Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands, is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, Tokelau to the northeast. Though both French and Polynesian and Futuna is distinct from the entity known as French Polynesia, its land area is 142.42 km2 with a population of 11,558 at the 2018 census. Mata-Utu is biggest city; the territory is made up of three main volcanic tropical islands along with a number of tiny islets, is split into two island groups that lie about 260 km apart, namely the Wallis Islands in the northeast, the Hoorn Islands in the southwest, including Futuna Island proper and the uninhabited Alofi Island. Since 2003, Wallis and Futuna has been a French overseas collectivity. Between 1961 and 2003, it had the status of a French overseas territory, though its official name did not change when the status changed. Polynesians settled the islands that would be called Wallis and Futuna around the year 1000 AD/CE, when the Tongan Empire expanded into the area.
The original inhabitants built forts and other identifiable ruins on the islands, some of which are still intact. Futuna was first put on the European maps by Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire during their circumnavigation of the globe in 1616, they named the islands "Hoornse Eylanden" after the Dutch town of Hoorn. This was translated into French as "Isles de Horne." The French were the first Europeans to settle in the territory, with the arrival of French missionaries in 1837, who converted the population to Roman Catholicism. Pierre Chanel, canonized as a saint in 1954, is a major patron of the island of Futuna and the region; the Wallis Islands are named after the British explorer, Samuel Wallis, who sailed past them in 1767 after discovering Tahiti. On 5 April 1842, the missionaries asked for the protection of France after the rebellion of a part of the local population. On 5 April 1887, the Queen of Uvea signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate; the kings of Sigave and Alo on the islands of Futuna and Alofi signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate on 16 February 1888.
The islands were put under the authority of the French colony of New Caledonia. In 1917, the three traditional kingdoms were annexed to France and turned into the Colony of Wallis and Futuna, still under the authority of the Colony of New Caledonia. During World War II, the islands' administration was pro-Vichy until a Free French corvette from New Caledonia deposed the regime on 26 May 1942. Units of the US Marine Corps landed on Wallis on 29 May 1942. In 1959, the inhabitants of the islands voted to become a French overseas territory, effective in 1961, thus ending their subordination to New Caledonia. In 2005, the 50th King of Uvea, Tomasi Kulimoetoke II, faced being deposed after giving sanctuary to his grandson, convicted of manslaughter; the King claimed. There were riots in the streets involving the King's supporters, who were victorious over attempts to replace the King. Two years Tomasi Kulimoetoke died on 7 May 2007; the state was in a six-month period of mourning. During this period, mentioning a successor was forbidden.
On 25 July 2008, Kapiliele Faupala was installed as King despite protests from some of the royal clans. The territory is divided into three traditional kingdoms: Uvea, on the island of Wallis, Sigave, on the western part of the island of Futuna, Alo, on the eastern part of the island of Futuna and on the uninhabited island of Alofi: referred to the villages with municipal status called MuaThe capital of the collectivity is Matāʻutu on the island of Uvéa, the most populous of the Wallis Islands; as an overseas collectivity of France, it is governed under the French constitution of 28 September 1958, has universal suffrage for those over 18 years of age. The French president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term; the head of state is President Emmanuel Macron of France as represented by the Administrator-Superior Thierry Queffelec. The President of the Territorial Assembly is Petelo Hanisi since 11 December 2013; the Council of the Territory consists of three kings and three members appointed by the high administrator on the advice of the Territorial Assembly.
The legislative branch consists of the unicameral Territorial Assembly or Assemblée territoriale of 20 seats. Wallis and Futuna elect one senator to the French Senate and one deputy to the French National Assembly. Justice is administered under French law by a tribunal of the first instance in Mata-Utu, but the three traditional kingdoms administer justice according to customary law; the Court of Appeal is in New Caledonia. The territory participates in the Franc Zone, as a permanent member of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and as an observer of the Pacific Islands Forum. Wallis and Fut
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system. The wave function is a complex-valued probability amplitude, the probabilities for the possible results of measurements made on the system can be derived from it; the most common symbols for a wave function are the Greek letters ψ or Ψ. The wave function is a function of the degrees of freedom corresponding to some maximal set of commuting observables. Once such a representation is chosen, the wave function can be derived from the quantum state. For a given system, the choice of which commuting degrees of freedom to use is not unique, correspondingly the domain of the wave function is not unique. For instance, it may be taken to be a function of all the position coordinates of the particles over position space, or the momenta of all the particles over momentum space; some particles, like electrons and photons, have nonzero spin, the wave function for such particles includes spin as an intrinsic, discrete degree of freedom.
