Francis Albert Sinatra was an American actor and singer, one of the most popular and influential musical artists of the 20th century. He is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, having sold more than 150 million records worldwide. Born to Italian immigrants in Hoboken, New Jersey, Sinatra began his musical career in the swing era with bandleaders Harry James and Tommy Dorsey. Sinatra found success as a solo artist after he signed with Columbia Records in 1943, becoming the idol of the "bobby soxers", he released his debut album, The Voice of Frank Sinatra, in 1946. Sinatra's professional career had stalled by the early 1950s, he turned to Las Vegas, where he became one of its best known residency performers as part of the Rat Pack, his career was reborn in 1953 with the success of From Here to Eternity, with his performance subsequently winning an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor. Sinatra released several critically lauded albums, including In the Wee Small Hours, Songs for Swingin' Lovers!, Come Fly with Me, Only the Lonely and Nice'n' Easy.
Sinatra left Capitol in 1960 to start his own record label, Reprise Records, released a string of successful albums. In 1965, he recorded the retrospective September of My Years and starred in the Emmy-winning television special Frank Sinatra: A Man and His Music. After releasing Sinatra at the Sands, recorded at the Sands Hotel and Casino in Vegas with frequent collaborator Count Basie in early 1966, the following year he recorded one of his most famous collaborations with Tom Jobim, the album Francis Albert Sinatra & Antonio Carlos Jobim, it was followed by 1968's Francis Edward K. with Duke Ellington. Sinatra retired for the first time in 1971, but came out of retirement two years and recorded several albums and resumed performing at Caesars Palace, reached success in 1980 with "New York, New York". Using his Las Vegas shows as a home base, he toured both within the United States and internationally until shortly before his death in 1998. Sinatra forged a successful career as a film actor.
After winning an Academy Award for From Here to Eternity, he starred in The Man with the Golden Arm, received critical acclaim for his performance in The Manchurian Candidate. He appeared in various musicals such as On the Town and Dolls, High Society, Pal Joey, winning another Golden Globe for the latter. Toward the end of his career, he became associated with playing detectives, including the title character in Tony Rome. Sinatra would receive the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1971. On television, The Frank Sinatra Show began on ABC in 1950, he continued to make appearances on television throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Sinatra was heavily involved with politics from the mid-1940s, campaigned for presidents such as Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan. In crime, the FBI investigated his alleged relationship with the Mafia. While Sinatra never learned how to read music, he had an impressive understanding of it, he worked hard from a young age to improve his abilities in all aspects of music.
A perfectionist, renowned for his dress sense and performing presence, he always insisted on recording live with his band. His bright blue eyes earned him the popular nickname "Ol' Blue Eyes". Sinatra led a colorful personal life, was involved in turbulent affairs with women, such as with his second wife Ava Gardner, he married Mia Farrow in 1966 and Barbara Marx in 1976. Sinatra had several violent confrontations with journalists he felt had crossed him, or work bosses with whom he had disagreements, he was honored at the Kennedy Center Honors in 1983, was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by Ronald Reagan in 1985, the Congressional Gold Medal in 1997. Sinatra was the recipient of eleven Grammy Awards, including the Grammy Trustees Award, Grammy Legend Award and the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, he was collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. After his death, American music critic Robert Christgau called him "the greatest singer of the 20th century", he continues to be seen as an iconic figure.
Francis Albert Sinatra was born on December 12, 1915, in an upstairs tenement at 415 Monroe Street in Hoboken, New Jersey, the only child of Italian immigrants Natalina "Dolly" Garaventa and Antonino Martino "Marty" Sinatra. Sinatra weighed 13.5 pounds at birth and had to be delivered with the aid of forceps, which caused severe scarring to his left cheek and ear, perforated his eardrum—damage that remained for life. Due to his injuries at birth, his baptism at St. Francis Church in Hoboken was delayed until April 2, 1916. A childhood operation on his mastoid bone left major scarring on his neck, during adolescence he suffered from cystic acne that further scarred his face and neck. Sinatra was raised Roman Catholic. Sinatra's mother was energetic and driven, biographers believe that she was the dominant factor in the development of her son's personality traits and self-confidence. Sinatra's fourth wife Barbara would claim that Dolly was abusive to him as a child, "knocked him around a lot".
