Jackson is a city in the south central area of the U. S. state of Michigan, about 40 miles west of Ann Arbor and 35 miles south of Lansing. It is the county seat of Jackson County; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 33,534, down from 36,316 at the 2000 census. Served by Interstate 94, it is the principal city of the Jackson Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Jackson County and has a population of 160,248. Founded in 1829, it was named after President Andrew Jackson. By the late 19th century, it had developed as a railroad hub and was known as the crossroads of Michigan. By 1910 it had strong manufacturing of a variety of automobiles and parts and was a center of corset manufacturing into the 1920s; as an industrial city, it attracted numerous migrants from the American South, both white and black, European immigrants who were seeking better economic opportunity. The first state prison was built here. By 1882 it had developed as the largest walled prison in the world, containing both factory facilities and farmland.
A new prison was built in 1934 north of the city limits. On July 3, 1829, Horace Blackman, accompanied by Alexander Laverty, a land surveyor, Pewytum, an Indian guide, forded the Grand River and made camp for the night at a site now marked as Trail and N. Jackson Street, they arrived there along a well-traveled Native American trail leading west from Ann Arbor. Blackman had hired Pewytum to guide him west. Returning to Ann Arbor and Monroe, Blackman registered his claim for 160 acres at two dollars an acre, he returned to the Jackson area in August 1829 with his brother Russell. Together they cleared land and built a cabin at what would become the corner of Ingham and Trail streets; the town was first called Jacksonopolis. It was renamed Jacksonburgh. In 1838, the town's name was changed to Jackson. Jackson is one of the birthplaces of the Republican Party; the first official meeting of the group that called itself "Republican" was held in Jackson on July 6, 1854. A Michigan historical marker at what is now the northwest corner of Second and Franklin streets in Jackson commemorates an anti-slavery county convention held that day.
Meeting outside to avoid a hot, overcrowded hall, the group selected a slate of candidates for state elections. The marker identifies this as the birth of the Republican Party; the site, an oak grove on "Morgan's Forty" on the outskirts of town, became known as "Under the Oaks". Before Detroit began building cars on assembly lines in 1910, Jackson factories were making parts for cars and putting them together. By 1910, the auto industry had become Jackson's main industry. More than 20 different brands of cars were once made in Jackson, including: Reeves, Jackson, CarterCar, Whiting and Gage. V. I. Imperial, Ames-Dean, Standard Electric, Briscoe, Hollier, Marion-Handly, Earl and Kaiser-Darrin. Ye Ole Carriage Shop in Spring Arbor displays more than 60 antique and classic cars, including five one-and-onlys and 16 made in Jackson. One of these is a 1902 JAXON. Today the auto parts industry remains one of the largest employers of skilled machine operators in Jackson County; the city was an early site for the moped parts industry.
In 1914 George Todoroff founded the first "Coney Island restaurant" and created his famous Coney Island hot dog topping. His Coney Island restaurant was located directly in front of the railroad station on East Michigan Avenue and was open 24 hours; the restaurant proved to be a popular dining option for rail passengers. Over the course of 31 years, Todoroff sold more than 17 million Coney Island hot dogs. Today two Coney Island restaurants unaffiliated with Todoroff's are located in a building near the train station on East Michigan Avenue, Virginia Coney Island and Jackson Coney Island. In addition, several area restaurants throughout the Jackson area offer their own version of the Coney Island hot dog, or just "coney" as referred to by local residents. Jackson's version of the coney dog is distinctly different from those featured in Detroit-area Coney Island restaurants or other Coney Island restaurants throughout Michigan and the Midwest. In 2014 Todoroff's Coney Island celebrated its centenary.
