Willoughby is a city in Lake County, United States and is a suburb of Cleveland. The population was 22,268 at the 2010 census. Willoughby's first permanent settler was David Abbott in 1798. Abbott and his family had close relations to the local tribe of Erie Indians along the banks of the river the Indians called the "Sha-ga-rin" or Clear Water; this river was called the Chagrin River, though the derivation of the name remains in dispute. In 1835, the village was permanently named "Willoughby" in honor of Dr. Westel Willoughby, Jr. a public health official that the founders of a short-lived Medical College, based in the city, hoped to attract to the area. Many historical buildings from this period survive to this date, affording the downtown Willoughby area some outstanding specimens of 19th century architecture. In World War I, the U. S. Army chose Willoughby as the site for a chemical weapons plant producing lewisite. Over time, Willoughby sent citizens into every major U. S. military conflict.
Several memorials and historical relics are displayed in Wes Point Park, the center of downtown Willoughby, to honor those that have served. Willoughby is the only town in America that has belonged, to six counties. Two public high schools are located in Willoughby: Willoughby South High School and Willoughby-Eastlake Technical Center, both of which are a part of the Willoughby-Eastlake School District. Students in the ninth through twelfth grades are enrolled at Willoughby South High School, which opened its doors at its present location in 1959. Willoughby South High School and current rival Eastlake North High were housed in the same building called Union High, but following the division, the then-abandoned Union High became the location of Willoughby Junior High School until 1972, it housed the Willoughby-Eastlake Technical Center, located in downtown Willoughby. The Andrews Osborne Academy is located in Willoughby. Willoughby is served by a branch of the Willoughby-Eastlake Public Library.
Willoughby is located at 41°38′45″N 81°24′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.34 square miles, of which 10.25 square miles is land and 0.09 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 22,268 people, 10,413 households, 5,716 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,172.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,387 housing units at an average density of 1,110.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.6% White, 3.1% African American, 0.1% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 10,413 households of which 23.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.1% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.1% were non-families. 38.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 43.6 years. 19.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.8% male and 53.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 22,621 people, 10,265 households, 5,892 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,225.3 people per square mile. There were 10,700 housing units at an average density of 1,052.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.47% White, 1.14% African American, 0.17% Native American, 1.15% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.11% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.71% of the population. 19.0% were of German, 15.8% Italian, 13.3% Irish, 8.2% English, 5.6% Polish, 5.6% American and 5.4% Slovene ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 10,265 households out of which 25.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.6% were non-families.
36.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.87. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.1% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 17.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $43,387, the median income for a family was $53,677. Males had a median income of $38,711 versus $30,553 for females; the per capita income for the city was $23,653. About 4.3% of families and 5.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.4% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. According to the City's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: Tim Conway, actor Greg Harbaugh, NASA EC3, professional wrestler Katie McGregor, athlete Ricky Stanzi, professional football player Kareem Hunt, professional football player Lyn St. James, auto racer Betty Thomas, director, writer Elizabeth Augustus Whithead and philanthropist Pam Phillips, Assistant Men's Basketball Coach.
HD Radio is a trademarked term for Xperi's in-band on-channel digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD or as a standard broadcast. The HD format provides the means for a single radio station to broadcast one or more different programs in addition to the program being transmitted on the radio station's analog channel, it was developed by iBiquity. In September 2015 iBiquity was acquired by DTS bringing the HD Radio technology under the same banner as DTS' eponymous theater surround sound systems.. It was acquired by Xperi in 2016, it was selected by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission in 2002 as a digital audio broadcasting method for the United States, is the only digital system approved by the FCC for digital AM/FM broadcasts in the United States, it is known as NRSC-5, with the latest version being NRSC-5-D.