Dolly became influential in local Democratic Party circles. She worked as a midwife, earning $50 for each delivery, according to Sinatra biographer Kitty Kelley ran an illegal abortion service that catered to Italian Catholic girls, for which she was nicknamed "Hatpin Dolly", she had a gift for languages and served as a local interpreter. Sinatra's illiterate father was a bantamweight boxer who fought under the name Mar
WKQI is an FM radio station serving Detroit, Michigan. Owned by iHeartMedia, it broadcasts a Top 40/CHR format branded as Channel 955. WKQI transmits its signal with an effective radiated power of 100,000 watts from an antenna 430 feet in height located at the intersection of Greenfield Road and 10 Mile Road in suburban Oak Park in Oakland County, has studios in Farmington Hills. WKQI began in February 1949 as an unaffiliated classical outlet, WLDM. Although a few Andre Kostelanetz, Morton Gould, Percy Faith light music recordings were played, it was not until the station took up storecasting in 1951 that those and other popular orchestras were heard along with light classical and some classical music, as "albums in high-fidelity". Evenings were devoted to concert works. An audience of non-client listeners developed but when owner Lincoln Broadcasting Company moved the storecast to its subcarrier in late 1957 and rededicated the main channel to classical recordings, enough of an outcry arose that a substantial amount of daytime popular music was restored.
In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the station enjoyed prestige as the area's premier purveyor of'good music', adding Broadway showtunes selections from original cast albums, folk music, other'hi-fi' recordings, spoken-word and dramatic presentations. In 1961, WLDM started broadcasting in stereo. Three years most of the classical shows were dropped in favor of beautiful music, a move that led to high ratings and increased revenue for the remainder of the 1960s, but declined throughout the 1970s. WLDM was an industry leader with technical improvements such as vertical signal polarization to improve reception on portable and car radios, referred to itself as "America's Foremost FM Station". By the mid-1970s, Detroit had a glut of beautiful music stations, with WWJ-FM, WJR-FM, WNIC, WOMC all competing with WLDM for the easy listening audience. After being sold to Combined Communications, WLDM changed its call letters to WCZY-FM in 1976. WCZY-FM's format, under Robert Gaskins, was a steady performer in Detroit's Arbitron ratings during the late 1970s, with popular personalities including Paul Bryon, Bob Martin and Al Gaige.
The station's ratings peak came in the spring of 1980, with WCZY registering a fourth-place showing in the overall 12+ ratings and ranking the highest of Detroit's three beautiful music stations. During this time WCZY used the services of syndicators Churchill and Schulke for its beautiful music format, but unlike its competitors WJR-FM and WWJ-FM, the station was not automated and made use of live announcers. In 1978, former country station WDEE-AM was acquired and its call letters changed to WCZY-AM with a similar format. Though several top rated disc jockeys like Bob Martin were moved to the AM, the poor signal of the station hindered the station from producing the successful ratings the FM station enjoyed. Bob Martin was moved back to the FM, WCZY-AM changed to WLQV-AM with a Christian religious format put in place. In 1981, the Combined Communications chain was purchased by the Gannett newspaper chain. Gannett, not satisfied with the revenue the station was generating, moved WCZY into an adult contemporary format that year in hopes of attracting younger listeners and thus increasing ad revenue.
During 1983, the station's music became more contemporary. The station's final transformation into "Z95.5" was complete by the fall of 1984. Purtan's morning show kept WCZY high in the overall ratings during this transition period, but advertising revenues did not meet expectations. "Z95.5" enjoyed a fair amount of ratings success with its CHR format rated in Detroit's top ten Arbitron ratings 12+, though arguably much of the station's high ratings came from Purtan's show. In an attempt to be more palatable to adult listeners, WCZY was more of an Adult CHR, avoiding most rap and hard rock songs unless they were successful pop crossovers. Although WCZY's overall 12+ ratings were better than WHYT's, WHYT was much more popular with teenage and young adult listeners. For a time, WCZY simulcast its programming again on AM 1500 as part of a ploy to "return Dick Purtan to the AM dial." It lasted only a few years before AM 1500 returned to its previous religious format as WLQV. In April 1987, Sky Broadcasting bought WCZY.
