Addison Cairns Mizner was an American resort architect whose Mediterranean Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival style interpretations left an indelible stamp on South Florida, where it continues to inspire architects and land developers. In the 1920s Mizner was the best-known and most-discussed living American architect. Palm Beach, which he "transformed", was his home, most of his houses are there, he believed that architecture should include interior and garden design, set up Mizner Industries to have a reliable source of components. He was "an architect with a philosophy and a dream." Boca Raton, began as Mizner's project. The 6-foot-2-inch, 250-pound bon vivant epitomized the "society architect." Rejecting other modern architects for "producing a characterless copybook effect," he sought to "make a building look traditional and as though it had fought its way from a small, unimportant structure to a great, rambling house that took centuries of different needs and ups and downs of wealth to accomplish.
I sometimes start a house with a Romanesque corner, pretend that it has fallen into disrepair and been added to in the Gothic spirit, when the great wealth of the New World has poured in and the owner had added a rich Renaissance addition." Or as he described his own never-built castle, drawings of which were part of his promotional literature, it would be "a Spanish fortress of the twelfth century captured from its owner by a stronger enemy who, after taking it, adds on one wing and another, loses it in turn to another who builds to suit his taste." As these quotes suggest, many Mizner buildings contain styles from more than one period, but all foreign. Born in Benicia, at the time "the educational center of California", its first capitol, he traveled as a child with his father, Lansing B. Mizner, a lawyer, former President of the California Senate and the U. S. Minister to Central America, based in Guatemala; as a young man, he visited China in 1893, was a gold miner in the Yukon. Of his seven siblings, six of them boys, he was closest to his younger brother Wilson, whose shady conduct caused Addison many problems.
He kept as pets a series of monkeys, which rode on his shoulder. He had a macaw parrot, he was "a character." In 1932 Mizner published The Many Mizners, an autobiography covering his youth, year mining, time in New York until the death of his mother. A second volume telling of his life in Florida was never completed. Mizner died in 1933 of a heart attack in Palm Beach and is buried in the family vault at Cypress Lawn Memorial Park. According to Donald Curl, author of Mizner's Florida, He was just outgoing and a good guy. One of the things he was noted for was the kindness toward the people who worked for him and the courtesy he showed them; some of the other architects of this era were the reverse. Mizner was not that way; when the bust began in Florida, he helped some of the young architects get established elsewhere. The vast majority of Mizner's employees developed a deep affection for and allegiance to him: "It was a pleasure working for Mizner", one remarked. Addison accompanied his father when the latter travelled to Guatemala in August 1889 to take up his duties there.
His first stop, aged 15, on the boat to Guatemala was Mexico. This was Addison's first direct contact with the Hispanic world, which he described as "the greatest day of my life." His father Lansing Mizner spoke fluent Spanish, as did his paternal step-grandfather, James Semple a U. S. diplomat in Spanish America. Addison, who became fluent, after some tutoring enrolled at the Instituto Nacional in Guatemala City, "where we learned that boys fought with knives and not with fists." He remained there for a year, visiting Costa Rica and Honduras with his father, before returning to California in 1890 to study at the Bates School, a boarding school in San Rafael, California. His studies there ended in 1891 because of his brother Wilson's expulsion for misbehavior, he continued his studies at Boone's College in Berkeley, with the hope of passing the entrance examination for the University of California. Either he never presented himself for the examination. In any event, the end of his formal education.
In his own words: I have based my design on the old architecture of Spain — with important modifications and to meet Florida conditions. I studied the architecture of Spain itself and drew somewhat on my knowledge of Spanish tropical America. In one of his advertisements: Spanish Art in Boca Raton homes adds a special charm to these dwellings, in a land of tropical beauty where the softness of the South makes life easy, he assembled an excellent library, which has survived, on Spanish and Spanish Colonial architecture. The first idea of Mizner about his first Florida building, today the Everglades Club, was that it should contain "a Moorish tower", a clear reference to the Alhambra, which Mizner visited and commented on; the Mediterranean Revival style Mizner introduced to South Florida was not Turkish, not Italian, it was Spanish the hottest, southern part of Spain, Andalucía. He taught workmen to make Spanish red roof tiles, appropriate for the climate. A scholar states that Meisner's mature style was "
A friendly society is a mutual association for the purposes of insurance, savings or cooperative banking. It is a mutual organization or benefit society composed of a body of people who join together for a common financial or social purpose. Before modern insurance and the welfare state, friendly societies provided financial and social services to individuals according to their religious, political, or trade affiliations; these societies are still widespread in many parts of the developing world, where they are referred to as ROSCAs, ASCAs, burial societies, chit funds, etc. Before the development of large-scale government and employer health insurance and other financial services, friendly societies played an important part in many people's lives. Many of these societies still exist. In some countries, some of them developed into large mutually-run financial institutions insurance companies, lost any social and ceremonial aspect they may have had; the current position of the mutual benefit society in Europe is well described in a report from 2012, commissioned by the European Commission.