Other digital radio systems include FMeXtra, Digital Audio Broadcasting, Digital Radio Mondiale, Compatible AM-Digital. While HD Radio does allow for an all-digital mode, this system is used by some AM and FM radio stations to simulcast both digital and analog audio within the same channel as well as to add new FM channels and text information. Although HD Radio broadcasting's content is free-to-air, listeners must purchase new receivers in order to receive the digital portion of the signal. By May 2018, HD Radio technology was claimed to be used by more than 3500 individual services in the United States; this compares with more than 2200 services operating with the DAB system. HD Radio increases the bandwidth required in the FM band to 400 kHz for the analog/digital hybrid version; this makes adoption outside the United States problematic. In the United States the FM broadcast band channels have a spacing of 200 kHz, as opposed to the 100 kHz, normal elsewhere; the 200 kHz spacing means that in practice, stations having concurrent or adjacent coverage areas will not be spaced at less than 400 kHz in order to respect protection ratios which would not be met with 200 kHz spacing.
This leaves space for the digital sidebands. Outside the US, spacing can be 300 kHz; the FCC has not indicated any intent to force off analog radio broadcasts as it has with analog television broadcasts, as it would not result in the recovery of any radio spectrum rights which could be sold. Thus, there is no deadline. In addition, there are many more analog AM/FM radio receivers than there were analog televisions, many of these are car stereos or portable units that cannot be upgraded. Digital information is transmitted using OFDM with an audio compression algorithm called HDC.. HD Radio equipped stations pay a one-time licensing fee for converting their primary audio channel to iBiquity's HD Radio technology, 3% of incremental net revenues for any additional digital subchannels; the cost of converting a radio station can run between $100,000 and $200,000. Receiver manufacturers pay a royalty. If the primary digital signal is lost the HD Radio receiver will revert to the analog signal, thereby providing seamless operation between the newer and older transmission methods.
The extra HD-2 and HD-3 streams are not simulcast on analog, causing the sound to drop-out or "skip" when digital reception degrades. Alternatively the HD Radio signal can revert to a more-robust 20 kilobit per second stream, though the sound is reduced to AM-like quality. Datacasting is possible, with metadata providing song titles or artist information. IBiquity Digital claims that the system approaches CD quality audio and offers reduction of both interference and static. Sending pure digital data through the 20 kilohertz AM channel is equivalent to sending data through two 33 kbit/s analog telephone lines, thus limiting the maximum throughput possible. By using spectral band replication the HDC+SBR codec is able to simulate the recreation of sounds up to 15,000 Hz, thus achieving moderate quality on the bandwidth-tight AM band; the HD Radio AM hybrid mode offers two options which can carry 40 or 60 kbit/s of data, but most AM digital stations default to the more-robust 40 kbit/s mode which features redundancy.
HD Radio provides a pure digital mode, which lacks an analog signal for fallback and instead reverts to a 20 kbit/s signal during times of poor reception. The pure digital mode transmissions will stay within the AM station's channel instead of spilling into the channels next to the station transmitting "HD radio" as the hybrid stations do; the AM version of HD Radio technology uses the 20 kHz channel, overlaps 5 kHz into the opposite sideband of the adjacent channel on both sides. When operating in pure digital mode, the AM HD Radio signal fits inside a standard 20 kHz channel or an extended 30 kHz channel, at the discretion of the station manager; as AM radio stations are spaced at 9 kHz or 10 kHz intervals, much of the digital information overlaps adjacent channels when in hybrid mode. Some nigh
Russell Township, Geauga County, Ohio
Russell Township is one of the sixteen townships of Geauga County, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 5,188, down from 5,529 at the 2000 census. Located in the western part of the county, it borders the following townships and villages: Chester Township - north Munson Township - northeast corner Newbury Township - east Auburn Township - southeast corner Bainbridge Township - south Chagrin Falls - southwest, south of Chagrin Falls Township Chagrin Falls Township - southwest, north of Chagrin Falls Moreland Hills - west, south of Hunting Valley Hunting Valley - west, north of Moreland Hills Gates Mills - northwest cornerTwo villages are located in Russell Township: part of Hunting Valley in the northwest, South Russell in the south, it is the only Russell Township statewide. Another name for the area is Novelty, from the name of the post office located, in the unincorporated community of Novelty, in the township; the first five inhabitants — Gideon Russell and his family, who came in 1818 — settled on what today is Chillicothe Road.