Despite Z95.5's high ratings, the station still wanted to attract more older listeners in the hope of attracting more advertising dollars, so on July 20, 1989, WCZY changed its calls and moniker to WKQI, "Q95," dropped hard rock and rap product from its playlist, added more gold from the 1970s and 1980s. Detroit based AC radio consultant Gary Berkowitz was the original Q95 program director, which included air personalities Kevin O'Neill and Michael Waite. Q95 started as an Adult CHR, but by late 1990, had shifted to mainstream adult contemporary to challenge incumbent AC outlets WNIC and WLT
The Fisher Building is a landmark skyscraper located at 3011 West Grand Boulevard in the heart of the New Center area of Detroit, Michigan. The ornate 30-story building, completed in 1928, is one of the major works of architect Albert Kahn, is designed in an Art Deco style, faced with limestone and several types of marble; the Fisher family financed the building with proceeds from the sale of Fisher Body to General Motors. It was designed to house office and retail space; the building, which contains the elaborate 2,089-seat Fisher Theatre, was designated a National Historic Landmark on June 29, 1989. It houses the headquarters for the Detroit Public Schools. Architect Joseph Nathaniel French of Albert Kahn Associates planned for a complex of three buildings, with two 30-story structures flanking a 60-story tower. However, the Great Depression kept the project at one tower; the Fisher brothers located the building across from the General Motors Building, now Cadillac Place, as General Motors had purchased the Fisher Body Company.
The two massive buildings spurred the development of a New Center for the city, a business district north of its downtown area. The building's hipped roof was covered with gold leaf tiles, but during World War II these tiles were covered in asphalt because it was feared that the reflective surface would attract enemy bombers. After the war, the asphalt could not be removed from the gold tiles without harming them, so they were replaced with green tiles. Since the 1980s, these tiles have been illuminated at night with colored lights to give them a gold appearance. On St. Patrick's Day, the lights are changed to green and, in recent years, to celebrate the NHL playoffs, the tower is illuminated with red lights in honor of the Detroit Red Wings. In 1974, Tri-Star Development purchased the Fisher Building and adjoining New Center Building for $20 million. In 2001, Farbman Group, a real estate firm based in Southfield, purchased the two buildings from TrizecHahn Corporation for $31 million. Farbman Group lost the buildings to its lender in 2015.
In 2002, Detroit Public Schools paid the owner of the Fisher Building $24.1 million to purchase five floors to house administrative offices, citing the high cost of renovations needed at the Maccabees Building, the previous headquarters, to comply with building and safety codes. In July 2015, Southfield-based developer Redico LLC, in partnership with HFZ Capital Group of New York City and Peter Cummings of The Platform, a Detroit-based development company, taking advantage of the general decline in Detroit real estate values, purchased the Fisher Building and adjacent Albert Kahn Building, plus 2,000 parking spaces in two parking structures and three surface lots in New Center for only $12.2 million at auction. Redico said the partnership plans to transform the two buildings, which are connected by an underground pedestrian concourse, into what it called a "true urban" mixed-use development, with a mix of office, retail and entertainment uses; the multi-year project has a potential cost of $70 million to $80 million in addition to the purchase price.
The Redico interest was purchased by Cummings and his partner in The Platform, Dietrich Knoer, in 2016. The Fisher Building rises 30 stories with a roof height of 428 feet, a top floor height of 339 feet, the spire reaching 444 feet; the building has 21 elevators. Albert Kahn and Associates designed the building with Joseph Nathaniel French serving as chief architect. French took inspiration from Eliel Saarinen's Tribune Tower design of 1922, seen in the emphasis on verticality and the stepped-back upper stories; the building is unlike any other Albert Kahn production. It has been called "Detroit's largest art object". In 1929, the Architectural League of New York honored the Fisher Building with a silver medal in architecture; the opulent three-story barrel vaulted lobby is constructed with forty different kinds of marble, decorated by Hungarian artist Géza Maróti, is regarded by architects. The sculpture on the exterior of the building was supplied by several sculptors including Maróti, Corrado Parducci, Anthony De Lorenzo and Ulysses Ricci.