Healthcare mutuals worldwide are coming together in Association Internationale de la Mutualité, a Brussels-based association of healthcare mutuals. Friendly societies in countries such as Great Britain were subject to prudential regulation to safeguard the financial interests of their members and secure the benefits promised to them, but the legislation was separate from that applicable to insurance companies. In other countries friendly societies have no specific legal status, which means that they have to comply to the same rules and regulations as for-profit insurance companies. In some cases in America, members paid a regular membership fee and went to lodge meetings to take part in ceremonies. If members became sick, they would receive an allowance to help them meet their financial obligations; the society might have a doctor. Members of the lodge would visit to provide other support; when a member died, the funeral would be paid for and the members of the lodge might attend in ceremonial dress.
There was some money left over for the next of kin. Friendly societies might organize social functions such as dances, some had sports teams for members, they became involved in political issues that were of interest to their members. Others were purely financial, with little or no social side, from their foundation—this was more typical in Great Britain; the first mutual savings bank, founded in Scotland in 1810, was called the "Savings and Friendly Society". Credit unions and other types of organization are modern equivalents. Friendly Society Brasses were the emblems of village friendly societies or clubs common in the west of England between the late 18th and early 20th centuries; the use of brasses as emblems was prevalent in Somerset and the surrounding counties. Female friendly societies were a common form of friendly society in England during the 19th century e.g. the York Female Friendly Society, founded in 1788. The societies were more common in areas of the country where larger proportions of the female population were in employment.
In Ireland, friendly societies are registered with the Registrar of Friendly Societies under the Friendly Societies Acts 1896–2014. In 2014 the Friendly Societies and Industrial and Provident Societies Act, 2014, provided for the cessation of new friendly societies, it was felt that the form of organisation had outlived its usefulness for reasons mentioned above. When the minister's staff examined the register, it was found that only three new societies had registered in the previous nine years, as the use of the traditional friendly society types of business had become regulated elsewhere and a'rump', which on examination are public-service types, remain. Many of the others could expect to cease to trade if additional, or a normal regulatory environment was required (similar to companies and other business; the 2014 Act provided that existing societies may not establish a'loan fund' from the commencement of the Act. Friendly societies are registered under either the Friendly Societies Act 1974 or the Friendly Societies Act 1992.
There are the following types of society registered under the Friendly Societies Act 1974: friendly societies working men’s clubs benevolent societies cattle insurance societies specially authorised societiesThe activities of these societies varies, but includes: running a social club providing discretionary benefits to members – for instance during sickness or unemployment running sports clubs managing allotments insuring cattleSome friendly societies are still governed by the 1974 Act, although no new societies can be registered under that act. Friendly societies registered under the Friendly Societies Act 1992 are incorporated entities and are registered for effecting and carrying out contracts of insurance. Similar organisations were called industrial and provident societies, they are trading voluntary organisations. Recent legal developments in Great Britain i
WFLA is talk-formatted station in Tampa, serving the Tampa Bay media market. The station is owned and operated by iHeartMedia, Inc. the largest U. S. radio station owner. The station's studios are located in South Tampa and the main transmitter site is in Town'n' Country. WFLA began in 1925 as Clearwater radio station WGHB. By 1927, its call letters changed to WFLA and it moved to 590 AM, it shared the frequency with WSUN before they both moved together to 620 AM in 1929. In January 1941, WFLA moved to 940 AM to its present 970 AM that March. WFLA carried. From 1945 to 1949, the station carried a gospel show, which featured legendary bass singer J. D. Sumner and The Sunny South Quartet, it had various music formats over the subsequent years before switching to news/talk in 1986. It has been the market leader in this format since, is among the top five stations in the market, according to Arbitron ratings. At one time, WFLA and its FM radio sister were owned by Media General, the parent company of The Tampa Tribune and WFLA-TV.
