IHeartMedia, Inc. is an American mass media corporation headquartered in San Antonio, Texas. As a result of this buyout, Clear Channel Communications, Inc. began to operate as an owned subsidiary of CC Media Holdings. Additionally, the company leases two channels on Sirius XM Satellite Radio, and has expanded its presence through the iHeartRadio platform. IHeartMedia, Inc. specializes in advertising through subsidiary Clear Channel Outdoor Holdings. The name Clear Channel came from AM broadcasting, referring to a channel on which only one station transmits, in the U. S. clear-channel stations have exclusive rights to their frequencies throughout most of the continent at night, when AM signals travel far due to skywave. The companys new name is intended to reflect its growing digital business, Bob Pittman, Chairman and CEO of iHeartMedia, Inc. explained, We have a company thats doing progressive stuff, and yet were named after AM radio stations. Since 2008, iHeartMedia, Inc. has struggled to pay more than $20 billion in debt the company acquired from its leveraged buyout.
The suspicions proved unfounded when quarterly earnings were announced in 2017, Clear Channel Communications purchased its first FM station in San Antonio in 1972. The company purchased the second clear channel AM station WOAI in 1975, in 1976, the company purchased its first stations outside of San Antonio. KXXO AM and KMOD FM in Tulsa were acquired under the name San Antonio Broadcasting, Stations were added in Port Arthur, Texas and El Paso, Texas. In 1992, the U. S. Congress relaxed radio ownership rules slightly, by 1995, Clear Channel owned 43 radio stations and 16 television stations. When the Telecommunications Act of 1996 became law, the act deregulated media ownership, Clear Channel went on a subsequent buying spree, purchasing more than 70 other media companies and individual stations. In a few cases, following purchase of a competitor, Clear Channel was forced to divest some of its stations, in 1997 Clear Channel moved out of pure broadcasting when it purchased billboard firm Eller Media, which was led by Karl Eller.
These included a 51% stake in Clear Media Ltd. in China, in 1999, the company acquired Jacor Communications, a radio corporation based in Cincinnati. R. Steven Hicks and Hicks, Tate & Furst began Capstar Broadcasting in 1996 and a year had become the largest owner of radio stations in the country, with 243 stations in all. Hicks, Tate & Furst owned 59 percent of Capstar, with 355 stations in 83 markets, Chancellor Media became AMFM Inc. which was acquired by Clear Channel in a deal announced October 3,1999, and valued at $17.4 billion. The resulting company would own 830 radio stations,19 television stations, in 2005 Clear Channel Communications split into three separate companies. Clear Channel Communications was a broadcaster, Clear Channel Outdoor was out-of-home advertising
Effective radiated power
Effective radiated power, synonymous with equivalent radiated power, is an IEEE standardized definition of directional radio frequency power transmitted from a theoretical half-wave dipole antenna. It is differentiated from effective isotropic radiated power mainly by use of antenna gain instead of absolute gain in the calculation. The term antenna gain is assumed to be absolute unless specifically stated to be relative, the gain is multiplied by the power actually accepted by the antenna to result in the actual ERP value. Power losses which occur prior to the antenna, e. g. in the line or from inefficiency in the generator itself are therefore not included in the calculation of ERP or EIRP. Antenna gain is closely related to directivity and often used interchangeably. However, gain is less than directivity by a factor called radiation efficiency. Whereas directivity is entirely a function of wavelength and the geometry and type of antenna, accelerating charge causes electromagnetic radiation per Maxwells equations.
Therefore, antennas use a current distribution on radiating elements to generate electromagnetic energy that propagates away from the antenna and this coupling is never 100% efficient, and therefore antenna gain will always be less than directivity by this efficiency factor. The receiver would not be able to determine a difference, maximum directivity of an ideal half-wave dipole is a constant, i. e.0 dBd =2.15 dBi. Therefore, ERP is always 2.15 dB less than EIRP, the ideal dipole antenna could be further replaced by an isotropic radiator, and the receiver cannot know the difference so long as the input power is increased by 2.15 dB. Unfortunately, the distinction between dBd and dBi is often left unstated and the reader is forced to infer which was used. For example, a Yagi-Uda antenna is constructed from several dipoles arranged at intervals to create better energy focusing than a simple dipole. Since it is constructed from dipoles, often its antenna gain is expressed in dBd, obviously this ambiguity is undesirable with respect to engineering specifications.