Designs called for two flagpoles atop the gilt roof. While they were installed, they were unusable as a radio antenna was installed when one of the building's oldest tenants, radio station WJR, leased space in December 1928. On-air hosts mention that broadcasts originate "from the golden tower of the Fisher Building." This was a requirement of the station's original lease in exchange for a nominal rent. Two other radio stations, WDVD-FM and WDRQ-FM have broadcast studios in the building. In 1970, building employees discovered a storage room sealed with tape. None of the staff knew why it was sealed; when they located the key, they found the flags of 75 nations that were created in 1928 and intended to be flown for foreign visitors. The building is home to the Fisher Theatre, one of Detroit's oldest live theatre venues; the theatre, designed by the Chicago-based architectural firm of Anker S. Graven & Arthur G. Mayger featured a lavish Aztec-themed interior in the Mayan Revival style, once had Mexican-Indian art, banana trees, live macaws that its patrons could feed.
After the Depression, the theatre operated as a movie house until 1961. Containing 3,500 seats, the interior was renovated into a 2,089-seat playhouse that allowed for more spacious seating and lobbies for patrons at a cost of $3.5 million. The decor was changed to a simple mid-century design; the "new" Fisher Theatre opened October 2, 1961 and is owned and operated by the Nederlander Organization. It features traveling producti
The Gap Band
The Gap Band was an American R&B and funk band that rose to fame during the 1970s and 1980s. The band consisted of three brothers Charlie and Robert Wilson; the group shortened its name to The Gap Band in 1973. After 43 years together, they retired in 2010; the band received its first big break by being the back up band for fellow Oklahoman Leon Russell's Stop All That Jazz album released in 1974. Early on, the group took on a funk sound reminiscent of the early 1970s; this style failed to catch on, their first two LP's, 1974's Magician's Holiday, recorded at Leon Russell's historic The Church Studio and 1977's The Gap Band, failed to chart or produce any charting singles. Afterwards, they were introduced to LA producer Lonnie Simmons, who signed them to his production company Total Experience Productions, managed to get them a record deal with Mercury Records. On their first album with Simmons, The Gap Band, they found chart success with songs such as "I'm in Love" and "Shake"; that year, the group released "I Don't Believe You Want to Get Up and Dance" on their album The Gap Band II.
Although it did not hit the Hot 100, it soared to #4 R&B, the album went gold. The song, the band's musical output as a whole, became more P-Funk-esque, with expanded use of the synthesizers and spoken monologues within songs; the song "Steppin'" reached the top 10 R&B. Charlie Wilson provided background vocals on Stevie Wonder's 1980 hit "I Ain't Gonna Stand For It" from Wonder's album Hotter Than July; the band reached a whole new level of fame in 1980 with the release of the #1 R&B and #16 Billboard 200 hit, The Gap Band III. That album had soul ballads such as the #5 R&B song "Yearning for Your Love", funk songs such as the R&B chart-topper "Burn Rubber on Me" and "Humpin'", they repeated this formula on the #1 R&B album Gap Band IV in 1982, which resulted in three hit singles: "Early in the Morning", "You Dropped a Bomb on Me", "Outstanding". It was during this time, their 1983 album, Gap Band V: Jammin', went gold, but was not quite as successful as the previous works, peaking at #2 R&B and #28 on the Billboard 200.