When a system has internal degrees of freedom, the wave function at each point in the continuous degrees of freedom assigns a complex number for each possible value of the discrete degrees of freedom – these values are displayed in a column matrix. According to the superposition principle of quantum mechanics, wave functions can be added together and multiplied by complex numbers to form new wave functions and form a Hilbert space; the inner product between two wave functions is a measure of the overlap between the corresponding physical states, is used in the foundational probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, the Born rule, relating transition probabilities to inner products. The Schrödinger equation determines how wave functions evolve over time, a wave function behaves qualitatively like other waves, such as water waves or waves on a string, because the Schrödinger equation is mathematically a type of wave equation; this explains the name "wave function", gives rise to wave–particle duality.
However, the wave function in quantum mechanics describes a kind of physical phenomenon, still open to different interpretations, which fundamentally differs from that of classic mechanical waves. In Born's statistical interpretation in non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the squared modulus of the wave function, |ψ|2, is a real number interpreted as the probability density of measuring a particle's being detected at a given place – or having a given momentum – at a given time, having definite values for discrete degrees of freedom; the integral of this quantity, over all the system's degrees of freedom, must be 1 in accordance with the probability interpretation. This general requirement that a wave function must satisfy is called the normalization condition. Since the wave function is complex valued, only its relative phase and relative magnitude can be measured—its value does not, in isolation, tell anything about the magnitudes or directions of measurable observables. In 1905, Einstein postulated the proportionality between the frequency f of a photon and its energy E, E = h f, in 1916 the corresponding relation between photon's momentum p and wavelength λ, λ = h p, where h is the Planck constant.
In 1923, De Broglie was the first to suggest that the relation λ = h p, now called the De Broglie relation, holds for massive particles, the chief clue being Lorentz invariance, this can be viewed as the starting point for the modern development of quantum mechanics. The equations represent wave -- particle duality for massive particles. In the 1920s and 1930s, quantum mechanics was developed using linear algebra; those who used the techniques of calculus included Louis de Broglie, Erwin Schrödinger, others, developing "wave mechanics". Those who applied the methods of linear algebra included Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, others, developing "matrix mechanics". Schrödinger subsequently showed. In 1926, Schrödinger published the famous wave equation now named after him, the Schrödinger equation; this equation was based on classical conservation of energy using quantum operators and the de Broglie relations, the solutions of the equation are the wave functions for the quantum system. However, no one was clear on.
At first, Schrödinger and others thought that wave functions represent particles that are spread out with most of the particle being where the wave function is large. This was shown to be incompatible with the elastic scattering of a wave packet off a target. While a scattered particle may scatter in any direction, it does not break up and take off in all directions. In 1926, Born provided the perspective of probability amplitude; this relates calculations of quantum mechanics directly to probabilistic experimental observations. It is ac
Wake Forest University
Wake Forest University is a private research university in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Founded in 1834, the university received its name from its original location in Wake Forest, north of Raleigh, North Carolina; the Reynolda Campus, the university's main campus, has been located north of downtown Winston-Salem since the university moved there in 1956. The Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center campus has two locations, the older one located near the Ardmore neighborhood in central Winston-Salem, the newer campus at Wake Forest Innovation Quarter downtown; the university occupies lab space at Biotech Plaza at Innovation Quarter, at the Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials. The university's Graduate School of Management maintains a presence on the main campus in Winston-Salem and in Charlotte, North Carolina. Wake Forest has produced 15 Rhodes Scholars, including 13 since 1986, four Marshall Scholars, 15 Truman Scholars and 92 Fulbright recipients since 1993. Notable people of Wake Forest University include author Maya Angelou, mathematician Phillip Griffiths, psychologist Linda Nielsen, Senators Richard Burr and Kay Hagan, athletes Chris Paul, Tim Duncan, Muggsy Bogues, Brian Piccolo and Arnold Palmer, CEO Charlie Ergen.