In 1827 the township was named Russell, although it had been known as the West Woods by neighboring communities. In April of that year the people elected John Lowry, Clark Robinson, Gideon Russell as their first township trustees, it was Robinson that started the first store. Russell is the home of ASM International known as the American Society for Metals, whose headquarters is marked by a gigantic geodesic dome, visited by Buckminster Fuller upon its completion. Nearly all of the non-incorporated parts of the township are served in education by the West Geauga district. In private education, the Butler Campus of Laurel School is on Fairmount Road, which has a lodge, tree house and adventure course; the township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1. Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election.
Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. Major roads include State Route 306 and State Route 87. Township website County website
Arsenio Hall is an American comedian, talk show host, actor and producer. He is best known for hosting The Arsenio Hall Show, a late-night talk show that ran from 1989 until 1994, again from 2013 to 2014. Other television shows and films Hall has appeared in are Martial Law, Star Search, Coming to America, Harlem Nights. Hall is known for his appearance as Alan Thicke's sidekick on the talk show Thicke of the Night. In 2012, Hall won NBC's reality-competition game show Celebrity Apprentice 5. Hall was born in Cleveland, the son of Fred and Annie Hall, his father is a Baptist minister. Hall performed as a magician, he graduated from Warrensville Heights High School in Warrensville Heights, Ohio in 1973, after he attended John F. Kennedy High School, he attended college at Kent State University. Hall moved to Chicago, Los Angeles, to pursue a career in comedy, making a couple of appearances on Soul Train. In 1984, he was the announcer/sidekick for Alan Thicke during the short-lived talk show Thicke of the Night.
He was the original voice of Winston Zeddemore in the cartoon The Real Ghostbusters from 1986 to 1987. In 1988, he co-starred in the comedy film Coming to America with Eddie Murphy. In 1986, the Fox network introduced The Late Show Starring Joan Rivers, created to directly challenge The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. After a moderate start, ratings for the show sagged. Behind-the-scenes relations between Rivers and network executives at Fox eroded, Rivers left in 1987; the series was subsequently renamed The Late Show, featured several hosts, including Ross Shafer, Suzanne Somers, Richard Belzer and Robert Townsend before it was cancelled in 1988. Hall was chosen to host the show in the fall of 1987, his stint proved to be immensely popular, developing a cult following which led to Hall landing his own show in syndication. From January 2, 1989 until May 27, 1994, he had a Paramount contract to host a nationwide syndicated late night talk show, The Arsenio Hall Show; the show became a breakout, late-night success rating high among the coveted younger demographic and known for its audience's distinctive alternative to applause in chanting, "Roo, Roo!," while pumping their fists.
The practice soon became such a ritual that by 1991 had become a "pop culture stamp of approval" — one that Hall said had become "so popular it's getting on people's nerves." The gesture was so well known that it appeared in films such as The Hard Way. He had a rivalry with Jay Leno after the latter was named host of The Tonight Show, during which Hall said that he would "kick Jay's ass" in ratings. Hall used his fame during this period to help fight worldwide prejudice against HIV/AIDS after Magic Johnson contracted the virus. Hall and Johnson filmed a PSA about the disease. Between 1988 and 1991, Hall hosted the MTV Video Music Awards. Over the years, he has appeared as a guest on numerous talk shows, in special features, as a voice actor, on game shows and other award shows. Since The Arsenio Hall Show ended, Hall had a leading role on television shows such as the short-lived sitcom Arsenio and Martial Law with Sammo Hung, as well as hosted the revival of Star Search. While hosting Star Search, he popularized the catchphrase "Hit me with the digits!".