A Yagi-Uda antennas maximum directivity is 8.77 dBd =10.92 dBi and its gain necessarily must be less than this by the factor η, which must be negative in units of dB. Neither ERP nor EIRP can be calculated without knowledge of the power accepted by the antenna, let us assume a 100 Watt transmitter with losses of 6 dB prior to the antenna. ERP <22. 77dBW and EIRP <24. 92dBW, polarization has not been taken into account so far, but properly it must be. When considering the dipole radiator previously we assumed that it was aligned with the receiver. Now assume, that the antenna is circularly polarized
The metre or meter, is the base unit of length in the International System of Units. The metre is defined as the length of the path travelled by light in a vacuum in 1/299792458 seconds, the metre was originally defined in 1793 as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the North Pole. In 1799, it was redefined in terms of a metre bar. In 1960, the metre was redefined in terms of a number of wavelengths of a certain emission line of krypton-86. In 1983, the current definition was adopted, the imperial inch is defined as 0.0254 metres. One metre is about 3 3⁄8 inches longer than a yard, Metre is the standard spelling of the metric unit for length in nearly all English-speaking nations except the United States and the Philippines, which use meter. Measuring devices are spelled -meter in all variants of English, the suffix -meter has the same Greek origin as the unit of length. This range of uses is found in Latin, English. Thus calls for measurement and moderation. In 1668 the English cleric and philosopher John Wilkins proposed in an essay a decimal-based unit of length, as a result of the French Revolution, the French Academy of Sciences charged a commission with determining a single scale for all measures.
In 1668, Wilkins proposed using Christopher Wrens suggestion of defining the metre using a pendulum with a length which produced a half-period of one second, christiaan Huygens had observed that length to be 38 Rijnland inches or 39.26 English inches. This is the equivalent of what is now known to be 997 mm, no official action was taken regarding this suggestion. In the 18th century, there were two approaches to the definition of the unit of length. One favoured Wilkins approach, to define the metre in terms of the length of a pendulum which produced a half-period of one second. The other approach was to define the metre as one ten-millionth of the length of a quadrant along the Earths meridian, that is, the distance from the Equator to the North Pole. This means that the quadrant would have defined as exactly 10000000 metres at that time. To establish a universally accepted foundation for the definition of the metre, more measurements of this meridian were needed. This portion of the meridian, assumed to be the length as the Paris meridian, was to serve as the basis for the length of the half meridian connecting the North Pole with the Equator
Country music is a genre of United States popular music that originated in the southern United States in the 1920s. It takes its roots from the genre of United States, such as folk music. Blues modes have been used throughout its recorded history. The term country music is used today to many styles and subgenres. In 2009 country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, immigrants to the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North America brought the music and instruments of Europe and Africa along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon, Tennessee, has been formally recognized by the U. S. Congress as the Birthplace of Country Music, based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum, historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, and the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930.
Prior to these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a musical heritage. The first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlantas music scene playing a role in launching countrys earliest recording artists. Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, many hillbilly musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. The most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville, during the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, which had been recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become very popular as the leader of a hot string band. His mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had played at Carnegie Hall.