The single "Party Train" peaked at #3 R&B, the song "Jam the Motha'" peaked at #16 R&B, but neither made it onto the Hot 100. The album's closer "Someday" featured Stevie Wonder as a guest vocalist, their next work, Gap Band VI brought them back to #1 R&B in 1985, but the album sold fewer copies and did not go gold. "Beep a Freak" hit #2 R&B, "I Found My Baby" peaked at #8 on the R&B charts, "Disrespect" peaked at #18. That year, lead singer Charlie Wilson and singer Shirley Murdock provided backing vocals on Zapp & Roger's #2 R&B "Computer Love". While their 1986 cover of "Going in Circles" went to #2 on the R&B charts, the album it was released on, Gap Band VII, hit #6 R&B, the album became their first in years to miss the Billboard 200, peaking at a mere #159. While they were beginning to struggle stateside, the group found their greatest success in the UK when their 1986 single "Big Fun" from Gap Band 8 reached #4 in the UK Singles Chart. 1988's Straight from the Heart was their last studio album with Total Experience.
The Gap Band caught a small break in 1988 with the Keenen Ivory Wayans film I'm Gonna Git You Sucka. They contributed the # 14 R&B title track to the film, their first song on their new label, Capitol Records, 1989's "All of My Love", is, to date, their last #1 R&B hit. The album produced the #8 R&B "Addicted to Your Love" and the #18 R&B ""We Can Make it Alright." They went on a five-year hiatus from producing new material. During the 1990s, the band released two live albums. In 1992, Charlie has had several moderate R&B hits on his own. Wilson's vocals were credited in part for inspiring the vocal style of new jack swing artists Guy, Aaron Hall, Keith Sweat, R. Kelly; the band reunited in 1996, issued The Gap Band: Live and Well, a live greatest hits album. On August 26, 2005, The Gap Band was honored as a BMI Icon at the 57th annual BMI Urban Awards; the honor is given to a creator, "a unique and indelible influence on generations of music makers". "Outstanding" alone remains one of the most sampled songs in history and has, been used by over 150 artists.
Robert Wilson died of a heart attack at his home in Palmdale, California on August 15, 2010, at the age of 53. Since the 1990s, many of The Gap Band's hits have been sampled and or covered by R&B and hip hop artists such as II D Extreme, Brand Nubian, the Creator, 69 Boyz, Big Mello, Mary J. Blige, Da Brat, Ice Cube, Jermaine Dupri, Mia X, Rob Base, Shaquille O'Neal, Snoop Dogg, Soul For Real, Vesta. Other musicians inspired by The Gap Band include Guy, Aaron Hall, Jagged Edge, Bill Heausler, Mint Condition, R. Kelly, Ruff Endz, Keith Sweat, Joe Miller, GRiTT, The Delta Troubadours, D'Extra Wiley. Producer Heavy D sampled "Outstanding" for "Every Little Thing" a 1995 hit single by his boy
Fly Me to the Moon
Fly Me to the Moon titled "In Other Words", is a song written in 1954 by Bart Howard. Kaye Ballard made the first recording of the song the year it was written. Frank Sinatra's 1964 version was associated with the Apollo missions to the Moon. In 1999, the Songwriters Hall of Fame honored "Fly Me to the Moon" by inducting it as a "Towering Song". In 1954, when he began to write the song that became Fly Me to the Moon, Bart Howard had been pursuing a career in music for over 20 years, he played piano to accompany cabaret singers, but wrote songs with Cole Porter, his idol, in mind. In response to a publisher's request for a simpler song, Bart Howard wrote a cabaret ballad which he titled In Other Words. A publisher tried to make him change some words from "fly me to the moon" to "take me to the moon," but Howard refused. Many years Howard commented that "... it took me 20 years to find out how to write a song in 20 minutes."The song was composed in 3/4 time signature but was changed to 4/4 by Quincy Jones in his arrangement to give it a more "looser, swing" feel He used his position as a piano accompanist and presenter at the Blue Angel cabaret venue to promote the song, it was soon introduced in cabaret performances by Felicia Sanders.
Kaye Ballard made the song's first commercial recording, Decca released it in April 1954. A brief review published on 8 May 1954 in Billboard said that In Other Words was "...a love song sung with feeling by Miss Ballard." This recording was released as the flipside of Lazy Afternoon, which Kaye Ballard was performing as star of the stage show The Golden Apple. Over the next few years and cabaret singers released cover versions of In Other Words on EP or LP record albums, including Chris Connor, Johnny Mathis, Portia Nelson, Nancy Wilson. Eydie Gormé sang the song on her 1958 album Eydie In Love, which reached #20 in the Cashbox Album Charts and was nominated for a Grammy Award. In 1960, Peggy Lee released the song on the album Pretty Eyes made it more popular when she performed it in front of a large television audience on The Ed Sullivan Show; as the song's popularity increased, it became better known as Fly Me to the Moon, in 1963 Peggy Lee convinced Bart Howard to make the name change official.