Hall appeared as himself in Chappelle's Show in March 2004, when Chappelle was imagining "what Arsenio is doing right now" in a dinner scene. Hall has guest co-hosted Wednesday evenings on The Tim Conway Jr. Show on KLSX 97.1 FM radio. Hall hosted MyNetworkTV's comedic web video show The World's Funniest Moments and TV One's 100 Greatest Black Power Moves. Hall appeared on Real Time with Bill Maher in May 2012, in a discussion commemorating the 1992 Los Angeles riots. Hall had a small part as a police officer on the Golden Girls season 1 Hall was considered to be the host of the syndicated version of Deal or No Deal and filmed a pilot. However, by the time the syndicated series began on September 8, 2008, Howie Mandel was chosen as the host, he appeared on The Jay Leno Show, was a guest on Lopez Tonight. George Lopez credits Arsenio for being the reason. Lopez requested Hall be a co-host on Lopez Tonight since he regarded Hall as his inspiration and the first "late night party show host". Hall has filled-in as guest host for NBC's Access Hollywood Live and CNN's evening talk/interview program Piers Morgan Tonight in 2012.
In 2012, Hall was a contestant on the fifth edition of The Celebrity Apprentice, which began airing February 19, 2012. Hall represented his charity, the Magic Johnson Foundation, dedicated to advancing economic and social equality by engaging minorities in every aspect of their communities. While Hall clashed with Aubrey O'Day, he befriended a majority of the cast. On May 20, 2012, in the live season finale, Hall was chosen as the Celebrity Apprentice winner, being "hired" by billionaire real estate investor and future President of the United States Donald Trump over the other celebrity finalist, singer Clay Aiken. For winning The Celebrity Apprentice, Hall won the $250,000 grand prize for his charity, in addition to any money he won for his charity for tasks he and his team won when he was a team leader on the show. A revival of Hall's syndicated late-nigh
Disco is a music genre and subculture that emerged in the 1970s from the United States' urban nightlife scene. The music, the fashion, many song lyrics and other cultural phenomena associated with disco were focused on having a good time on the dance floor of a discotheque to the loud sounds of records being played by a DJ enhanced by coloured lighting effects. Disco started as a mixture of music from venues popular with African Americans and Latino Americans, Italian Americans, LGBT people, psychedelic hippies in Philadelphia and New York City during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Disco can be seen as a reaction to both the dominance of rock music and the stigmatization of dance music by the counterculture during this period. Several dance styles were developed during the period of disco's popularity in the United States, including the Bump and the Hustle; the disco sound is typified by "four-on-the-floor" beats, syncopated basslines, string sections, electric piano and electric rhythm guitars.
Lead guitar features less in disco than in rock. Well-known disco artists include Donna Summer, Gloria Gaynor, the Bee Gees, Chic, KC and the Sunshine Band, Thelma Houston and the Village People. While performers and singers garnered public attention, record producers working behind the scenes played an important role in developing the genre. Films such as Saturday Night Fever and Thank God It's Friday contributed to disco's mainstream popularity. By the late 1970s, most major U. S. cities had thriving disco club scenes, DJs would mix dance records at clubs such as Studio 54 in New York City, a venue popular among celebrities. Discothèque-goers wore expensive and sexy fashions. There was a thriving drug subculture in the disco scene for drugs that would enhance the experience of dancing to the loud music and the flashing lights, such as cocaine and Quaaludes, the latter being so common in disco subculture that they were nicknamed "disco biscuits". Disco clubs were associated with promiscuity as a reflection of the sexual revolution of this era in popular history.