The legislature authorized Michigan's first state prison in 1838. A temporary wooden prison, enclosed by a fence of tamarack poles, was built on 60 acres donated for that purpose inside the city limits of Jackson. In 1839 the first 35 prisoners were received. A permanent prison was built three years later. Beginning in the 1850s, Warden H. F. Hatch placed more emphasis on the rehabilitation of prisoners. By 1882, Michigan's First State Prison had developed as the largest walled prison in the world. Within its walls, the factories and surrounding farms, manned by cheap inmate labor, made Jackson one of the leading industrial cities in the nation. In 1934 a new prison was completed just north of Jackson's city limit in Blackman Township; the historic building is now used as an artists' resident community, known as the Armory Arts Village. Tours of the original prison site on Cooper Street are available through the Original Jackson Historic Prison Tours. A closed intact cell block at the modern prison in Blackman Township is now operated as the Cell Block 7 Prison Museum.
Independently operated by the accredited Ella Sharp Museum, this is the only museum where visitors can enter a closed cell block on the grounds of an active prison for a self-guided tour. Numerous railroad connections were constructed to Jackson; the local invention of the duplex corset by Bortree helped make Jackson a center of corset manufacturing
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Ann Arbor, Michigan
Ann Arbor is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County. The 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934. Ann Arbor is home to the University of Michigan; the university shapes Ann Arbor's economy as it employs about 30,000 workers, including about 12,000 in the medical center. The city's economy is centered on high technology, with several companies drawn to the area by the university's research and development infrastructure. Ann Arbor was founded in 1824, named for wives of the village's founders, both named Ann, the stands of bur oak trees; the University of Michigan moved from Detroit to Ann Arbor in 1837, the city grew at a rapid rate in the early to mid-20th century. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as a center for left-wing politics. Ann Arbor became a focal point for political activism, such as opposition to the Vietnam War and support for the legalization of cannabis. In about 1774, the Potawatomi founded two villages in the area of.
Ann Arbor was founded in 1824 by land speculators John Elisha Walker Rumsey. On May 25, 1824, the town plat was registered with Wayne County as "Annarbour", the earliest known use of the town's name. Allen and Rumsey decided to name it for their wives, both named Ann, for the stands of bur oak in the 640 acres of land they purchased for $800 from the federal government at $1.25 per acre. The local Ojibwa named the settlement kaw-goosh-kaw-nick, after the sound of Allen's sawmill. Ann Arbor became the seat of Washtenaw County in 1827, was incorporated as a village in 1833; the Ann Arbor Land Company, a group of speculators, set aside 40 acres of undeveloped land and offered it to the state of Michigan as the site of the state capital, but lost the bid to Lansing. In 1837, the property was accepted instead as the site of the University of Michigan, which moved from Detroit. Since the university's establishment in the city in 1837, the histories of the University of Michigan and Ann Arbor have been linked.
The town became a regional transportation hub in 1839 with the arrival of the Michigan Central Railroad, a north–south railway connecting Ann Arbor to Toledo and other markets to the south was established in 1878. Throughout the 1840s and the 1850s settlers continued to come to Ann Arbor. While the earlier settlers were of British ancestry, the newer settlers consisted of Germans and African-Americans. In 1851, Ann Arbor was chartered as a city, though the city showed a drop in population during the Depression of 1873, it was not until the early 1880s that Ann Arbor again saw robust growth, with new emigrants from Greece, Italy and Poland. Ann Arbor saw increased growth in manufacturing in milling. Ann Arbor's Jewish community grew after the turn of the 20th century, its first and oldest synagogue, Beth Israel Congregation, was established in 1916. During the 1960s and 1970s, the city gained a reputation as an important center for liberal politics. Ann Arbor became a locus for left-wing activism and anti-Vietnam War movement, as well as the student movement.
The first major meetings of the national left-wing campus group Students for a Democratic Society took place in Ann Arbor in 1960. S. teach-in against the Vietnam War. During the ensuing 15 years, many countercultural and New Left enterprises sprang up and developed large constituencies within the city; these influences washed into municipal politics during the early and mid-1970s when three members of the Human Rights Party won city council seats on the strength of the student vote. During their time on the council, HRP representatives fought for measures including pioneering antidiscrimination ordinances, measures decriminalizing marijuana possession, a rent-control ordinance. Alongside these liberal and left-wing efforts, a small group of conservative institutions were born in Ann Arbor; these include Word of a charismatic inter-denominational movement. Following a 1956 vote, the city of East Ann Arbor merged with Ann Arbor to encompass the eastern sections of the city. In the past several decades, Ann Arbor has grappled with the effects of rising land values and urban sprawl stretching into outlying countryside.