In the early 1960s, versions of the song were released under its new name by many well-known singers, including Nat King Cole, Julie London, Sarah Vaughan, Tony Bennett, Paul Anka and Brenda Lee. Connie Francis released two non-English versions of the song in 1963: in Italian as Portami Con Te and in Spanish as "Llévame a la Luna. In 1962, Joe Harnell recorded an instrumental version in a bossa nova style, it was released as a single in late 1962. Harnell's version spent 13 weeks on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, reaching No. 14 on February 23, 1963, while reaching No. 4 on Billboard's Middle-Road Singles chart. Harnell's version was ranked No. 89 on Billboard's end of year ranking "Top Records of 1963". Harnell's recording won him a Grammy Award at the 5th Annual Grammy Awards for Best Performance by an Orchestra – for Dancing. Harnell's version was included on his album Fly Me to the Moon and the Bossa Nova Pops released in early 1963, which reached No. 3 stereo album on the Billboard Top LP's chart.
Versions of the song were released by many other 1960s instrumental artists, including Roy Haynes, Al Hirt and Oscar Peterson. Frank Sinatra included the song on his 1964 album It Might as Well Be Swing, accompanied by Count Basie; the music for this album was arranged by Quincy Jones, who had worked with Count Basie a year earlier on the album This Time by Basie, which included a version of Fly Me to the Moon. Will Friedwald commented that "Jones boosted the tempo and put it into an four/four" for Basie's version, but "when Sinatra decided to address it with the Basie/Jones combination they recharged it into a straight swinger......all but explodes with energy". Bart Howard estimated that by the time Frank Sinatra covered the song in 1964, more than 100 other versions had been recorded. By 1995, it had been recorded more than 300 times. One notable example is a remix of the song used as a main theme for PlatinumGames' Xbox 360/PS3 game Bayonetta, sung by Helena Noguerra; the Japanese animated series Neon Genesis Evangelion uses it for the closing music for each episode.
Frank Sinatra's 1964 recording of Fly Me to the Moon became associated with NASA's Apollo space program. A copy of the song was played on the Apollo 10 mission, it became the first music heard on the Moon when played on a portable cassette player by Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin after he stepped onto the Moon. The song's association with Apollo 11 was reprised many years when Diana Krall sang it at the mission's 40th anniversary commemoration ceremony, she sang a version of the song in 2012 at the memorial service for Apollo 11 mission commander Neil Armstrong. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics ASCAP Foundation: Bart Howard Provides A Musical Gift Fly Me to the Moon Chord Study for Guitar "Fly Me to the Moon" at MusicBrainz
HD Radio is a trademarked term for Xperi's in-band on-channel digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD or as a standard broadcast. The HD format provides the means for a single radio station to broadcast one or more different programs in addition to the program being transmitted on the radio station's analog channel, it was developed by iBiquity. In September 2015 iBiquity was acquired by DTS bringing the HD Radio technology under the same banner as DTS' eponymous theater surround sound systems.. It was acquired by Xperi in 2016, it was selected by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission in 2002 as a digital audio broadcasting method for the United States, is the only digital system approved by the FCC for digital AM/FM broadcasts in the United States, it is known as NRSC-5, with the latest version being NRSC-5-D.
