KDKA is a Class A radio station and operated by Entercom and licensed to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Its studios are located at the combined Entercom Pittsburgh facility in the Foster Plaza on Holiday Drive in Green Tree, its transmitter site is at Allison Park; the station's programming is carried over KDKA-FM's 93.7 HD2 digital subchannel. KDKA features a news/talk format. Operating with a transmitter power output of 50,000 watts, the station can be heard during daylight hours throughout central and western Pennsylvania, along with portions of the adjacent states of Ohio, West Virginia and New York, plus the Canadian province of Ontario, its nighttime signal covers much of eastern North America. KDKA has described itself as the "Pioneer Broadcasting Station of the World", traces its beginning using the temporarily assigned "special amateur" call sign of 8ZZ, to its broadcast of the 1920 Harding-Cox presidential election results on the evening of November 2, 1920. Although KDKA's history has been extensively reviewed, there are some inconsistencies between accounts, leading one researcher to note: "While the KDKA story is recounted, the details tend to vary both in the secondary source material and in the published recollections of the participants, including differences in the chronology of events and the relative importance of the parties involved."
KDKA's establishment was an outgrowth of the post-World War I efforts of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company of East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to expand its commercial operations in the radio industry. During the war, Westinghouse received government contracts to develop radio transmitters and receivers for military use, they used developed vacuum tube equipment, capable of audio communication. Previous spark gap transmitters could only be used to transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. At the time of the entry of the United States into World War I in April 1917, the government ordered all civilian radio stations off the air. However, during the conflict Westinghouse received permission to operate research radio transmitters located at its East Pittsburgh plant and at the home of one of its lead engineers, Frank Conrad, in nearby Wilkinsburg. With the end of the war, the government contracts were canceled. However, Westinghouse moved aggressively to establish itself as a national and international provider of radio communication.
Its primary competitor in this effort was the Radio Corporation of America, formed as a subsidiary by Westinghouse's arch rival, the General Electric Company of Schenectady, New York, using the assets of the Marconi Company of America. The effort to establish Westinghouse's radio industry presence was led by company vice president H. P. Davis. In order to strengthen the company's patent position related to receivers, he spearheaded the purchase of the International Radio Telegraph Company to gain control of a "heterodyne" patent issued to Reginald Fessenden, arranged for the purchase of the commercial rights to the regenerative and superheterodyne patents held by Edwin Howard Armstrong. However, because of the competitive advantage RCA had in international and marine communications there appeared to be limited opportunities available to Westinghouse. Although it would gain its fame as a broadcasting station, KDKA originated as part of a project to establish private radiotelegraph links between Westinghouse's East Pittsburgh factory and its other facilities, to avoid the business expense of paying for telegraph and telephone lines.
In September 1920, a newspaper report noted that "a new high-power station, to operate under a special or commercial license, is being installed at the Westinghouse plant in East Pittsburgh. It will be used to establish communication between the East Pittsburgh plant and the company branch factories at Cleveland, O. Newark, N. J. and Springfield, Mass. where similar outfits will be employed."An application, signed by H. P. Davis, was submitted to the Eighth District Radio Inspector, S. W. Edwards in Detroit, who forwarded it to Washington, on October 27, 1920, Westinghouse was issued a Limited Commercial station license, serial #174, with the identifying call letters of KDKA; this Limited Commercial grant was consistent with the standard practice being followed at this time, for licenses issued to companies engaging in private radio communication. Neither KDKA's original application, nor the resulting license, mentioned broadcasting, only that the station was to be used for radiotelegraphic communication with stations located at the Westinghouse facilities in Cleveland and Springfield, plus station WCG in Brooklyn, New York, operated by the acquired International Radio Telegraph.