On November 4, 2003, voters approved a greenbelt plan under which the city government bought development rights on agricultural parcels of land adjacent to Ann Arbor to preserve them from sprawling development. Since a vociferous local debate has hinged on how and whether to accommodate and guide development within city limits. Ann Arbor ranks in the "top places to live" lists published by various mainstream media outlets every year. In 2008, it was ranked by CNNMoney.com 27th out of 100 "America's best small cities". And in 2010, Forbes listed Ann Arbor as one of the most liveable cities in the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.70 square miles, of which, 27.83 square miles of it is land and 0.87 square miles is water, much of, part of the Huron River. Ann Arbor is about 35 miles west of Detroit. Ann Arbor Charter Township adjoins the city's north and east sides. Ann Arbor is situated on the Huron River in a productive fruit-growing region.
The landscape of Ann Arbor consists of hills and valleys, with the terrain becoming steeper near the Huron River. The elevation ranges from about 750 feet along the Huron River to 1,015 feet (309
Planning permission or developmental approval refers to the approval needed for construction or expansion in some jurisdictions. It is given in the form of a building permit; the new construction must be inspected during construction and after completion to ensure compliance with national and local building codes. Planning is dependent on the site's zone – for example, one cannot obtain permission to build a nightclub in an area where it is inappropriate such as a high-density suburb. Failure to obtain a permit can result in fines and demolition of unauthorized construction if it cannot be made to meet code. House building permits, for example, are subject to local housing statutes; the criteria for planning permission are a part of urban planning and construction law, are managed by town planners employed by local governments. Since building permits precede outlays for construction, employment and furnishings, they are used as a leading indicator for developments in other areas of the economy.
As part of broadcast law, the term is used in broadcasting, where individual radio and television stations must apply for and receive permission to construct radio towers and radio antennas. This type of permit is issued by a national broadcasting authority, but does not imply zoning any other permission that must be given by local government; the permit itself does not imply permission to operate the station once constructed. In the U. S. a construction permit is valid for three years. Afterwards, the station must receive a full license to operate, good for seven years; this is provided by a separate broadcast license called a "license to cover" by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States. Further permission or registration for towers may be needed from aviation authorities. In the U. S. construction permits for commercial stations are now assigned by auction, rather than the former process of determining who would serve the community of license best. If the given frequency allocation is sought by at least one non-commercial educational applicant, or is on an NCE-reserved TV channel or in the FM reserved band, the comparative process still takes place, though the FCC refuses to consider which radio format the applicants propose.
In Canada, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission maintains a comparative process in issuing permits, ensuring that a variety of programming is available in each area, that as many groups as possible have access to free speech over radio waves
St. Petersburg, Florida
St. Petersburg is a city in Pinellas County, United States; as of the 2015 census estimate, the population was 257,083, making it the fifth-most populous city in Florida and the largest in the state, not a county seat. St. Petersburg is the second-largest city in the Tampa Bay Area, after Tampa. Together with Clearwater, these cities comprise the Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater Metropolitan Statistical Area, the second-largest in Florida with a population of around 2.8 million. St. Petersburg is located on the Pinellas peninsula between Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, is connected to mainland Florida to the north. St. Petersburg was founded in 1888 by John C. Williams, who purchased the land, by Peter Demens, who brought the railroad industry into the area; as a part of a coin toss bet, the winner, Peter Demens, named the land after Saint Petersburg, while Williams opted to name the first hotel built, named the Detroit Hotel, both named after their home towns respectively. St. Petersburg was incorporated as a town on February 29, 1892 and re-incorporated as a city on June 6, 1903.