Disco was the last popular music movement driven by the baby boom generation. It began to decline in the United States during 1979-80, by 1982 it had lost nearly all popularity there. Disco Demolition Night, an anti-disco protest held in Chicago on July 12, 1979, remains the most well-known of several "backlash" incidents across the country that symbolized disco's declining fortune. Disco was a key influence in the development of electronic dance house music, it has had several revivals, such as Madonna's successful 2005 album Confessions on a Dance Floor, again in the 2010s, entering the pop charts in the US and the UK. The term "disco" is shorthand for the word discothèque, a French word for "library of phonograph records" derived from "bibliothèque"; the word "discothèque" was current in the same meaning in English in the 1950s."Discothèque" became in use in French as a term for a type of nightclubs in Paris after these had resorted to playing records during the Nazi occupation in the early 1940s.
Some clubs used it as their proper name. In 1960 it was used to describe a Parisian nightclub in an English magazine. In the summer of 1964 a short sleeveless dress called "discotheque dress" was popular in the United States for a short time; the earliest known use for the abbreviated form "disco" described this dress and has been found in the Salt Lake Tribune of 12 July 1964, but Playboy magazine used it soon after to describe Los Angeles nightclubs in September of the same year. Vince Aletti was one of the first to describe disco as a music genre, he wrote the feature article "Discoteque Rock Paaaaarty" that appeared in Rolling Stone magazine in September 1973. The music layered soaring, often-reverberated vocals doubled by horns, over a background "pad" of electric pianos and "chicken-scratch" rhythm guitars played on an electric guitar. "The'chicken scratch' sound is achieved by pressing the strings against the fretboard and quickly releasing them just enough to get a muted scratching while strumming close to the bridge."
Other backing keyboard instruments include the piano, electric organ, string synth, electromechanical keyboards such as the Fender Rhodes electric piano, Wurlitzer electric piano, Hohner Clavinet. Synthesizers are fairly common in disco in the late 1970s; the rhythm is laid down by prominent, syncopated basslines played on the bass guitar and by drummers using a drum kit, African/Latin percussion, electronic drums such as Simmons and Roland drum modules. The sound was enriched with solo lines and harmony parts played by a variety of orchestral instruments, such as harp, viola, trumpet, trombone, flugelhorn, French horn, English horn, flute, piccolo and synth strings, string section or a full string orchestra. Most disco songs have a steady four-on-the-floor beat, a quaver or semi-quaver hi-hat pattern with an open hi-hat on the off-beat, a heavy, syncopated bass line. Other Latin rhythms such as the rhumba, the samba and the cha-cha-cha are found in disco recordings, Latin polyrhythms, such as a rhumba beat layered over a merengue, are commonplace.
The quaver pattern is supported by other instruments such as the rhythm guitar and may be implied rather than explicitly present. Songs use syncopation, the accenting of unexpected beats. In general, the d
WJMO – branded Praise 94.5 – is a commercial urban gospel radio station licensed to Cleveland, Ohio. Owned by Radio One, the station serves Greater Cleveland; the station simulcasts over low-power FM translator W233CG, streams online. The WJMO studios are located along the Euclid Avenue Corridor in Cleveland's east side, while the station transmitter resides in the Cleveland suburb of Parma. WJMO began as WERE on July 1949, broadcasting as 1300 kHz. Unlike most AM stations of the time, WERE went on the air a year after its FM sister station, WERE-FM at 98.5 MHz. Both stations lasted under common ownership for the next fifty years, as WERE-FM simulcast the programming of its more popular AM sister station over the next 24 years, where it went into separate programming as WGCL. During the 1950s, WERE was the first popular Top 40 station in the market, spearheaded by now-legendary personalities like Bill Randle, "Captain" Carl Reese, Phil McLean, Ronnie Barrett, Howie Lund and Bob Forster. Randle was the most influential of the group, as he was the first major-market disk jockey in the Northeast United States to play Elvis Presley, bolstered the careers of a number of young musicians, including The Four Lads, Bobby Darin, Fats Domino.