During the Baptist State Convention of 1833 at Cartledge Creek Baptist Church in Rockingham, North Carolina, establishment of Wake Forest Institute was ratified. The school was founded after the North Carolina Baptist State Convention purchased a 615-acre plantation from Calvin Jones in an area north of Raleigh called the "Forest of Wake"; the new school, designed to teach both Baptist ministers and laymen, opened on February 3, 1834, as the Wake Forest Manual Labor Institute. Students and staff were required to spend half of each day doing manual labor on its plantation. Samuel Wait, a Baptist minister, was selected as the "principal" president, of the institute. In 1838, the school was renamed Wake Forest College, the manual labor system was abandoned; the town that grew up around the college came to be called the town of Wake Forest. In 1862, during the American Civil War, the school closed due to the loss of most students and some faculty to service in the Confederate States Army; the college re-opened in 1866 and prospered over the next four decades under the leadership of presidents Washington Manly Wingate, Thomas H. Pritchard, Charles Taylor.
In 1894, the School of Law was established, followed by the School of Medicine in 1902. The university held its first summer session in 1921. Lea Laboratory was built in 1887–1888, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975; the leading college figure in the early 20th century was William L. Poteat, a gifted biologist and the first layman to be elected president in the college's history. "Dr. Billy" continued to promote growth, hired many outstanding professors, expanded the science curriculum, he stirred upheaval among North Carolina Baptists with his strong support of teaching the theory of evolution but won formal support from the Baptist State Convention for academic freedom at the college. The School of Medicine moved to Winston-Salem in 1941 under the supervision of Dean Coy Cornelius Carpenter, who guided the school through the transition from a two-year to a four-year program; the school became the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. The following year, 1942, Wake Forest admitted its first female undergraduate students, after World War II depleted the pool of male students.
In 1946, as a result of large gifts from the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation, the entire college agreed to move to Winston-Salem, a move, completed for the beginning of the fall 1956 term, under the leadership of Harold W. Tribble. Charles and Mary Reynolds Babcock donated to the college about 350 acres of fields and woods at "Reynolda", their estate. From 1952 to 1956, fourteen new buildings were constructed on the new campus; these buildings were constructed in Georgian style. The old campus in Wake Forest was sold to the Baptist State Convention to establish the Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. On April 27, 1962, Wake Forest's board of trustees voted to accept Edward Reynolds, a native of the African nation of Ghana, as the first black full-time undergraduate at the school; this made Wake Forest the first major private university in the South to desegregate. Reynolds, a transfer student from Shaw University became the first black graduate of the university in 1964, when he earned a bachelor's degree in history.
He went on to earn master's degrees at Ohio University and Yale Divinity School, a PhD in African history from the University of London. He became a professor of history at the University of California, San Diego, author of several history books. A graduate studies program was inaugurated in 1961, in 1967 the school became the accredited Wake Forest University; the Babcock Graduate School of Management, now known as the School of Business, was established in 1969. The James R. Scales Fine Arts Center opened in 1979. In 1986, Wake Forest gained autonomy from the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina and established a fraternal relationship with it; the Middleton House and its surrounding 5 acres was deeded by gift to Wake Forest by Philip Hanes and his wife Charlotte in 1992. The donation was completed in 2011; the thirteenth president of Wake Forest is Nathan O. Hatch, former provost at the University of Notre Dame.. Hatch was installed as president on October 20, 2005, he assumed office on July 1, 2005, succeeding Thomas K. Hearn, Jr. who had retired after 22 years in office.
