In sports, a farm team, farm system, feeder team, practice squad, or nursery club, is a team or club whose role is to provide experience and training for young players, with an agreement that any successful players can move on to a higher level at a given point. This system can be implemented in many ways, both formally and informally; the term is used as a metaphor for any organization or activity that serves as a training ground for higher-level endeavors. For instance, business schools are referred to as "farm clubs" in the world of business. In the United States and Canada, Minor League Baseball teams operate under strict franchise contracts with their major league counterparts. Although the vast majority of such teams are owned and are therefore able to switch affiliation, those players under contract with the affiliated Major League Baseball team are under their exclusive control, would move to the MLB club's new affiliate. Not all players on a minor league team are under contract with the MLB club.
Minor league teams are based in smaller cities, players who are contracted to them, as opposed to major league players sent down to this level for rehabilitation or other professional-development assignments, are paid less than their Major League counterparts. Most major league players start off their careers by working their way up the minor league system, from the lowest to the highest classification, with the rare exceptions being those players signed from Japan's Nippon Professional Baseball. Since the elimination of the Bonus Rule, only a small number of amateur players have gone directly into the MLB, including John Olerud, Jim Abbott, Dave Winfield; the process of a player working his way up through the minor leagues is formally referred by most MLB teams as "player development". However, minor league affiliates are informally referred to as "farm teams" and a major league player's misfortune of being sent back to the minors is sometimes described as being "farmed out"; the farm system as it is recognized today was invented by Branch Rickey, who – as field manager, general manager, club president – helped to build the St. Louis Cardinals dynasty during the 1920s, 30s, 40s.
When Rickey joined the team in 1916, players were purchased by major league teams from independent, high-level minor league clubs. Rickey, a keen judge of talent, became frustrated when the players he had identified for purchase at the A and AA levels were offered for bid and sold by those independent clubs to wealthier rivals such as the Chicago Cubs and the New York Giants. With the support of Cardinal owner Sam Breadon, Rickey devised a plan whereby St. Louis would purchase and control its own minor league teams from Class D to Class AA, thus allowing them to promote or demote players as they developed, "grow" their own talent; the talent pipeline began at tryout camps that St. Louis scouts conducted throughout the U. S. "From quantity comes quality," Rickey once observed, during the 1930s, with as many as 40 owned or affiliated farm teams, the Cardinals controlled the destinies of hundreds of players each year. The Cardinals won nine National League pennants and six World Series championships between 1926 and 1946, proving the effectiveness of the farm system concept.
Indeed, the second club to embrace such a system, the New York Yankees, used it to sustain their dynasty from the mid-1930s through the middle of the 1960s. When Rickey moved to the Brooklyn Dodgers as president and general manager in 1943, he built a hugely successful farm system there as well after the end of World War II; the teams that ignored the farm system in the 1930s and early 1940s found themselves falling on hard times. The existence of the minor league system is due in part to MLB's ability to include a reserve clause in its contracts with minor league players, which gives the major league team exclusive rights to a player after the contract has expired. In a landmark 1922 Supreme Court decision, Federal Baseball Club v. National League, baseball was granted a special immunity from antitrust laws. Despite the advent of free agency in 1976, which led many to predict the demise of the farm system, it still remains a strong component of a winning baseball strategy; the teams of the National Hockey League have their own farm teams in the American Hockey League.
For example, the Cleveland Monsters are the farm team for the Columbus Blue Jackets. Additionally, NHL teams have affiliates in the ECHL, although the terms of the most recent CBA prohibited ECHL players from being recalled to the NHL or being sent down to that league without being assigned to the AHL first. Although some NHL franchises own their AHL and/or ECHL affiliates, many AHL and ECHL franchises are independently owned, with ties to NHL franchises made through affiliation contracts. Unlike baseball, not all the players on the rosters of the minor league teams are owned by an NHL team; the AHL system recognizes two types of contracts: the two-way contract, in which players can be sent back and forth between the NHL and AHL at will, the standard contract, which binds the player to the AHL. The NHL t
Germantown is a city in Shelby County, United States. The population was 38,844 at the 2010 census. Germantown is a suburb of Memphis. Germantown's economy is dominated by the commercial service sectors. In the city center is the "Old Germantown" neighborhood, anchored by a railroad depot and railroad tracks that recall the community's earliest days of development as an outpost along the Memphis and Charleston Railroad; the city hosts many horse shows and competitions annually, most notably the Germantown Charity Horse Show in June. Other major annual events include the Germantown Festival, an arts and crafts fair, in early September. Germantown is one of a few cities in the nation possessing a triple-A bond rating from both Moody's and Standard & Poor's, it has the lowest crime rate for any city its size in the State of Tennessee and the police and fire departments have average emergency response time of five minutes. The parks and recreation department is nationally accredited; the Arbor Day Foundation has designated Germantown a "Tree City USA" for 23 consecutive years.