Other digital radio systems include FMeXtra, Digital Audio Broadcasting, Digital Radio Mondiale, Compatible AM-Digital. While HD Radio does allow for an all-digital mode, this system is used by some AM and FM radio stations to simulcast both digital and analog audio within the same channel as well as to add new FM channels and text information. Although HD Radio broadcasting's content is free-to-air, listeners must purchase new receivers in order to receive the digital portion of the signal. By May 2018, HD Radio technology was claimed to be used by more than 3500 individual services in the United States; this compares with more than 2200 services operating with the DAB system. HD Radio increases the bandwidth required in the FM band to 400 kHz for the analog/digital hybrid version; this makes adoption outside the United States problematic. In the United States the FM broadcast band channels have a spacing of 200 kHz, as opposed to the 100 kHz, normal elsewhere; the 200 kHz spacing means that in practice, stations having concurrent or adjacent coverage areas will not be spaced at less than 400 kHz in order to respect protection ratios which would not be met with 200 kHz spacing.
This leaves space for the digital sidebands. Outside the US, spacing can be 300 kHz; the FCC has not indicated any intent to force off analog radio broadcasts as it has with analog television broadcasts, as it would not result in the recovery of any radio spectrum rights which could be sold. Thus, there is no deadline. In addition, there are many more analog AM/FM radio receivers than there were analog televisions, many of these are car stereos or portable units that cannot be upgraded. Digital information is transmitted using OFDM with an audio compression algorithm called HDC.. HD Radio equipped stations pay a one-time licensing fee for converting their primary audio channel to iBiquity's HD Radio technology, 3% of incremental net revenues for any additional digital subchannels; the cost of converting a radio station can run between $100,000 and $200,000. Receiver manufacturers pay a royalty. If the primary digital signal is lost the HD Radio receiver will revert to the analog signal, thereby providing seamless operation between the newer and older transmission methods.
The extra HD-2 and HD-3 streams are not simulcast on analog, causing the sound to drop-out or "skip" when digital reception degrades. Alternatively the HD Radio signal can revert to a more-robust 20 kilobit per second stream, though the sound is reduced to AM-like quality. Datacasting is possible, with metadata providing song titles or artist information. IBiquity Digital claims that the system approaches CD quality audio and offers reduction of both interference and static. Sending pure digital data through the 20 kilohertz AM channel is equivalent to sending data through two 33 kbit/s analog telephone lines, thus limiting the maximum throughput possible. By using spectral band replication the HDC+SBR codec is able to simulate the recreation of sounds up to 15,000 Hz, thus achieving moderate quality on the bandwidth-tight AM band; the HD Radio AM hybrid mode offers two options which can carry 40 or 60 kbit/s of data, but most AM digital stations default to the more-robust 40 kbit/s mode which features redundancy.
HD Radio provides a pure digital mode, which lacks an analog signal for fallback and instead reverts to a 20 kbit/s signal during times of poor reception. The pure digital mode transmissions will stay within the AM station's channel instead of spilling into the channels next to the station transmitting "HD radio" as the hybrid stations do; the AM version of HD Radio technology uses the 20 kHz channel, overlaps 5 kHz into the opposite sideband of the adjacent channel on both sides. When operating in pure digital mode, the AM HD Radio signal fits inside a standard 20 kHz channel or an extended 30 kHz channel, at the discretion of the station manager; as AM radio stations are spaced at 9 kHz or 10 kHz intervals, much of the digital information overlaps adjacent channels when in hybrid mode. Some nigh
WDRQ is a radio station licensed to Detroit, Michigan. Owned by Cumulus Media, it broadcasts a country music format under the company's Nash FM brand, its studios are located in the Fisher Building in New Center, while its transmitter is located at the intersection of 10 Mile and Greenfield Road in suburban Oak Park. The station owned by Storer Broadcasting, first signed on as WJBK-FM in the summer of 1947; the station broadcast only six hours per day but implemented 24-hour operations in October 1947. From 1947 to 1966, WJBK-FM programming was strict 100% duplication of the co-owned AM station WJBK, the FM side continued to simulcast through several programming changes. WJBK was Detroit's first top 40 station, playing hit music from 1956 to 1964. After 1964 WJBK-FM and partially simulcast the AM's new easy listening and MOR format, its brief return to Top 40 in 1969. Starting in 1966, WJBK-FM began to introduce separate stereo programming for about 50% of the broadcast day, due to new FCC rules which restricted FM/AM simulcasting.