In the 1980s, federal regulations forced Media General to divest the radio stations because of its other local media holdings. The radio stations were sold to Blair Broadcasting in late 1982. Sconnix Communications of Charleston, South Carolina, bought WFLA and what was WPDS from Blair Broadcasting in 1987, Jacor Communications purchased WFLA from Sconnix in 1988. In 1989, the station moved from Jackson Street in downtown Tampa to its present location at 4002 W. Gandy Blvd. in south Tampa. Another Clear Channel property in Tallahassee now uses the calls, WFLA-FM. WFLA gave national hosts Glenn Lionel their starts in talk radio. Other prominent alumni, from the days when the station concentrated on local programming, include Bob Lassiter, Jay Marvin, Dick Norman, Chuck Harder, Jack Ellery and Freddy Mertz. Other former hosts include Al Gardner, Mark Larsen, Daniel Ruth, Mark Beiro, Paul Gonzalez and Mel Berman; the station's local morning show, AM Tampa Bay, is hosted by broadcasters Jack Harris with Aaron Jacobson, Katie Butchino, Kay Long and Jeff Kuyrkendall.
The station is the home and flagship for nationally syndicated afternoon host Todd Schnitt. The station's weekday lineup includes nationally syndicated programs hosted by Glenn Beck, Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity, "PM Tampa Bay" with Ryan Gorman as well as Coast to Coast AM. WFLA provides local newscasts on both weekends. National news is provided by NBC News Radio; the station serves as the flagship for the Tampa Bay Lightning NHL Hockey Team. It carries other sports programming on a case-by-case basis when there are scheduling conflicts with sports events on its sister stations, WDAE and WHNZ. WFLA provides news coverage for other iHeartMedia stations in the Tampa Bay market, its anchors and reporters are heard elsewhere in the state, providing reports and sometimes complete newscasts for those markets. WFLA serves as a hub for the Florida News Network. NewsRadio WFLA Website Query the FCC's AM station database for WFLA Radio-Locator Information on WFLA Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WFLA Query the FCC's FM station database for W233AV Radio-Locator information on W233AV Query the FCC's FM station database for W256CT Radio-Locator information on W256CT Query the FCC's FM station database for W290BJ Radio-Locator information on W290BJ FCC History Cards for WFLA
Western Fraternal Life Association
Not to be confused with Zapadni Cesko-Bratrska Jednota, a related newspaper The Western Fraternal Life Association known as the Zapadni Ceska Bratrska Jednota is a fraternal benefit society and financial services organization in the United States. The association has its roots in the Czechoslovak immigrant community of the 19th century; the association was established in 1897 in Omaha, Nebraska by immigrants from Bohemia, as the Western Bohemian Fraternal Association. The aim of the association, like other fraternal benefit societies, was to provide insurance and financial security for people from a similar demographic, in this case Czech immigrants to the United States, as well as protecting and promoting the Czech heritage of the members; the organization was a western offshoot of the Czech-Slovak Protective Society, based in the eastern states. ZCBJ founder members disagreed with some CSPS policies which were not tailored to their specific circumstances about the calculation of payments to members, the admission of women to the club's services.
The motto of the society was "Truth and Loyalty", based on the purported values of the members and their community. In 1899, the association became one of the first fraternals to insure women. In 1919, members voted to insure juveniles. Membership was opened to all in 1947, at the 1971 National Convention, members voted to change the name to the Western Fraternal Life Association. Members created lodges in their areas to celebrate holidays, host plays and dances, speak the Czech language; the lodges became a source of support and solidarity for members during difficult periods, such as the Great Depression and the World Wars. As of December 2015, the association has more than 38,000 members from the states that Western is licensed in: California, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas and Wisconsin; the local units of the Association are called lodges, the highest authority is the board of directors. In 1923 the organisation's headquarters were at Iowa.
There are over a dozen historic buildings of the association which are listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places:Notable lodges of the organization include: ZCBJ Opera House, Nebraska, NRHP-listed. Z. C. B. J. Hall, Wisconsin, NRHP-listed. ZCBJ Hall, South Dakota, NRHP-listed. Rad Slavin cis. 112 Z. C. B. J. Hall, Nebraska, NRHP-listed. Lodge Zare Zapadu No. 44, Hayward Township in Freeborn County, Minnesota, NRHP-listed. ZCBJ Hall, Wisconsin, NRHP-listed. Rad Plzen cis. 9 Z. C. B. J. Morse Bluff, Nebraska, NRHP-listed. Z. C. B. J. Tolstoj Lodge No. 224, in Scio, Oregon, on the bank of Thomas Creek, NRHP-listed. Z. C. B. J. Opera House, Nebraska, NRHP-listed. Z. C. B. J. Rad Tabor No. 74, Nebraska, NRHP-listed. ZCBJ Lodge No. 46, Oklahoma, NRHP-listed. Rad Jan Kollar cis 101 Z. C. B. J. Du Bois, Nebraska, NRHP-listed. Western Bohemian Fraternal Union Hall, Minnesota, NRHP-listed. Rad Saline Center cis. 389 Z. C. B. J. Western, Nebraska, NRHP-listed. Zapadni Ceska Bratrska Jednota topics American Czech and Slovak Association Czech-Slovak Protective Society List of North American ethnic and religious fraternal orders Official website
WFLA-TV, virtual channel 8, is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Tampa, United States and serving the nearby city of St. Petersburg; the station is owned by Nexstar Media Group, as part of a duopoly with St. Petersburg-licensed MyNetworkTV affiliate WTTA; the two stations share studios on South Parker Street in downtown Tampa along the Hillsborough River, transmitter facilities in Riverview, Florida. The station first signed on the air on February 14, 1955, with a live broadcast of the Gasparilla Pirate Festival, it was owned by The Tampa Tribune, along with WFLA radio. WFLA-TV has been an NBC affiliate since the station's inception; because of its newspaper background, it was the early ratings leader in the Tampa market until WTVT passed it for first place in 1962. In 1966, Richmond Newspapers, publishers of the Richmond Times-Dispatch and part-owner of the Tribune, acquired full control of the paper and the WFLA radio and television stations. Three years Richmond Newspapers changed its name to Media General, WFLA-TV, the first television station owned and operated by the company, would be the flagship of its broadcasting group for the rest of its existence.