At this time, radio stations in the United States were regulated by the Department of Commerce's Bureau of Navigation. Beginning with the introduction of licensing in late 1912, the standard practice had been to assign call letters starting with "W" to radio stations east of the Mississippi River. However, KDKA happened to receive its assignment during a short period during which land stations were being issued call letters from a sequential block of "K" call letters, assigned only to ship stations. Although the original policy was restored a few months KDKA was permitted to keep its non-standard call sign. Shortly after beginning the process of setting up KDKA to be used for point-to-point communication, a series of events occurred which resulted in it becoming a broadcasting station, which would overshadow its original role. Prior to World War I, Frank Conrad had operated an experimental radiotelegraph station, with the callsign 8XK. Following
Saint Louis University
Saint Louis University is a private Roman Catholic four-year research university with campuses in St. Louis, United States and Madrid, Spain. Founded in 1818 by Louis Guillaume Valentin Dubourg, It is the oldest university west of the Mississippi River and the second-oldest Jesuit university in the United States, it is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Universities. The university is accredited by the North Central Association of Secondary Schools. SLU's athletic teams are a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference, it has an enrollment of 12,649 students, including 7,984 undergraduate students and 4,665 graduate students that represents all 50 states and more than 70 foreign countries. Its average class size is 23.8 and the student-faculty ratio is 9:1. For nearly 50 years the university has maintained a campus in Spain; the Madrid campus was the first freestanding campus operated by an American university in Europe and the first American institution to be recognized by Spain's higher education authority as an official foreign university.
The campus has 826 students, a faculty of 110, an average class size of 15 and a student-faculty ratio of 7:1. Saint Louis University traces its origins to the Saint Louis Academy, founded on November 16, 1818 by the Most Reverend Louis Guillaume Valentin Dubourg, Bishop of Louisiana and the Floridas, placed under the charge of the Reverend François Niel and others of the secular clergy attached to the Saint Louis Cathedral, its first location was in a private residence near the Mississippi River in an area now occupied by the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial within the Archdiocese of St. Louis. Having a two-story building for the 65 students using Bishop Dubourg's personal library of 8,000 volumes for its printed materials, the name Saint Louis Academy was changed in 1820 to Saint Louis College. In 1827 Bishop Dubourg placed Saint Louis College in the care of the Society of Jesus. Not long after that, it received its charter as a university by act of the Missouri Legislature. In 1829 it moved to Washington Avenue and Ninth at the site of today's America's Center by the Edward Jones Dome.
In 1852 the university and its teaching priests were the subject of a viciously anti-Catholic novel, The Mysteries of St. Louis, written by newspaper editor Henry Boernstein whose popular paper, the Anzeiger des Westens was a foe of the university. In 1867 after the American Civil War the University purchased "Lindell's Grove" to be the site of its current campus. Lindell's Grove was the site of the Civil War "Camp Jackson Affair". On May 10, 1861 U. S. Regulars and Federally enrolled Missouri Volunteers arrested the Missouri Volunteer Militia after the militia received a secret shipment of siege artillery, infantry weapons and ammunition from the Confederate Government. While the Militia was arrested without violence, angry local citizens rushed to the site, rioting broke out, in which 28 people were killed; the Camp Jackson Affair lead to open conflict within the state, culminating with a successful Federal offensive in mid-June 1861 which expelled the state's pro-secession governor Claiborne Fox Jackson from the state capitol.
Jackson led a Missouri Confederate government-in-exile, dying of cancer in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1862. The first building on campus, DuBourg Hall, began construction in 1888, the college moved to its new location in 1889. St. Francis Xavier College Church moved to its current location with the completion of the lower church in 1884, it was completed in 1898. During the early 1940s, many local priests the Jesuits, began to challenge the segregationist policies at the city's Catholic colleges and parochial schools. After the Pittsburgh Courier, an African-American newspaper, ran a 1944 exposé on St. Louis Archbishop John J. Glennon's interference with the admittance of a black student at the local Webster College, Fr. Claude Heithaus, SJ, professor of Classical Archaeology at Saint Louis University, delivered an angry homily accusing his own institution of immoral behavior in its segregation policies. By summer of 1944, Saint Louis University had opened its doors to African Americans, after its president, Father Patrick Holloran, secured Glennon's reluctant approval.