Future NBC announcer and voice-over artist Danny Dark was a host on WERE in the early 1960s. WERE had obtained a construction permit in the mid-1950s for WERE-TV on channel 65. However, due to the obscurity of the UHF dial at the time, the television station never made it on the air. In the 1960s, the station was a middle-of-the-road radio station with personalities that included sportscaster Bob Neal in morning drive, the team of Jeff Baxter and Jack Riley in afternoon drive, Bill Gordon with a nightly talk show from his apartment on East 30th Street. Gordon's show was known as "Apartment 13," for the station's 1300 kHz signal. WERE-AM served as the flagship station for the Cleveland Browns twice: once from 1950 to 1951, again from 1962 to 1967. During the Browns' second stay at the station, it was the memorable broadcast team of Gib Shanley and Jim Graner providing play-by-play and color commentary, respectively. From 1951 until 1972, WERE was the flagship station for Cleveland Indians radio broadcasts, was the first flagship for the expansion Cleveland Cavaliers in 1970 and 1971, in addition to hosting an evening sports call-in show hosted by Pete Franklin.
Both the Cavs and Indians radio rights, as well as Franklin's Sportsline program, moved from WERE to WWWE in 1972. Starting in 1972, WERE adopted an edgy talk radio format, with controversial hosts, including Gary Dee, Merle Pollis and Joel Rose. Gary Dee's populist-redneck style combined with his morning drive-time slot to make him Cleveland's top-rated talk host, leading him to answer each on-air call "This is Gary Dee, Number One in Cleveland." Pollis, ultraliberal*, had the show right after Dee's. The station used the brand "People Power". Around spring 1975, the station's finances got rocky as it was bought out by city-council president George Forbes and other unspecified investors, they turned it into an all-news station that lacked the drawing power its immensely popular talk shows had brought it. WERE moved back into an all-talk format, which it more or less maintained for the rest of the century. During the 1980s, the station underwent a number of changes in ownership, to Metropolis Broadcasting on August 25, 1986.
Bob Fuller was the morning drive host, followed by syndicated talk show host Michael Jackson. Longtime Cleveland broadcaster Merle Pollis followed in the Noon – 2pm time slot. Another longtime Cleveland broadcaster, Joel Rose, was Pollis's foil in the 2 pm – 4pm time slot. Local news took over during drive time, with CBS Radio at the top of the hour and Mutual Radio at the bottom of the hour. Jim McIntyre hosted. At 7 pm Greg Brinda hosted his local call-in sports talk show; the station changed hands again on September 22, 1988 to Metroplex Communications, headed by veteran local broadcasters Norman Wain and Bob Weiss. WERE was a charter affiliate for Rush Limbaugh's national talk show in 1989, still had a variety of local hosts throughout the balance of the day, with Les Levine taking over for Brinda. While accessible in downtown Cleveland and in the eastern suburbs, WERE's position in the Cleveland market has been hampered by a directional broadcast signal that misses the fast-growing suburbs just to the west of Cuyahoga County.
In 1992, locally originated talk on WERE was replaced by an audio simulcast of CNN Headline News, with local news at:15 and:45. Hosts employed by WERE such as Merle Pollis, Joel Rose, Les Levine were let go, with the only local talk shows left on the station being brokered programs, in which a host/producer buys the time from the station; the local news product was eliminated in August 1993, as news staffers Jim McIntyre, Bob Fuller, Tom Moore and Cindy Lin were let go. An article in The Plain Dealer on August 13, 1993, referred to this as a "shifting of the station's emphasis from local news to cheaper syndicated and community programming." On September 1, 1994, Metroplex Communications sold WERE and sister station WNCX FM 98.5 to Clear Channel Communications. WERE continued with the format featuring brokered programs. Here, a radio producer would purchase blocked time from the station, produced the program, sold commercial air time, keep the profit; as a result, the programming was diverse, but listenership was sparse, with WERE sometimes not showing up in
Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditors may seek relief from some or all of their debts. In most jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by a court order initiated by the debtor. Bankruptcy is not the only legal status that an insolvent person may have, the term bankruptcy is therefore not a synonym for insolvency. In some countries, such as the United Kingdom, bankruptcy is limited to individuals. In the United States, bankruptcy is applied more broadly to formal insolvency proceedings. In France, the cognate French word banqueroute is used for cases of fraudulent bankruptcy, whereas the term faillite is used for bankruptcy in accordance with the law; the word bankruptcy is derived from Italian banca rotta, meaning "broken bench", which may stem from a widespread custom in the Republic of Genoa of breaking a moneychanger's bench or counter to signify their insolvency, or which may be only a figure of speech. In Ancient Greece, bankruptcy did not exist.