On September 16, 2015, Wake Forest announced plans to offer undergraduate classes do
Wii Fit is an exergaming video game designed by Nintendo's Hiroshi Matsunaga for the Wii home video game console. It is an exercise game with several activities using the Wii Balance Board peripheral; as of March 2012 Wii Fit was the third best selling console game not packaged with a console, with 22.67 million copies sold. The game uses a unique platform peripheral called the Wii Balance Board, on which the player stands during exercise; the Board is not a rocking balance board but a device. The game features yoga, strength training and balance games. Matsunaga described the game as a "way to help get families exercising together". Wii Fit has been used for physiotherapy rehabilitation and has been adopted by various health clubs around the world, it has been used in nursing homes to improve posture in the elderly. The game has received positive reviews, despite criticism over the lack of intensity in some of its workout activities. Wii Fit requires the use of the Wii Balance Board, a unique platform peripheral that the player stands upon during play.
The Wii Balance Board can detect and track the user's center of balance,a feature utilized in the game. Wii Fit contains more than 40 activities designed to engage the player in physical exercise, which consist of yoga poses, strength training and balance games. Most activities focus on maintaining COB and improving posture. Players register and play in Wii Fit via a user profile, assigned with the player's date of birth and Mii character, that keeps track of the player's progress. Physical activities done outside of Wii Fit can be logged into the profile. Wii Fit allows up to eight different profiles to be registered; the yoga and strength training activities in Wii Fit provide the player with an on-screen personal trainer who offers direction and evaluation. While standing or otherwise leaning on the Wii Balance Board, the player is instructed to perform the activity by imitating the trainer's actions. In yoga, the player holds a particular series of poses for a duration of time. During these sessions, the player is shown a visual indication of his or her COB, represented as a red dot.
The trainer advises the player to maintain the COB throughout the activity, requesting that it not move outside a particular threshold indicated as a yellow circle. When the activity ends, the player is scored based on how well the player kept their balance during the session: points are deducted if the player's body haphazardly swayed or shook at any point. Wii Fit has strength-training activities; the other two major categories in Wii Fit and Balance Games, consist of 18 minigame activities that feature Miis as playable characters. Aerobics focus on activities that require more vigorous movement, are divided into three distinct types: hula hooping, step aerobics, jogging. In Hula Hoop, the player twirls his or her hips in order to spin a series of hoops, is scored on the number of spins achieved within a period of time. Step aerobics focus on stepping off the Wii Balance Board in a rhythmic fashion. In jogging, which does not use the Wii Balance Board, the player runs in place while keeping the connected Wii Remote in his or her pocket, which acts as a pseudo-pedometer.
The game provides variations of step aerobics and jogging where the user may exercise at his or her own pace and does not require viewing the game screen. Balance Games consist of nine activities that focus on directly controlling the game using the player's COB. "Soccer Heading," for example, focuses on leaning left or right to control the player's Mii in order to head incoming soccer balls. Another, "Table Tilt," focuses on directing balls into holes by shifting the player's balance to tilt the platform they rest on. Activities based on slalom skiing and tightrope walking are available, a Zazen-based game in which the player sits on the Wii Balance Board and remains motionless for a period of time. Players may undergo "Body Tests," in which the player's body mass index is calculated and balance control is tested; each Body Test determines and updates the player's "Wii Fit Age", which loosely suggests the player's physical strength in relation to his or her true age. A standalone application called "Wii Fit Channel" may be installed to the Wii Menu in order for players to perform Body Tests without needing to load the Wii Fit game disc.
Wii Fit was first revealed as Wii Health Pack by Nintendo's chief game designer Shigeru Miyamoto, during a conference in mid-September 2006. Described as a "way to help get families exercising together", the game idea had first been included in Miyamoto's original design document for a core group of games including Wii Sports and Wii Play, the entirety of, scribbled onto a sheet of paper; as with other games designed by Miyamoto such as Nintendogs, the design of Wii Fit was influenced by activities in his daily life. He states that he and his family had become more health-conscious, going to the gym and tracking their weight, he found that it had become "fun over time to talk about these things", as weighing oneself "didn't make much of a game", Nintendo decided to build games around the idea to mesh with the concept. The Wii Balance Board had been worked on for "almost two years", was inspired by heavy sumo wrestlers' need to weigh themselves with
The Wallflowers are an American rock band formed in Los Angeles in 1989 by singer-songwriter Jakob Dylan and guitarist Tobi Miller. The band has remained centered on Dylan. After releasing their eponymous debut album in 1992, the Wallflowers released what would become their best-known and highest-selling album, Bringing Down the Horse in 1996, which featured the songs "One Headlight" and "6th Avenue Heartache", they went on to release an additional three albums before going on hiatus. In 2012, the Wallflowers reunited to release their sixth studio album, Glad All Over; the Wallflowers have won two Grammy awards: Best Rock Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal and Best Rock Song for "One Headlight" in 1998. "One Headlight" is listed at #58 in Rolling Stone's list of the 100 Greatest Pop Songs. The Wallflowers' inception came in 1988/1989 when singer-guitarist Jakob Dylan called his childhood friend, Tobi Miller a guitarist, about starting a band. Dylan and Miller had been in several bands together in high school but went their separate ways upon graduation.