In late 1969, WJBK-AM-FM became WDEE AM & FM and implemented a country format with a Top 40-style presentation. The AM side returned to high ratings. According to a Billboard magazine article in February 1970, WDEE-FM was on the air from 6am to midnight, duplicating the AM programming from 5pm to midnight and during the day airing separate stereo country programming syndicated by Bellingham, WA-based International Good Music. In 1971, WDEE-FM was sold to Bartell Media Corporation, changed its calls to WDRQ-FM, became Detroit's first FM talk radio station; as a stunt to draw attention to the new station and about-to-be launched format, the station ran a weekend-long documentary, The History of Detroit Radio, covering the then-current and past scene of Detroit radio put together by longtime radio enthusiast and former Oakland Press radio columnist Arthur R. Vuolo, Jr. Ultimately, the news/talk format proved to be unsuccessful and WDRQ-FM switched to Top 40 as The Super Q. Bartell at the time owned such legendary AM Top 40 stations as KCBQ in San Diego and WOKY in Milwaukee.
Like those stations, WDRQ used consultant Buzz Bennett's fast-paced "Q" format. Like its rival, CKLW The Big 8, WDRQ featured a tight playlist which leaned toward R&B and soul records, but unlike The Big 8, WDRQ was not saddled with Canadian Content regulations requiring them to play a certain percentage of Canadian music in their rotation, which enabled them to play only the top hits and enabled them to make strong ratings inroads against CKLW. By 1977, WDRQ was the number one Top 40 station in Detroit. WDRQ became intimately involved in Detroit, it organized its listeners to gather on a Saturday and clean up Detroit parks, gave free concerts at Belle Isle Park, including one with Detroiter Bob Seger. PD Jerry Clifton kept the excitement level much higher at WDRQ than other stations by having some sort of festival each weekend and mercilessly promoted the upcoming weekend promotion during the week. CKLW and WDRQ became personal rivals. CKLW put up a billboard at the cost of several thousand dollars bragging about their latest dominant Arbitron ratings on a major street that all jocks and office personnel of WDRQ would see as they pulled into the parking lot of WDRQ.
WDRQ did a "black bag" visit to CKLW on a hot Sunday when the jock and board operator were the only one at the station, but because of the hot day, the CKLW jock propped the door open for a breeze, allowing the WDRQ staff to browse around. On January 24, 1979, WDRQ made a format shift to disco as "Disco 93", inspired by the success of the all-disco format at WKTU in New York City; the move to disco was not received well in Detroit, WDRQ tumbled out of Arbitron's top 20 ratings within a few months. WDRQ returned to a mainstream Top 40 format at the beginning of 1980 and made a brief return to the top 10 that spring, but the big story in Detroit radio that year was the meteoric rise of album-rocker WLLZ, WDRQ's ratings once again began to drop and reached an all-time low of 1.4 in the Winter 1982 Arbitrons. In response to this, WDRQ shifted its format to urban contemporary in March 1982, saw the format change pay off, climbing to a 3.0 share in the Spring 1982 ratings report and to a 6.6 in Summer 1982.
"Continuous Music—93FM WDRQ" was a success, the opening of Beverly Hills Cop features an advertisement for this version of WDRQ on a city bus. Bartell sold the station to Amatuoro Broadcasting in the early 1980s, who sold it to Keymarket Communications; the original incarnation of Viacom purchased the station in a trade with Keymarket for a station that Viacom owned in Memphis in the mid-1980s that Keymarket wanted. In April 1985, owner Amaturo Radio Group dropped the urban format of WDRQ and changed the call letters to WLTI; the station aired a soft adult contemporary package from Transtar called Format 41, described by Amaturo president Monte Lang in an April 20, 1985 Billboard article as "targeted at listeners who prefer Barbra Streisand and Neil Diamond and leaning toward easy listening." Despite the success Amaturo had had with Format 41 with its own WJQY in the Fort Lauderdale-Miami market, the Detroit market was crowded with adult contemporary stations and WLTI failed to attract an audience until the station added local personalities around 1987.
DJs such as the morning drive team of Eddie Rogers and Pat Holiday - whose show featured comedic "celebrity" drop-ins by the