The city is referred to by locals as St. Pete. Neighboring St. Pete Beach formally shortened its name in 1994 after a vote by its residents. St. Petersburg is governed by a city council. With an average of some 361 days of sunshine each year, a Guinness World Record for logging the most consecutive days of sunshine, it is nicknamed "The Sunshine City". Due to its good weather and low cost of living, the city has long been a popular retirement destination, although in recent years the population has moved in a much more youthful direction. American Style magazine ranked St. Petersburg its top mid-size city in 2011, citing its "vibrant" arts scene; the city was co-founded by John C. Williams of Detroit, who purchased the land in 1875, by Peter Demens, instrumental in bringing the terminus of the Orange Belt Railway there in 1888; the first major newspaper to debut in Tampa Bay was the St. Petersburg Times which established in 1884. St. Petersburg was incorporated as a town on February 29, 1892, when it had a population of only some 300 people.
A local legend says that John C. Williams and Peter Demens flipped a coin to see who would have the honor of naming the city; when Demens won the coin toss the city was named after Saint Petersburg, where Peter Demens had spent half of his youth, while John C. Williams named the first hotel after his birthplace, Detroit; the Detroit Hotel still has been turned into a condominium. The oldest running hotels are the historic Pier Hotel, built in 1921, formally Hotel Cordova and The Heritage Hotel, built in 1926. Philadelphia publisher F. A. Davis turned on St. Petersburg's first electrical service in 1897; the city's first major industry was born in 1899 when Henry W. Hibbs, a native of Newport, North Carolina, established his wholesale fish business at the end of the railroad pier, which extended out to the shipping channel. Within a year, Hibbs Fish Company was shipping more than 1,000 pounds of fish each day. St. Petersburg was incorporated as a city in June 1903. With this transition, the development of the downtown waterfront had dredging of a deeper shipping channel from 1906 to 1908 which opened St. Petersburg to larger shipping.
Further dredging improved the port facilities through the 1910s. By the city's population had quadrupled to a population of 4,127 citizens. F. A. Davis was instrumental to bringing the first trolley service in 1904. In 1914, the Tampa Bay area was one of the first Floridian cities that fell in love with baseball tracing its roots from Tampa and St. Petersburg; the former mayor of St. Petersburg, Al Lang, had invited the St. Louis Browns to move their spring training into the city. St. Petersburg's first library opened on December 1, 1915 which still operates till this day as the Mirror Lake Library. In 1914 an airplane service across Tampa Bay from St. Petersburg to Tampa and back was initiated considered the first scheduled commercial airline flight; the company name was the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line, the pilot was Tony Jannus, flying a Benoist XIV flying boat; the Tony Jannus Award is presented annually for outstanding achievement in the airline industry. The 1920s in St. Petersburg was big due to its major growth brought by tourists.
Tourists came from all over by automobile and railroad. Travel time from across the bay was cut due to the Gandy Bridge's opening in 1924, helping St. Petersburg increase in tourist numbers and helped grow it into the largest city in Pinellas County; the city adopted the Mediterranean-style architecture brought by Snell Isles founder Perry Snell. An attraction that brought on a great number of tourists and citizens was the Million Dollar Pier, built in 1926. Tourism declined by early 1930s due to the Great Depression; the city recovered in the 1930s with the help of the Public Works Administration, including a $10 million investment plan in 1939 which helped build the St. Petersburg City Hall. By the 1940s the city received a large population growth due to World War II. St. Petersburg was a training ground area for the U. S. Coast Guard which had a training base and used the city's Bayboro Harbor, for the Army Air Force, selected by the War Department to use the city as their technical service training station.