Dylan had moved to New York City to go to art school while Miller had started his own band called the 45's. After the 45's broke up in 1989, Miller regained contact with Dylan and they began forming a new band called the Apples. Barrie Maguire, in the 45's with Miller, joined the band as their bass player. In 1990, Peter Yanowitz was added as the drummer; the final member to join the group was keyboardist Rami Jaffee. Jaffee was an active member of the Los Angeles music scene and had been playing with multiple bands in the area, he met Dylan in 1990 in the Kibitz Room, a bar located in the back of a Jewish deli called Canter's on Fairfax Avenue in Los Angeles. He had heard the Apples were looking for an organ player and after meeting and talking with Dylan in the Kibitz Room, the two headed for Dylan's car to listen to the band's demo tape. Jaffee was asked to join in on the band's next rehearsal. After a long rehearsal session, Jaffee joined the band on the spot; the Apples changed their name to the Wallflowers and began playing clubs around Los Angeles the Sunset Strip, such as the Whisky a Go Go, Gazzarri's and the Viper Room.
While they were playing clubs the band was sending their demo tape to record companies and figures within the music industry. One of those tapes caught the attention of Andrew Slater, who would become the Wallflowers' manager. Slater brought the Wallflowers to Virgin Records; the Wallflowers set out to make their first album. However, finding a producer, willing to work with them proved to be difficult; the band was intent on recording few producers were willing to produce that way. Paul Fox stepped in and agreed to produce the album. By the time the Wallflowers got into the studio in 1991, they had a small catalog of songs they had been performing live which they wanted to record for their debut album. All of the songs were written by Dylan with the rest of the band members contributing input on the music; when in the studio, the band were intent on using as little recording equipment as possible. Dylan explained: "If I could have had it my way I would not have seen a microphone or a cable anywhere."
When it came to recording, the songs were drawn out past the 3 to 4 minute norm. The Wallflowers finished recording and released their debut album on August 25, 1992. After the release they began touring nationwide as an opening act for bands such as the Spin Doctors and 10,000 Maniacs; the Wallflowers continued to tour through the first half of 1993 but despite this sales of the album were slow. In total, 40,000 copies were sold. Reviews for the album, were positive. Rolling Stone gave the album 4 stars calling it, "one sweet debut" and describing Dylan's songwriting as "impressive." Great reviews notwithstanding, executives at Virgin Records were not pleased with the album's lack of commercial success. Around this time, the company was going through a shift in management which led to the removal of Jeff Ayeroff and Jordan Harris, the two people who brought the Wallflowers to Virgin. After Ayeroff and Harris left the company the Wallflowers began to feel that they had no future with Virgin and asked to be released from their contract.
The split with Virgin has been regarded as mutual. By mid-1993 the Wallflowers were without a record label. After leaving Virgin, the Wallflowers went back to playing Los Angeles clubs in hopes of getting signed with another label; the band found it difficult to get label representatives to come to their shows. In the year it took to get another record deal the Wallflowers lost several band members. Bass player Barrie Maguire was asked to leave for undisclosed reasons in early 1993; the Wallflowers continued playing shows with replacement bass player Jimmie Snider until May 1993 when the band hired Greg Richling. Dylan and Richling went to high school together; the Wallflowers continued to play club shows in Los Angeles through early 1994 when drummer Peter Yanowitz left the band to join his girlfriend Natalie Merchant's band. Yanowitz brought in Barrie Maguire to help Tigerlily. Around the time of Yanowitz's departure the Wallflowers caught the attention of Jimmy Iovine and Tom Whalley of Interscope Records, who signed the band to their label in 1994.
