem, North Carolina; as of 2014 the event is available on the WWE Network. The WarGames match was created when Dusty Rhodes was inspired by a viewing of Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome, it was used as a specialty match for the Four Horsemen. The first WarGames match took place at The Omni in Atlanta during the NWA's Great American Bash'87 tour, where it was known as War Games: The Match Beyond, it became a traditional Fall Brawl event from 1993 to 1998. This was the first Fall Brawl not to have a War Games Match; the event featured professional wrestling matches that involve different wrestlers from pre-existing scripted feuds and storylines. Professional wrestlers portray villains, heroes, or less distinguishable characters in the scripted events that build tension and culminate in a wrestling match or series of matches.
Berlyn was supposed to face Buff Bagwell, but the storyline was that Bagwell was late in arriving. In reality, Bagwell had refused to lose the match. Instead Berlyn wrestled against Jim Duggan. In the main event Sting put an unconscious Hulk Hogan in the Scorpion Deathlock after knocking him out with a baseball bat and Hogan failed to respond to his arm being raised three times by referee Charles Robinson; the outcome of the match played out due to large amounts of interference. Diamond Dallas Page was the first to interfere, attacking referee Nick Patrick and hit the Diamond Cutter on Hogan. After Hogan kicked out Page took him out of the match. Bret Hart came out to attack Page while Hogan forced Sting to the outside. Sid Vicious entered the ring to attack Hogan but was taken out with the Big Boot. Hogan intercepted a bat-wielding Lex Luger as he tried to interfere. After the match and Luger celebrated in the middle of the ring
Raymond Louis Heenan, better known as Bobby "The Brain" Heenan, was an American professional wrestling manager, color commentator and comedian, best known for his time with the American Wrestling Association, the World Wrestling Federation and World Championship Wrestling. Described as the greatest professional wrestling manager of all time, he was known for his skill in elevating villainous on-screen talent by drawing negative reactions for himself and his wrestlers from the crowd, he was paired with numerous wrestlers, including Nick Bockwinkel, whom he led to win the AWA World Heavyweight Championship, he became an integral figure in the 1980s professional wrestling boom by managing King Kong Bundy and André the Giant in WWF main event matches with Hulk Hogan at WrestleMania 2 and WrestleMania III respectively. Known for his quick wit and comedic ability, Heenan served as a color commentator and is remembered for his on-screen repartee with Gorilla Monsoon. Heenan retired in 2001 at WrestleMania X-Seven after a seventeen-years stint as a commentator in professional wrestling but he continued to make sporadic appearances in several promotions.
In 2002, he was diagnosed with throat cancer, which limited his appearances in years, he died from complications of it in 2017. Outside of wrestling, Heenan authored two books, appeared on numerous television shows, hosted a parody talk show titled The Bobby Heenan Show on WWF Prime Time Wrestling, he was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame class of 2004. Raymond Louis Heenan was born in Chicago, Illinois, on November 1, 1944. Heenan dropped out of school in the eighth grade to support his grandmother; as a fan of wrestling growing up in Chicago and Indianapolis, he started in the wrestling profession early on, carrying bags and jackets for the wrestlers, selling refreshments at events. In 1961, Heenan became a regular in William Afflis' Indianapolis-based WWA promotion under the moniker "Pretty Boy" Bobby Heenan; that year, he wrestled his first match against Calvin "Prince" Pullins. Heenan said that he was never trained as a wrestler and that it came to him, he was booked as both a manager and a wrestler after the promoters saw how well he handled the physical aspects of his managerial duties.
During his time in WWA, he managed Angelo Poffo and Chris Markoff, the Assassins, The Valiant Brothers and The Blackjacks. In particular, Heenan was credited with making Blackjack Lanza one of the top wrestling villains in the country; this impressed promoter Sam Muchnick, who hated wrestling managers, Heenan is believed to be the only heel manager to work in Muchnick's St. Louis Wrestling Club, he occasionally wrestled with a storyline "brother" Guy Heenan, portrayed by Guy Mitchell, from the Assassins. In 1974, he left the WWA, he attributed his departure to a dispute with Afflis over pay for his participation in the first-ever wrestling event held at Market Square Arena, emphatically stating that he never returned to the promotion as a result. After leaving WWA, Heenan announced he was now to be known as "The Brain" at his AWA debut in 1974, he took up managing the team of Nick Bockwinkel and Ray "The Crippler" Stevens, a duo which became several-time AWA World Tag Team Champions under his leadership.
While Bockwinkel and Stevens feuded with The Crusher and Dick the Bruiser, Bruiser famously called Heenan "Weasel". The AWA was the starting point for the first incarnation of his eponymous heel stable, The Heenan Family, which consisted of Bockwinkel, Bobby Duncum Sr. and Blackjack Lanza. On January 25, 1975, an angry fan fired a gun at Heenan in Chicago's International Amphitheatre after Heenan interfered in one of Bockwinkel's matches. Heenan was unharmed, but five people sitting ringside were injured, one of them critically. In 1975, with Heenan again in his corner, Bockwinkel captured his first of several AWA World Heavyweight Championships, ending the seven-year reign of perennial champion and AWA promoter Verne Gagne. While Bockwinkel was AWA Champion in 1976, Lanza and Duncum captured the AWA World Tag Team Championship, making Heenan the first manager in history to manage both a major promotion's singles and tag team champions. In early 1979, Heenan left the AWA to work in Georgia Championship Wrestling.
During his short tenure in GCW, Heenan managed a stable of wrestlers that included the likes of Killer Karl Kox, Masked Superstar, Ernie Ladd and Blackjack Lanza. Heenan met a young Hulk Hogan while in Georgia and told AWA promoter Verne Gagne that he should hire him. According to Heenan, he moved his family to Atlanta after being told by GCW promoter Ole Anderson that he could work for the promotion as long as he wanted to only to fire him less than a year later. Anderson denied promising him indefinite employment. In late 1979, Heenan returned to AWA and resumed managing Nick Bockwinkel to renewed championship success, including against Hogan in 1983. During AWA's tour of Japan in 1983, Heenan suffered a neck injury in a match with Atsushi Onita that would limit his in-ring ability going forward. In 1984, Heenan left AWA to join the World Wrestling Federation. While most of the AWA talent left for the WWF during this time without giving proper notice, only Heenan worked out his notic