With both stations occupying the city, more than 100,000 troops occupied all hotels in St. Petersburg. After the war, most troops who were stationed in St. Petersburg returned as tourists. In the 1950s, St. Petersburg experienced another population increase with residen
Broadcast relay station
A broadcast relay station known as a satellite station, relay transmitter, broadcast translator, re-broadcaster, repeater or complementary station, is a broadcast transmitter which repeats the signal of a radio or television station to an area not covered by the originating station. It expands the broadcast range of a television or radio station beyond the primary signal's original coverage or improves service in the original coverage area; the stations may be used to create a single-frequency network. They may be used by an FM or AM radio station to establish a presence on the other band. A re-broadcaster may be owned by a community group, rather than the owner of the primary station. WHLS/WHLX in Port Huron, Michigan purchased a translator and switched to an alternative rock format shortly afterwards without mentioning the original FM translator, except for its required top-of-the-hour ID. No AM frequencies have been mentioned. In its simplest form, a broadcast translator is a facility created to receive a terrestrial broadcast over the air on one frequency and rebroadcast the same signal on another frequency.
These stations are used in television and radio to cover areas which are not adequately covered by a station's main signal. They can be used to expand market coverage by duplicating programming on another band. Relays which broadcast within the parent station's coverage area on the same channel are known in the U. S. as booster stations. Signals from the stations may interfere with each other without careful antenna design. Radio interference can be avoided by using atomic time, obtained from GPS satellites, to synchronize co-channel stations in a single-frequency network. Analog television stations cannot have same-channel boosters unless opposite polarization is used, due to video synchronization issues such as ghosting. In the U. S. no new on-channel UHF signal boosters have been authorized since July 11, 1975. A distributed transmission system uses several medium-power stations on the same frequency to cover a broadcast area, rather than one high-power station with repeaters on a different frequency.
Although digital television stations are technically capable of sharing a channel, this is more difficult with the 8VSB modulation and unvariable guard interval used in ATSC standards than with the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing used in the European and Australian DVB-T standard. A distributed transmission system would have stringent synchronization requirements, requiring each transmitter to receive its signal from a central source for broadcast at a GPS-synchronized time. A DTS does not use broadcast repeaters in the conventional sense, since they cannot receive a signal from a main terrestrial broadcast transmitter for rebroadcast; the use of virtual channels is another alternative, although this may cause the same channel to appear several times in a receiver – once for each relay station – and require the user to tune to the best one. Although boosters or DTS cause all relay stations to appear as one signal, they require careful engineering to avoid interference; some licensed stations simulcast another station.
Relay stations in name only, they are licensed like any other station. Although this is unregulated in the U. S. and permitted in Canada, the U. S. Federal Communications Commission regulates radio formats to ensure diversity in programming. U. S. satellite stations may request an FCC exemption from requirements for a properly staffed broadcast studio in the city of license. The stations cover large, sparsely populated regions or operate as statewide non-commercial educational radio and television systems. A television re-broadcaster sells local advertising for broadcast only on the local transmitter, may air a limited amount of programming distinct from its parent station; some "semi-satellites" broadcast local news or separate news segments during part of the newscast. CHEX-TV-2 in Oshawa, Ontario aired daily late-afternoon and early-evening news and community programs separate from its parent station, CHEX-TV in Peterborough, Ontario; the FCC prohibits this on U. S. FM translator stations, only permitting it on licensed stations.
In some cases, a semi-satellite is a autonomous full-service station, programmed remotely through centralcasting or broadcast automation to avoid the cost of a local staff. CBLFT, an owned-and-operated station of the French-language network Ici Radio-Canada Télé in Toronto, is a de facto semi-satellite of its stronger Ottawa sibling CBOFT. A financially weak owned broadcaster in a small market can become a de facto semi-satellite by curtailing local production and relying on a owned station in a larger city for programming. Broadcast automation allows the substitution of syndicated programming or digital subchannel content which the broadcaster was unable to obtain for both cities; some defunct full-service stations have originate nothing. If programming from the parent station must be removed or substituted due to local sports blackouts, the modified signal is that of a semi-satellite station. Most broadcasters outside North America maintain a national network
Digital television is the transmission of television signals, including the sound channel, using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier television technology, analog television, in which the video and audio are carried by analog signals. It is an innovative advance that represents the first significant evolution in television technology since color television in the 1950s. Digital TV transmits in a new image format called HDTV, with greater resolution than analog TV, in a wide screen aspect ratio similar to recent movies in contrast to the narrower screen of analog TV, it makes more economical use of scarce radio spectrum space. A transition from analog to digital broadcasting began around 2006 in some countries, many industrial countries have now completed the changeover, while other countries are in various stages of adaptation. Different digital television broadcasting standards have been adopted in different parts of the world; this standard has been adopted in Europe, Asia, total about 60 countries.