After signing with Interscope Records, the Wallflowers began preparations for their second album, Bringing Down the Horse. They again had trouble finding a producer, willing to work with them; the Wallflowers began sending demo tapes to pro
Forward (association football)
Forwards are the players on an association football team who play nearest to the opposing team's goal, are therefore most responsible for scoring goals. Their advanced position and limited defensive responsibilities mean forwards score more goals on behalf of their team than other players. Modern team formations include one to three forwards. Unconventional formations may include none; the traditional role of a centre-forward is to score the majority of goals on behalf of the team. The player may be used to win long balls or receive passes and retain possession of the ball with their back to goal as teammates advance, in order to provide depth for their team or help teammates score by providing a pass. Most modern centre-forwards operate in front of the second strikers or central attacking midfielders, do the majority of the ball handling outside the box; the present role of centre-forward is sometimes interchangeable with that of an attacking midfielder in the 4–3–1–2 or 4–1–2–1–2 formations.
The term "target man" is used to describe a particular type of striker whose main role is to win high balls in the air and create chances for other members of the team. These players are tall and physically strong, being adept at heading the ball; the term centre-forward is taken from the early football playing formation in which there were five forward players: two outside forwards, two inside forwards, one centre-forward. When numbers were introduced in the 1933 English FA Cup final, one of the two centre-forwards that day wore the number nine – Everton's Dixie Dean a strong, powerful forward who had set the record for the most goals scored in a season in English football during the 1927–28 season; the number would become synonymous with the centre-forward position. The role of a striker is rather different from that of a traditional centre-forward, although the terms centre-forward and striker are used interchangeably at times, as both play further up the field than other players, while tall and technical players, like Zlatan Ibrahimović, have qualities which are suited to both positions.
Like the centre-forward, the traditional role of a striker is to score goals. They are fast players with good ball control and dribbling abilities. More agile strikers like Michael Owen have an advantage over taller defenders due to their short bursts of speed. A good striker should be able to shoot confidently with either foot, possess great power and accuracy, have the ability to link-up with teammates and pass the ball under pressure in breakaway situations. While many strikers wear the number 9 shirt, the position, to a lesser degree, is associated with the number 10, worn by more creative deep-lying forwards such as Pelé, with numbers 7 and 11, which are associated with wingers. Deep-lying forwards have a long history in the game, but the terminology to describe their playing activity has varied over the years; such players were termed inside forwards, creative or deep-lying centre-forwards. More two more variations of this old type of player have developed: the second, or shadow, or support, or auxiliary striker and, in what is in fact a distinct position unto its own, the number 10, exemplified by Dennis Bergkamp.
Other number 10s who play further back, such as Diego Maradona and Zinedine Zidane, are described as an attacking midfielder or the playmaker. The second striker position is a loosely defined and most misapplied description of a player positioned somewhere between the out-and-out striker, whether he is a "target-man" or more of a "poacher", the Number 10 or attacking midfielder, while showing some of the characteristics of both. In fact, a term coined by French advanced playmaker Michel Platini, the "nine-and-a-half", which he used to describe Roberto Baggio's playing role, has been an attempt to become a standard in defining the position. Conceivably, a Number 10 can alternate as a second-striker provided that he is a prolific goalscorer. Second or support strikers do not tend to get as involved in the orchestration of attacks as the Number 10, nor do they bring as many other players into play, since they do not share the burden of responsibility, functioning predominantly as assist providers.
In Italy, this role is known as a "rifinitore" or "seconda punta", whereas in Brazil, it is known as "segundo atacante" or "ponta-de-lança". The position of inside forward was popularly used in the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries; the inside forwards would support the centre-forward and making space in the opposition defence, and, as the passing game developed, supporting him or her with passes. The role is broadly analogous to the "hole" or second striker position in the modern game, although here there were two such players, known as inside right and inside left. In early 2–3–5 formations the inside-forwards would flank the centre-forward on both sides. With the advent of