Gospel music remained a component of country music. It became known as honky tonk, and had its roots in Western swing and the music of Mexico. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, and 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music. Beginning in the mid-1950s, and reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres
It was selected by the U. S. It is officially known as NRSC-5, with the latest version being NRSC-5-C, other digital radio systems include FMeXtra, Digital Audio Broadcasting, Digital Radio Mondiale, and Compatible AM-Digital. Although HD Radio broadcastings content is currently subscription-free, listeners must purchase new receivers in order to receive the portion of the signal. As of May 2009, there were stations in the world on the air with HD Radio technology than any other digital radio technology. More than 1,700 stations covering approximately 84% of the United States are broadcasting with this technology, according to iBiquitys website, the HD is simply a brand name and has no meaning. There is no connection with television, although like digital television the HD Radio specification provides enhanced capabilities over the analog format. Thus, there is no deadline by which consumers must buy an HD Radio receiver, in addition, there are many more analog AM/FM radio receivers than there were analog televisions, and many of these are car stereos or portable units that cannot be upgraded.
Digital information is transmitted using OFDM with a compression algorithm called HDC. The cost of converting a radio station can run between $100,000 and $200,000, if the primary digital signal is lost the HD Radio receiver will revert to the analog signal, thereby providing seamless operation between the newer and older transmission methods. The extra HD-2 and HD-3 streams are not simulcast on analog, alternatively the HD Radio signal can revert to a more-robust 20 kilobit per second stream, though the sound is reduced to AM-like quality. Datacasting is possible, with metadata providing song titles or artist information, by using spectral band replication the HDC+SBR codec is able to simulate the recreation of sounds up to 15,000 Hz, thus achieving moderate quality on the bandwidth-tight AM band. The HD Radio AM hybrid mode offers two options which can carry approximately 40 or 60 kbit/s of data, but most AM digital stations default to the more-robust 40 kbit/s mode which features redundancy.
HD Radio provides a digital mode, which lacks an analog signal for fallback. The pure digital mode transmissions will stay within the AM stations channel instead of spilling into the next to the station transmitting HD radio as the hybrid stations do. The AM version of HD Radio technology uses the 20 kHz channel, when operating in pure digital mode, the AM HD Radio signal fits inside a standard 20 kHz channel or an extended 30 kHz channel, at the discretion of the station manager. As AM radio stations are spaced at 9 kHz or 10 kHz intervals, some nighttime listeners have expressed concern this design harms reception of adjacent channels with one formal complaint filed regarding the matter, WYSL owner Bob Savage against WBZ in Boston. The HD Radio provides several digital modes with up to 300 kbit/s bitrate. Like AM, pure digital FM provides a fallback condition where it reverts to a more robust 25 kbit/s signal, FM stations have the option to subdivide their datastream into sub-channels of varying audio quality
Jack Daniel (DJ)
Jack Daniel is a DJ and radio professional who has worked in Charlotte, North Carolina radio since the mid-1970s. Daniels first radio job in the Charlotte market was on WPEG, when WROQ was an album rock station, Daniel served as program director. Later he became a morning host at CHR WJZR Z-100, in 1986, Daniel became midday announcer at CHR/adult contemporary WBCY. At that time, he was host of the TV series Lets Dance on WPCQ, that year, he was WBCY program director. During his time at WBCY, the made a significant ratings improvement after finally selecting a successful morning team—Randy Cook. In September 1987, Daniel became program director on the station he had left in 1986, at this time, he had been a part of Charlotte-area radio more than 12 years. By 1990, Daniel was the general manager. Daniel prevented popular morning hosts John Boy and Billy from leaving the station by making a deal that paid them well, when WRFX owner Pyramid Broadcasting purchased struggling CHR WAQQ and sports talk WAQS, Daniel became general manager of those stations.
WAQQ became WEDJ in 1994 and Daniel became its manager, but by November of that year. Daniel admitted he had never tried starting a new station and it was difficult than he thought. He left radio because of a noncompete clause, Daniel became director of sales and marketing for Paradox Films, which produced ads for WBTV, The Nashville Network and Charlotte Motor Speeedway. But he did not stay away from radio for long, in May 1995, he became program director and afternoon host on modern rock WEND. In 1996, Daniel was nominated for Program Director of the Year by the Billboard & Airplay Monitor Awards, in 1999, Daniel became operations manager of WEND and oldies WWMG Magic 96.1, remaining program director for WEND. Daniel plays in a band called Route 66, in 2000, Clear Channel Radio purchased WEND/WWMG and moved the operation to join their other Charlotte stations, WRFX, WLYT, and WKKT. On May 12,2011, Daniel will celebrate both his and New Rock 1065 The Ends 16th year together in Charlotte and it will mark Daniels longest single stop in his career which began at WCHS in 1971.