1818 – First institution of higher learning west of the Mississippi River 1832 – First graduate programs west of the Mississippi River 1836 – First medical school west of the Mississippi River 1843 – First in the West to open a school of law 1906 – First forward pass in football history 1910 – First business school west of the Mississippi River 1925 – First department of geophysics in the Western Hemisphere 1927 – First federally licensed school of aviation 1944 – First university in Missouri to establish an official policy admitting African-American students, integrating its student body 1959 - First dual credit program west of the Mississippi, named the 1818 Project and now known as the 1818 Advanced College Credit Program 1967 – First major Catholic institution in the world with an integrated lay and religious board of trustees 1972 – First human heart transplant in Missouri 2000 – First Doctor of Philosophy degree in aviation in the world awarded In 1967, Saint Louis University became one of the first Catholic universities to increase layperson decision making power.
At the time board chairman Fr. Paul Reinert, SJ, stepped aside to be replaced by layman Daniel Schlafly; the board shifted to an 18 to 10 majority of laypeople. This was instituted due to the landmark Maryland Court of Appeals case, Horace Mann vs. the Board of Public Works of Maryland, in
Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, wire and cable. The FCC serves the public in the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, homeland security; the FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission; the FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Territories of the United States. The FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America; the FCC is funded by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US $388 million, it has 1,688 federal employees, made up of 50% males and 50% females as of December, 2017. The FCC's mission, specified in Section One of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is to "make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, efficient and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges."
The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications."Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1999 Government Performance and Results Act, the FCC has identified four goals in its 2018-22 Strategic Plan. They are: Closing the Digital Divide, Promoting Innovation, Protecting Consumers & Public Safety, Reforming the FCC's Processes; the FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. † Commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session no than noon on January 4; the FCC is organized into seven Bureaus, which process applications for licenses and other filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations and implement regulations, participate in hearings. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCC's consumer policies, including disability access. CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains collaborative partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness and implementation of new technologies; the Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, terms and conditions of station authorizations.
Major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, homeland security. The International Bureau develops international policies in telecommunications, such as coordination of frequency allocation and orbital assignments so as to minimize cases of international electromagnetic interference involving U. S. licensees. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations and other international agreements; the Media Bureau develops and administers the policy and licensing programs relating to electronic media, including cable television, broadcast television, radio in the United States and its territories. The Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service; the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, including licensing. The bureau implements competitive bidding for spectrum auctions and regulates wireless communications services including mobile phones, public safety, other commercial and private radio services.
The Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureau's main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in wireline technology infrastructure, development and services; the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau was launched in 2006 with a focus on critical communications infrastructure. The FCC has eleven Staff Offices; the FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus. The Office of Administrative Law Judges is responsible for conducting hearings ordered by the Commission; the hearing function includes acting on interlocutory requests filed in the proceedings such as petitions to intervene, petitions to enlarge issues, contested discovery requests. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed under the Administrative Procedure Act, presides at the hearing during which documents and sworn testimony are received in evidence, witnesses are cross-examined. At the co
Busch Stadium referred to informally as "New Busch Stadium" or "Busch Stadium III", is a baseball park located in St. Louis, the home of the St. Louis Cardinals, the city's Major League Baseball franchise; the stadium has a seating capacity of 44,494, contains 3,706 club seats and 61 luxury suites. It occupies a portion of that stadium's former footprint. A commercial area, dubbed Ballpark Village, was built adjacent to the stadium over the remainder of the former stadium's footprint; the stadium opened on April 4, 2006 with an exhibition between the minor league Memphis Redbirds and Springfield Cardinals, both affiliates of the St. Louis Cardinals, which Springfield won 5-3 with right-hander Mike Parisi recording the first win; the first official major league game occurred on April 10, 2006 as the Cardinals defeated the Milwaukee Brewers 6–4 behind an Albert Pujols home run and winning pitcher Mark Mulder. The highest attendance for a sports event was on May 23, 2013, when 48,263 people watched Chelsea Football Club and Manchester City Football Club play a friendly match.