Germantown is located at 35°5′20″N 89°47′38″W. It is part of the Memphis metropolitan area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.6 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 0.17%, is water. Germantown was founded along the Chickasaw Trace on a ridge between the Wolf River and Nonconnah Creek, about 16 miles east of the Mississippi River; the first white settlers arrived in Germantown about 1825. Between 1825 and 1830, Miss Frances Wright established Nashoba Plantation, a utopian community intended to educate emancipated slaves and teach them a trade. By 1830, the first store was opened as more settlers moved into the area; the community became known as Pea Ridge in 1833. Town lots were laid out in 1834 by surveyor N. T. German; the name was changed to Germantown in 1836. This coincidentally reflected the settling of German families; the town was incorporated in 1841. The Memphis-Charleston Railroad was built through the community in 1852. Germantown experienced setbacks through the period of the Civil War.
The town rebounded slowly. Churches destroyed in the war were rebuilt, schools were constructed and the population began to return around the turn of the century; the city name was changed to Neshoba, an Chickasaw word meaning'wolf', during World War I, because of widespread anti-German sentiment in the United States at that time. During the twentieth century, the community derived its strength through involvement of citizens, as evidenced in the churches, garden clubs and civic organizations; the Poplar Pike Improvement Association and the Germantown Civic Club played vital roles in the physical and social development of the community. In the last half of the century, the population grew from about 400 to more than 40,000. Over several decades and civic leadership, with support of citizens, worked proactively to control suburban growth through development regulations, aesthetic controls and strategic planning efforts; the City of Germantown operates under a Mayor-Alderman form of government.
The mayor and five aldermen are part-time positions. The Board of Mayor and Aldermen is the policy-making body of the City; the mayor does not vote. By charter, the mayor is the chief administrative officer. Mike Palazzolo was elected as Mayor in November 2015. More than 200 citizens annually volunteer their time and energy in service on the City's 20-plus advisory commissions and boards. Most appointments, made by the mayor and aldermen each December, are for one year terms, their responsibilities range from recommendations on City government matters and community interests to identifying opportunities and solutions to conducting special activities. The commissions are Audit, Design Review, Economic Development, Environmental, Athletic Club, Great Hall, Industrial Development, Neighborhood Preservation and Recreation, Planning, Public Safety Education, Retirement Plan Administration, Other Postemployment Benefits, Senior Citizens, Telecommunications; the boards are Zoning Industrial Development and Library.
Germantown is served by two school districts, Shelby County Schools and Germantown Municipal School District. Elementary Schools: Farmington Elementary School, Dogwood Elementary School, Riverdale Elementary K-8 School and Germantown Elementary School Middle School: Houston Middle School, Riverdale Elementary K-8 School and Germantown Middle School High School: Houston High School In 2015, Houston High School was rated by the Washington Post as one of America's Most Challenging High Schools. Germantown High School Germantown High School is an International Baccalaureate School, Blue Ribbon School, is one of the largest high schools in the state of Tennessee, rated as a Reward School in Tennessee for Growth and Achievement measured by perfect scores of 5 each of the past 5 years. Jason Manuel, former principal of Houston Middle School, is Superintendent of Germantown Municipal Schools; the School Board consists of 5 at large elected positions. Germantown Elementary and High School remain with the Shelby County Schools district, although they ar
In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it. Repeaters are used to extend transmissions so that the signal can cover longer distances or be received on the other side of an obstruction; some types of repeaters broadcast an identical signal, but alter its method of transmission, for example, on another frequency or baud rate. There are several different types of repeaters. A broadcast relay station is a repeater used in broadcast television; when an information-bearing signal passes through a communication channel, it is progressively degraded due to loss of power. For example, when a telephone call passes through a wire telephone line, some of the power in the electric current which represents the audio signal is dissipated as heat in the resistance of the copper wire; the longer the wire is, the more power is lost, the smaller the amplitude of the signal at the far end. So with a long enough wire the call will not be audible at the other end.
The farther from a radio station a receiver is, the weaker the radio signal, the poorer the reception. A repeater is an electronic device in a communication channel that increases the power of a signal and retransmits it, allowing it to travel further. Since it amplifies the signal, it requires a source of electric power; the term "repeater" originated with telegraphy in the 19th century, referred to an electromechanical device used to regenerate telegraph signals. Use of the term has continued in data communications. In computer networking, because repeaters work with the actual physical signal, do not attempt to interpret the data being transmitted, they operate on the physical layer, the first layer of the OSI model; this is used to increase the range of telephone signals in a telephone line. Land line repeaterThey are most used in trunklines that carry long distance calls. In an analog telephone line consisting of a pair of wires, it consists of an amplifier circuit made of transistors which use power from a DC current source to increase the power of the alternating current audio signal on the line.