He worked at radio station, WECU-AM at East Carolina University before stints at WOOW, WBZQ, WRMT in Eastern North Carolina before returning to the Charlotte area via WYCL in York. In 1975 he joined WPEG/WEGO in Concord, Daniel has two grown children Adam, a teacher at Mitchell College and Alexandra, a Social Worker in Raleigh. His wife Carla is a retired Speech Pathologist, in 2011, Daniel became syndicated on iheartradio
Pearl Jam is an American rock band formed in Seattle, Washington, in 1990. Since its inception, the bands line-up has comprised Eddie Vedder, Mike McCready, Stone Gossard, the bands fifth member is drummer Matt Cameron, who has been with the band since 1998. Boom Gaspar has been a member with the band since 2002. Drummers Dave Krusen, Matt Chamberlain, Dave Abbruzzese and Jack Irons are former members of the band, formed after the demise of Gossard and Aments previous band, Mother Love Bone, Pearl Jam broke into the mainstream with its debut album, Ten, in 1991. In 2006, Rolling Stone described the band as having spent much of the past decade deliberately tearing apart their own fame, to date, the band has sold nearly 32 million records in the United States and an estimated 60 million worldwide. Pearl Jam has outlasted and outsold many of its contemporaries from the alternative rock breakthrough of the early 1990s, stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic referred to Pearl Jam as the most popular American rock & roll band of the 90s.
Pearl Jam is to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 7,2017, Stone Gossard and Jeff Ament were members of pioneering grunge band Green River during the mid-1980s. Green River toured and recorded to moderate success but disbanded in 1987 due to a division between the pair and bandmates Mark Arm and Steve Turner. In late 1987, Gossard and Ament began playing with Malfunkshun vocalist Andrew Wood, in 1988 and 1989, the band recorded and toured to increasing interest and found the support of the PolyGram record label, which signed the band in early 1989. Mother Love Bones debut album, was released in July 1990, Ament and Gossard were devastated by the death of Wood and the resulting demise of Mother Love Bone. Gossard spent his time writing material that was harder-edged than what he had been doing previously. After a few months, Gossard started practicing with fellow Seattle guitarist Mike McCready, whose band, had broken up, after practicing for a while, the trio sent out a five-song demo tape in order to find a singer and a drummer.
They gave former Red Hot Chili Peppers drummer Jack Irons the demo to see if he would be interested in joining the band, Irons passed on the invitation but gave the demo to his basketball buddy, San Diego, California singer Eddie Vedder. Vedder was the lead vocalist for a San Diego band, Bad Radio and he listened to the tape shortly before going surfing, where lyrics came to him. He recorded the vocals to three of the songs in what he described as a mini-opera entitled Momma-Son. Vedder sent the tape with his vocals back to the three Seattle musicians, who were impressed enough to fly Vedder up to Seattle for an audition, within a week, Vedder had joined the band. With the addition of Dave Krusen on drums, the band took the name Mookie Blaylock, the band played its first official show at the Off Ramp Café in Seattle on October 22,1990, and soon signed to Epic Records and renamed themselves Pearl Jam. In a 2006 Rolling Stone cover story however, Vedder admitted that this story was total bullshit, Pearl Jam entered Seattles London Bridge Studios in March 1991 to record its debut album, Ten
Radio broadcasting is a unidirectional wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a radio format. Audio broadcasting can be done via radio, local wire television networks, satellite radio. The signal types can be either analog audio or digital audio, the earliest radio stations were simply radiotelegraphy systems and did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated, the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an oscillation valve, the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the direction because the plate was not heated. Later known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and this greatly improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cats whisker.
However, what was required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4,1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25,1906 and it wasnt put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was quickly becoming viable, however, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year, in The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6,1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station. In 1916, Frank Conrad, an engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg. Later, the station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2,1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America.
The commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license, the first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself, the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconis New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920 and she was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922, the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923
South Carolina /ˌsaʊθ kærəˈlaɪnə/ is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the south and west by Georgia across the Savannah River, South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution, doing so on May 23,1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote to secede from the Union on December 20,1860, after the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25,1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and the 23rd most populous U. S. state and its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3. 13%. The capital and largest city is Columbia with a 2013 population of 133,358, South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, under whose reign the English colony was first formed, with Carolus being Latin for Charles. There is evidence of activity in the area about 12000 years ago. Along the Savannah River were the Apalachee and the Yamasee, further west were the Cherokee, and along the Catawba River, the Catawba.
These tribes were village-dwellers, relying on agriculture as their food source. The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub houses made with wood and clay, about a dozen separate small tribes summered on the coast harvesting oysters and fish, and cultivating corn and beans. Travelling inland as much as 50 miles mostly by canoe, they wintered on the plain, hunting deer and gathering nuts. The names of these survive in place names like Edisto Island, Kiawah Island. The Spanish were the first Europeans in the area, in 1521, founding San Miguel de Gualdape, established with 500 settlers, it was abandoned within a year by 150 survivors. In 1562 French settlers established a settlement at what is now the Charlesfort-Santa Elena archaeological site on Parris Island, three years the Spanish built a fort on the same site, but withdrew following hostilities with the English navy. In 1629, King Charles I of England established the Province of Carolina an area covering what is now South and North Carolina, Georgia, in the 1670s, English planters from the Barbados established themselves near what is now Charleston.
Settlers built rice plantations in the South Carolina Lowcountry, east of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, settlers came from all over Europe. Plantation labor was done by African slaves who formed the majority of the population by 1720, another cash crop was the Indigo plant, a plant source of blue dye, developed by Eliza Lucas. Meanwhile, in Upstate South Carolina, west of the Fall Line, was settled by farmers and traders. Colonists overthrew the rule, seeing more direct representation
KUDL is a radio station in Sacramento, California. Owned by Entercom, it broadcasts a CHR/Pop format branded as 106.5 The End and its studios are located in Foothill Farms and its transmitter is in Folsom. Royce International Broadcasting headed by Edward R, the initial format was programmed by Kevin Childs, who created the method of transitioning from rock to jazz via what was called The Crossroads of Jazz. With no advertising of promotion, KWOD succeeded in achieving a dedicated following across the Sacramento Valley, in the late 1970s, Royce Broadcasting decided to drop the adult contemporary/jazz hybrid music format in favor of a Top 40 music format. By 1985, KWOD was the second rated station in the 12+ age demographic under the programming of Program Director Tom Chase, the popular morning show of this period was The Doug Masters and Marty Johnsons Morning Radio Clinic Show featuring Douglas Doug Masters and Martin Marty Johnson. Tom left in late 1987 to program competitor KROY and Mr.
Ed followed to become KROYs MD in early 1988. The rest of the full-time line-up of this period included Johnny Jammin Edwards and Panama Jack in afternoons, Pat The Night Hawk Garrett in evenings, and Alex Chuckle Head Cosper in late nights. Tom and Terry left in 1989 to do mornings in San Jose and were replaced by a temporary irreverent show that failed called the Renegades, gerry Cagle arrived in late 1989 to oversee programming as Operations Manager. Ratings fell sharply beginning in 1988 as KWOD fell into place in a three way battle with cross-town competitors KSFM and KROY. After Cagles departure in 1993, programming decisions went to Alex Cosper and this change of format proved to be a success as noted by a ratings surge. The line-up included the team of Shawn Cash and Jeff Jensen followed by Cosper in mid-days, Brad Adams in afternoons. Later in 1993, Monroe moved to afternoons and Joe Gomez moved to nights, shortly after the move to their new headquarters in downtown Sacramento, part-time DJ Giles Hendriksen from the U. K.