To date, the largest attendance for a baseball game occurred July 29, 2017 with an attendance of 48,052 in a game between the Cardinals and the Arizona Diamondbacks. The stadium is the third stadium in St. Louis to carry the name Busch Stadium. Sportsman's Park was renamed Busch Stadium in 1953, after team owner Gussie Busch; the first Busch Stadium closed in 1966 and both the baseball Cardinals, the National Football League's team of the same name moved to a new multi-purpose stadium, named Busch Memorial Stadium. However, the current stadium is a corporate name and named after Anheuser-Busch, not Gussie Busch; the naming rights deal was signed in 2004 and would extend from the stadium's opening in 2006 until 2026. In 1995, St. Louis Cardinals team ownership began to lobby for a new ballpark in downtown St. Louis, but the team was unable to acquire funding for the project for several years. In June 2001, the Missouri state government signed a contract with the team, proposing a ballpark in downtown St. Louis, but a subsequent funding bill was struck down in May 2002, leaving the saga open.
Team owners sought a location near Madison, adjacent to Gateway International Raceway, until the city of St. Louis drafted a financing plan for the team to construct the new stadium in downtown St. Louis; the stadium was financed through private bonds, bank loans, a long-term loan from St. Louis County, money from the team owners; the development, including the Ballpark Village was projected to cost $665 million with the stadium alone costing $365 million. New Busch Stadium was designed by Populous and built by Hunt Construction with an estimated cost of $344.8 million, which proved too low by $20.2 million to its final cost of $365 million. Populous' senior project designer for Busch Stadium was Jim Chibnall, the lead designer of Progressive Field in Cleveland, Heinz Field in Pittsburgh, Sydney Olympic Stadium and other notable stadiums throughout the world; the field level, terrace level, bleachers were completed in time for opening day, with total capacity on that day of 37,962, not including up to 2,751 standing room tickets.
An integrated LED video and scoring system from Daktronics was installed in the stadium prior to its opening, featuring a video display measuring 32 feet high by 52 feet wide and three message displays, as well as more than 100 feet of digital ribbon board technology. Construction on the seating area was completed in late May increasing the capacity for the May 29, 2006 game vs the Houston Astros with finishing touches performed throughout the year. Including all 2,886 standing-room-only tickets for the general public and the suites and party rooms, the stadium's total capacity is 46,861. Natural grass turf was installed in March 2006. In the stadium's debut season every Cardinal game was sold out, giving a total attendance of 3,407,104 for the season, the second-largest in team history, but since surpassed in both 2007, 2008, 2014-2017. In the first season of the new stadium, the Cardinals beat the Detroit Tigers in 5 games to capture their 10th World Series title. Busch Stadium hosted only one postseason game in 2009, a 5–1 loss versus the Los Angeles Dodgers on October 10, to complete a sweep of the Cardinals.
In 2011, Busch Stadium hosted two postseason games in the National League Division Series versus the Philadelphia Phillies. On October 4, the Phillies won 3–2, to take a 2–1 game lead over the Cardinals; the next night, the 5th, the Cardinals beat the Phillies 5–3 to tie the series at 2 games apiece. In the NLCS versus the Milwaukee Brewers, the Cardinals won 2 of the three games they played at home; the Cards ended up winning the series on the road in Milwaukee to advance to the World Series. Because the National League had won the 2011 MLB All-Star Game, home field advantage went to the Cardinals as the National League champions, thus allowing the team to host the Texas Rangers for Games 1, 2, 6 and 7. Game 1 was won by the Cardinals on October 19, along with Game 6 on October 27, in a game won in walk-off fashion by a David Freese home run the deciding Game 7, taken by the Cardinals in a 6-2 final, giving the team the 2011 World Series title. Busch Stadium hosted two postseason games vs. the Washington Nationals in the 2012 National League Division Series.
The two teams split the two games
KFNS is a commercial AM radio station licensed to Wood River and serving the St. Louis metropolitan area, including parts of Illinois and Missouri; the station is owned by Randy Markel. It airs a sports talk format. KFNS broadcasts with 1,000 watts of power, around the clock, using four towers during the daytime hours and three towers at night, its former antenna array used three towers day and night, powered at 500 watts days and 1,000 watts nights.. KFNS has its studios on Manchester Road in Kirkwood, Missouri, its transmitter is located off Stutz Lane near Route 255 in Illinois. On October 5, 1961, the station first signed on as a daytimer broadcasting at 500 watts. WBBY was owned by Madison County Broadcasting Company and served the Wood River area with local news and other programming. In 1965, WBBY changed its call sign to WRTH and its format switched to beautiful music, targeting the St. Louis media market. By the late 1960s, the station had gotten FCC permission to broadcast around the clock.