Due to an FCC regulation in effect at the time that stated that TV and radio stations in the same market, but with different owners had to have differing callsigns, the station's callsign was changed to WXFL on January 19, 1983, after WFLA-AM-FM were sold. At the time, Federal Communications Commission cross-ownership regulations forced Media General to sell the radio stations. Channel 8 reverted to its original WFLA-TV call letters on January 1, 1989; that same year, it surged to first place in the Tampa Bay ratings and has stayed there for most of that time, led by one of the most popular anchor teams in the country. WFLA and The Tampa Tribune remained corporate siblings until Media General sold the newspaper to Tampa Media Group Inc. in October 2012 as part of Media General's selloff of its newspaper holdings in a reorganization to alleviate the company's substantial debt load.. Despite the split, the two outlets have continued a newsgathering partnership and their operations remain located adjacent to one another at the downtown Tampa facility.
In January 2013, as a result of the sale, WFLA began outsourcing its digital operations and website to Worldnow, as part of a group deal with the company. Following the takeover of the company by the principal staff of LIN Media, Media General's stations, including WFLA, have since migrated to the WordPress.com-based platform and site design introduced by LIN, which in turn is now being replaced by Nexstar's own Lakana CMS platform. On August 20, 2014, Media General announced that it would acquire MyNetworkTV affiliate WTTA channel 38 from Sinclair Broadcast Group; the deal made WTTA a sister station to WFLA. On January 27, 2016, it was announced that what was known as the Nexstar Broadcasting Group would buy Media General for $4.6 billion. WFLA and WTTA became part of the newly-minted Nexstar Media Group on January 17, 2017; the station's digital signal is multiplexed: WFLA-TV carried NBC Weather Plus on digital subchannel 8.2 until 2008. The station replaced the Retro Television Network with MeTV on digital subchannel 8.2 on September 26, 2011, as part of a groupwide affiliation agreement with Media General.
WFLA-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 8, on June 12, 2009, as part of the federally mandated transition from analog to digital television. The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition VHF channel 7, using PSIP to display WFLA-TV's virtual channel as 8 on digital television receivers. Syndicated programming seen on WFLA-TV includes Rachael Ray, The Ellen DeGeneres Show, Extra. WFLA clears the entire NBC programming lineup, but it airs the fourth hour of Today at noon instead of the network's recommended 10:00 a.m. time slot, occupied by the local lifestyle program, Daytime. It does not air reruns of the CNBC show Mad Money during the late night/early morning hours, opting instead to give the show's time slot to syndicated programming. However, both of these are common practices among some of the stations affiliated or owned by NBC; the station produces Daytime, a lifestyle and entertainment program which airs weekday mornings at 10 a.m.. In 2003, WFLA and Daytime caused controversy after The New York Times reported of its "pay for play" practices.
The article revealed that businesses were charged several thousand dollars to appear on the show making their segments "paid segments". Many people saw this as payola, a practice, illegal under a Federal Communications Commission ruling. After much dispute, WFLA agreed to identify each paid segment as such to avoid an intervention from Congress. Original hosts Debra Schrills and Brian Fasulo left the show in 2005; the current hosts are former Hard Copy and Extra correspondent Jerry Penacoli. From 2008 to September 2011, the show aired nationally on the Retro Television Network as part of Media General's affiliation deal with the network, but was dropped by RTV when Media General switched most of its stations' subchannel affiliations to MeTV. National broadca