became the full-time afternoon host with Joe Gomez staying in the evening slot. Joe Gomez was in the 7-midnight slot until his departure in 1994, Jamie Gates took over the evening slot as well as programming both the punk and industrial music shows. Jamie stayed on until 1997 when new management took over, by this time, Ally Storm had already departed to work at Live 105 in San Francisco. The station reached its ratings peak as a station in the summer of 1995 with a 5.2 share. It beat all four other stations in the market. Cosper left the station in 1996 and did radio in Milwaukee, Cosper wrote a book about his experience called, The Rise of Alternative Radio. Ron Bunce assumed control of KWODs programming in 1997, and took the station to a harder rock direction
Alternative rock is a genre of rock music that emerged from the independent music underground of the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s and 2000s. In this instance, the word refers to the genres distinction from mainstream rock music. The terms original meaning was broader, referring to a generation of musicians unified by their debt to either the musical style or simply the independent. Ethos of punk rock, which in the late 1970s laid the groundwork for alternative music, Alternative rock is a broad umbrella term consisting of music that differs greatly in terms of its sound, its social context, and its regional roots. Most of these subgenres had achieved minor mainstream notice and a few bands representing them, such as Hüsker Dü, with the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became successful. By the end of the decade, alternative rocks mainstream prominence declined due to a number of events that caused grunge and Britpop to fade, emo attracted attention in the larger alternative rock world, and the term was applied to a variety of artists, including multi-platinum acts.
Post-punk revival artists such as Modest Mouse and The Killers had commercial success in the early, before the term alternative rock came into common usage around 1990, the sort of music to which it refers was known by a variety of terms. In 1979, Terry Tolkin used the term Alternative Music to describe the groups he was writing about, in 1979 Dallas radio station KZEW had a late night new wave show entitled Rock and Roll Alternative. College rock was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the radio circuit. In the United Kingdom, dozens of small do it yourself record labels emerged as a result of the punk subculture, according to the founder of one of these labels, Cherry Red, NME and Sounds magazines published charts based on small record stores called Alternative Charts. The first national chart based on distribution called the Indie Chart was published in January 1980, at the time, the term indie was used literally to describe independently distributed records.
By 1985, indie had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, at first the term referred to intentionally non–mainstream rock acts that were not influenced by heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave and high-energy dance anthems. The use of alternative gained further exposure due to the success of Lollapalooza, for which festival founder, in the late 1990s, the definition again became more specific. Defining music as alternative is often difficult because of two conflicting applications of the word, the name alternative rock essentially serves as an umbrella term for underground music that has emerged in the wake of punk rock since the mid-1980s. Alternative bands during the 1980s generally played in clubs, recorded for indie labels. Sounds range from the gloomy soundscapes of gothic rock to the guitars of indie pop to the dirty guitars of grunge to the 1960s/1970s revivalism of Britpop. This approach to lyrics developed as a reflection of the social and economic strains in the United States and United Kingdom of the 1980s, by 1984, a majority of groups signed to independent record labels mined from a variety of rock and particularly 1960s rock influences.
This represented a break from the futuristic, hyper-rational post-punk years
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. It is referred to as frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, for example, if a newborn babys heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as vibrations, audio signals, radio waves. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, in physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is usually denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν. For a simple motion, the relation between the frequency and the period T is given by f =1 T. The SI unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz, a previous name for this unit was cycles per second. The SI unit for period is the second, a traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm.
As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves and fast waves, like audio and radio, are usually described by their frequency instead of period. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. Y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, in the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has a relationship to the wavelength. Even in dispersive media, the frequency f of a wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum, v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, and this expression becomes, f = c λ. When waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their remains the same—only their wavelength. For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is, the latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count.
This is called gating error and causes an error in the calculated frequency of Δf = 1/, or a fractional error of Δf / f = 1/ where Tm is the timing interval. This error decreases with frequency, so it is a problem at low frequencies where the number of counts N is small, an older method of measuring the frequency of rotating or vibrating objects is to use a stroboscope