If a man owed and he could not pay, he and his wife, children or servants were forced into "debt slavery", until the creditor recouped losses through their physical labour. Many city-states in ancient Greece limited debt slavery to a period of five years. However, servants of the debtor could be retained beyond that deadline by the creditor and were forced to serve their new lord for a lifetime under harsher conditions. An exception to this rule was Athens; the Statute of Bankrupts of 1542 was the first statute under English law dealing with bankruptcy or insolvency. Bankruptcy is documented in East Asia. According to al-Maqrizi, the Yassa of Genghis Khan contained a provision that mandated the death penalty for anyone who became bankrupt three times. A failure of a nation to meet bond repayments has been seen on many occasions. Philip II of Spain had to declare four state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1575 and 1596. According to Kenneth S. Rogoff, "Although the development of international capital markets was quite limited prior to 1800, we catalog the various defaults of France, Prussia and the early Italian city-states.
At the edge of Europe, Egypt and Turkey have histories of chronic default as well." The principal focus of modern insolvency legislation and business debt restructuring practices no longer rests on the elimination of insolvent entities, but on the remodeling of the financial and organizational structure of debtors experiencing financial distress so as to permit the rehabilitation and continuation of the business. For private households, some argue that it is insufficient to dismiss debts after a certain period, it is important to assess the underlying problems and to minimize the risk of financial distress to re-occur. It has been stressed that debt advice, a supervised rehabilitation period, financial education and social help to find sources of income and to improve the management of household expenditures must be provided during this period of rehabilitation. In most EU Member States, debt discharge is conditioned by a partial payment obligation and by a number of requirements concerning the debtor's behavior.
In the United States, discharge is conditioned to a lesser extent. The spectrum is broad in the EU, with the UK coming closest to the US system; the Other Member States do not provide the option of a debt discharge. Spain, for example, passed a bankruptcy law in 2003 which provides for debt settlement plans that can result in a reduction of the debt or an extension of the payment period of maximally five years, but it does not foresee debt discharge. In the US, it is difficult to discharge federal or federally guaranteed student loan debt by filing bankruptcy. Unlike most other debts, those student loans may be discharged only if the person seeking discharge establishes specific grounds for discharge under the Brunner test, under which the court evaluates three factors: If required to repay the loan, the borrower cannot maintain a minimal standard of living. If a debtor proves all three elements, a court may permit only a partial discharge of the student loan. Student loan borrowers may benefit from restructuring their payments through a Chapter 13 bankruptcy repayment plan, but few qualify for discharge of part or all of their student loan debt.
Bankruptcy fraud is a white-collar crime. While difficult to generalize across jurisdictions, common criminal acts under bankruptcy statutes involve concealment of assets, concealment or destruction of documents, conflicts of interest, fraudulent claims, false statements or declarations, fee fixing or redistribution arrangements. Falsifications on bankruptcy forms constitute perjury. Multiple filings are not in and of themselves criminal, but they may violate provisions of bankruptcy law. In the U. S. bankruptcy fraud statutes are focused on the mental state of particular actions. Bankruptcy fraud is a federal crime in the United States. Bankruptcy fraud should be distinguished from strategic bankruptcy, not a criminal act since it creates a real bankruptcy state. Howeve