Its easy listening music format became among the most rated stations in St. Louis. Among the best known announcers were Grant Horton, Paul Warner, Frank Akers, Jim Scanlan and Ed Goodman. Around 1980, WRTH transitioned to adult standards until September 1988, when it flipped to oldies as WKLL, "Kool 590". In 1990, the format changed again to all-business news and talk under the call letters WCEO, which stood for Chief Executive Officer. 13 months on January 1, 1991, the station shifted to easy listening and became KEZK. At the time, the Adams Communications Corporation owned both AM 590 and FM 102.5 KEZK-FM, a soft adult contemporary outlet. On April 5, 1993, KEZK flipped to sports talk as KFNS, "590 the Fan". KFNS held the affiliation for One-on-One Sports. KFNS aired St. Louis Steamers indoor soccer, University of Illinois football and men's basketball, the Gateway Grizzlies minor-league baseball team, selected Mizzou Tigers football and basketball games, along with the weekly "Tiger Talk" radio coaches show.
In 2009, KFNS was the radio home for the Frontier League's River City Rascals baseball games. KFNS-FM was the radio home for the club in 2006, before losing out to KSLQ-FM in 2007 and 2008. KFNS had broadcast on an FM radio station, 100.7 KFNS-FM, based in Troy, from 1999 until July 15, 2009. It was heard in Lincoln, St. Charles and Warren Counties in eastern Missouri, with the same programming as its AM partner. 100.7 FM is a classic rock station, known as "100.7 The Viper." On May 1, 2013, KFNS flipped to a talk/comedy format, branded as "590 The Man". In addition, sister station KXFN flipped to a female-centric talk format as "1380 The Woman." In 2014, KFNS shifted back to sports, with the previous format shifting over to KXFN as "1380 The X." Its investors include former St. Louis Rams offensive tackle Orlando Pace and former St. Louis Blues player Keith Tkachuk; the station was subsequently subject to significant turmoil, including lawsuits against the ownership, physical fights behind the scenes and verbal attacks on-air.
KFNS went off the air on October 31, 2014 after the station stopped paying its bills, resulting in the local utility company Ameren turning off the power to its transmitter site. Following the shutdown, Grand Slam Sports announced that the company would focus on sister station KXFN and sell KFNS to a religious group. Since 2009, the station had faced increased competition for the sports radio audience in St. Louis from WXOS, WGNU, WQQX. After payment was made on the power bill, KFNS resumed broadcasting with NBC Sports Radio programming on November 10, 2014, but shortly afterward, Grand Slam Sports' investors, at the urging of the company's operations manager, chose to again take the station dark until the completion of the sale. The sale to the religious group never followed through. Instead, the station returned to air on November 5, 2015, after being leased out to Markel Radio Group, operators of talkstl.com, leasing KXFN. TalkSTL programming was simulcast on both stations until December 2015, when KXFN went silent, with 590 KFNS continuing to air TalkSTL programming.