Advanced Television System Committee uses eight-level vestigial sideband for terrestrial broadcasting. This standard has been adopted by 6 countries: United States, Mexico, South Korea, Dominican Republic and Honduras. Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting is a system designed to provide good reception to fixed receivers and portable or mobile receivers, it utilizes two-dimensional interleaving. It supports hierarchical transmission of up to three layers and uses MPEG-2 video and Advanced Audio Coding; this standard has been adopted in Japan and the Philippines. ISDB-T International is an adaptation of this standard using H.264/MPEG-4 AVC that been adopted in most of South America and is being embraced by Portuguese-speaking African countries. Digital Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting adopts time-domain synchronous OFDM technology with a pseudo-random signal frame to serve as the guard interval of the OFDM block and the training symbol; the DTMB standard has been adopted in the People's Republic including Hong Kong and Macau.
Digital Multimedia Broadcasting is a digital radio transmission technology developed in South Korea as part of the national IT project for sending multimedia such as TV, radio and datacasting to mobile devices such as mobile phones, laptops and GPS navigation systems. Digital TV's roots have been tied closely to the availability of inexpensive, high performance computers, it wasn't until the 1990s. In the mid-1980s, as Japanese consumer electronics firms forged ahead with the development of HDTV technology, as the MUSE analog format was proposed by Japan's public broadcaster NHK as a worldwide standard, Japanese advancements were seen as pacesetters that threatened to eclipse U. S. electronics companies. Until June 1990, the Japanese MUSE standard—based on an analog system—was the front-runner among the more than 23 different technical concepts under consideration. An American company, General Instrument, demonstrated the feasibility of a digital television signal; this breakthrough was of such significance that the FCC was persuaded to delay its decision on an ATV standard until a digitally based standard could be developed.
In March 1990, when it became clear that a digital standard was feasible, the FCC made a number of critical decisions. First, the Commission declared that the new ATV standard must be more than an enhanced analog signal, but be able to provide a genuine HDTV signal with at least twice the resolution of existing television images. To ensure that viewers who did not wish to buy a new digital television set could continue to receive conventional television broadcasts, it dictated that the new ATV standard must be capable of being "simulcast" on different channels; the new ATV standard allowed the new DTV signal to be based on new design principles. Although incompatible with the existing NTSC standard, the new DTV standard would be able to incorporate many improvements; the final standard adopted by the FCC did not require a single standard for scanning formats, aspect ratios, or lines of resolution. This outcome resulted from a dispute between the consumer electronics industry and the computer industry over which of the two scanning processes—interlaced or progressive—is superior.
Interlaced scanning, used in televisions worldwide, scans even-numbered lines first odd-numbered ones. Progressive scanning, the format used in computers, scans lines in sequences, from top to bottom; the computer industry argued that progressive scanning is superior because it does not "flicker" in the manner of interlaced scanning. It argued that progressive scanning enables easier connections with the Internet, is more cheaply converted to interlaced formats than vice versa; the film industry supported progressive scanning because it offers a more efficient means of converting filmed programming into digital formats. For their part, the consumer electronics industry and broadcasters argued that interlaced scanning was the only technology that could transmit the highest quality pictures feasible, i.e. 1,080 lines per picture and 1,920 pixels per line. Broadcasters favored interlaced scanning because their vast archive of interlaced