The station was sold to Markel Radio Group, effective February 22, 2016, for $300,000. In September 2016, Markel leased the station's broadcast day to former KFNS host Tim McKernan and his company, InsideSTL Enterprises. McKernan had leased WGNU on weekdays; as a result, KFNS took over as Fox Sports radio affiliate. As part of the lease arrangement, the station's license was transferred to McKernan Radio Group, LLC, 75% owned by Markel and 25% owned by McKernan. In 2018, Randy Markel acquired total ownership under Markel Entertainment LLC for whom the station is licensed; the KFNS Weekday Lineup 7AM-10AM - TMA Live featuring Tim McKernan, Doug Vaughn, Jim Hayes 10AM-12Noon - The Pressbox featuring Frank Cusumano with Martin Kilcoyne joining the show at 11 12Noon-1PM - The Midday Grind featuring Martin Kilcoyne and Charlie Marlow 1PM-3PM Monday - Thursday & 2PM-4PM Friday - The Hardline featuring TJ Moe, Bob Ramsey and John Hadley 3PM-6PM Monday -Thursday - The Large Morning Show In The Afternoon featuring Frank O. Pinion, Dan Strauss, Trevor Phillips, Tim Woodburn 6PM-7PM Monday -Thursday & 5PM-6PM Friday - The Cam Janssen Show featuring Cam Janssen 7PM-9PM Monday - Thursday - The Charlie Tuna Show featuring Charlie Tuna Edwards 9PM-11PM - Larry Conners USA featuring Larry Conners 11PM-1AM Sunday - Thursday - The Dino Costa Show featuring Dino Costa Podcast of the local shows on KFNS can be heard by clicking on
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Paul C. Reinert
Rev. Paul Clare Reinert, S. J. was the president of Saint Louis University for twenty-five years and a community leader in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. Paul Reinert was born in Colorado, on August 12, 1910, to Francis and Emma Reinert. In 1927, he entered the Society of Jesus. Two of his brothers and Carl became Jesuit priests. Paul was ordained to the priesthood in 1940 and received both an A. B. and a M. A. from Saint Louis University. He served as register at St. Mary’s College in Kansas before earning a Ph. D. from the University of Chicago. After completing his Ph. D. he returned to Saint Louis University to serve as the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, vice-president, president. After retiring from the presidency, he served as chancellor and chancellor emeritus until his death in 2001. During his twenty-five year tenure as president, Reinert transformed the university and was a vocal advocate for social justice. Reinert’s presidency of Saint Louis University marked a seminal period in the history of the university, Catholic education, American education in general.
He faced an increased post-war enrollment in higher education and the necessary changes in curriculum. Under his administration, the university admitted women as regular students. In addition, while a junior administrator, he worked for the admission of the first African-American students to the university in 1944. Saint Louis University thus became the first white university in a former slave state to admit African-American students; as the country’s cities faced increased racial tensions and urban universities dealt with the dilemma of the "white flight", Reinert committed the institution to remain in urban St. Louis, as other American universities left their urban origins; as a result, Reinert became a leader in the revitalization of the inner city of St. Louis and the promotion of higher education on the divide line between the north, black part of the city and south, all-white neighborhoods, his 1958 appointment to the Missouri Governor’s Committee of Education beyond High School led to the formation of the St. Louis Junior College District in 1962 upon the recommendation of Dr. Ernest V. Hollis of the U.
S. Department of Education and Edward B. Shils, he was the member of other important state and Catholic education committees that established policies that set the standard for education in his time. As a national leader in Catholic education, Reinert remained confident in the advantages that private Catholic colleges and universities offered to their communities, he sought to expand Saint Louis University’s campus and to create programs that would attract minority students to a white university. After building the spacious Pius XII library on campus, he negotiated the microfilming of the Vatican's rare manuscripts collection, adding to the research facilities of the university. Under Reinert’s direction in 1967, Saint Louis University became the first Catholic university to include lay member on its board of trustees; this reorganization initiated a trend. In addition to this reorganization, he appointed lay professionals to high-ranking administrative positions in the university. Though critics believed that Reinert’s decision conflicted with his position as a Jesuit and diluted the university’s Jesuit nature and others believed that the changes both reaffirmed the Ignatian educational mission and broadened the university’s vision for the future.
Moreover, his reorganization of the university demonstrated the increased status of the university and its dedication to serving the community. He continued to serve the community after his retirement as president in 1974. In 1962, across Grand Boulevard from the University 22 acres were purchased to accommodate Busch Student Center, sports fields, a large classroom building, a three-building science complex with a large hall under its courtyard. In 1969 an SLU campus was opened in Madrid. Reinert’s publications include two books concerning the status of Catholic higher education, The Urban Catholic University and To Turn the Tide, a history of the university since the war, Seasons of Change: Reflections on Half a Century of Saint Louis University, co-authored with Paul Shore. Reinert died July 2001, in St. Louis, Missouri. Reinert Hall, a residence hall at St. Louis University, is named in his honor, in addition to the Reinert Center for Teaching Excellence. For his work, Reinert has been honored with a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame.
He was the recipient of nearly forty honorary doctorates and countless awards for his service, Paul C. Reinert at Find a Grave