Since the telephone is a duplex communication system, the wire pair carries two audio signals, one going in each direction. So telephone repeaters have to be bilateral, amplifying the signal in both directions without causing feedback, which complicates their design considerably. Telephone repeaters were the first type of repeater and were some of the first applications of amplification; the development of telephone repeaters between 1900 and 1915 made long distance phone service possible. Now, most telecommunications cables are fiber optic cables. Before the invention of electronic amplifiers, mechanically coupled carbon microphones were used as amplifiers in telephone repeaters. After the turn of the 20th century it was found that negative resistance mercury lamps could amplify, they were used; the invention of audion tube repeaters around 1916 made transcontinental telephony practical. In the 1930s vacuum tube repeaters using hybrid coils became commonplace, allowing the use of thinner wires.
In the 1950s negative impedance gain devices were more popular, a transistorized version called the E6 repeater was the final major type used in the Bell System before the low cost of digital transmission made all voiceband repeaters obsolete. Frequency frogging repeaters were commonplace in frequency-division multiplexing systems from the middle to late 20th century. Submarine cable repeaterThis is a type of telephone repeater used in underwater submarine telecommunications cables; this is used to increase the range of signals in a fiber optic cable. Digital information travels through a fiber optic cable in the form of short pulses of light; the light is made up of particles called photons, which can be scattered in the fiber. An optical communications repeater consists of a phototransistor which converts the light pulses to an electrical signal, an amplifier to increase the power of the signal, an electronic filter which reshapes the pulses, a laser which converts the electrical signal to light again and sends it out the other fiber.
However, optical amplifiers are being developed for repeaters to amplify the light itself without the need of converting it to an electric signal first. This is used to extend the range of coverage of a radio signal; the history of radio relay repeaters began in 1898 from the publication by Johann Mattausch in Austrian Journal Zeitschrift für Electrotechnik. But his proposal "Translator" was not suitable for use; the first relay system with radio repeaters, which functioned, was that invented in 1899 by Emile Guarini-Foresio. A radio repeater consists of a radio receiver connected to a radio transmitter; the received signal is amplified and retransmitted on another frequency, to provide coverage beyond the obstruction. Usage of a duplexer can allow the repeater to use one antenna for both receive and transmit at the same time. Broadcast relay station, rebroadcastor or translator: This is a repeater used to extend the coverage of a radio or television broadcasting station, it consists of a secondary television transmitter.
The signal from the main transmitter comes over leased telephone lines or by microwave relay. Microwave relay: This is a specialized point-to-point telecommunications link, consisting of a microwave receiver that receives information over a beam of microwaves from an
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in southwestern Shelby County, United States. The 2017 city population was 652,236, making Memphis the largest city on the Mississippi River, second-largest city in Tennessee, as well as the 25th largest city in the United States. Greater Memphis is the 42nd largest metropolitan area in the United States, with a population of 1,348,260 in 2017; the city is the anchor of West Tennessee and the greater Mid-South region, which includes portions of neighboring Arkansas and Mississippi. Memphis is the seat of the most populous county in Tennessee; as one of the most historic and cultural cities of the southern United States, the city features a wide variety of landscapes and distinct neighborhoods. The first European explorer to visit the area of present-day Memphis was Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto in 1541 with his expedition into the New World; the high bluffs protecting the location from the waters of the Mississippi would be contested between the Spanish and the English as Memphis took shape.
Modern Memphis was founded in 1819 by three prominent Americans: John Overton, James Winchester, future president Andrew Jackson. Memphis grew into one of the largest cities of the Antebellum South as a market for agricultural goods, natural resources like lumber, the American slave trade. After the American Civil War and the end of slavery, the city experienced faster growth into the 20th century as it became among the largest world markets for cotton and lumber. Home to Tennessee's largest African-American population, Memphis played a prominent role in the American civil rights movement and was the site of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s 1968 assassination. The city now hosts the National Civil Rights Museum—a Smithsonian affiliate institution. Since the civil rights era, Memphis has grown to become one of the nation's leading commercial centers in transportation and logistics; the city's largest employer is the multinational courier corporation FedEx, which maintains its global air hub at Memphis International Airport, making it the second-busiest cargo airport in the world.
Today, Memphis is a regional center for commerce, media and entertainment. The city has long had a prominent music scene, with historic blues clubs on Beale Street originating the unique Memphis blues sound during early 20th century; the city's music has continued to be shaped by a multi-cultural mix of influences across the blues, rock n' roll and hip-hop genres. Memphis barbecue has achieved international prominence, the city hosts the World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, which attracts over 100,000 visitors to the city annually. Occupying a substantial bluff rising from the Mississippi River, the site of Memphis has been a natural location for human settlement by varying cultures over thousands of years; the area was known to be settled in the first millennium A. D. by people of the Mississippian Culture, who had a network of communities throughout the Mississippi River Valley and its tributaries. They built complexes with large earthwork ceremonial and burial mounds as expressions of their sophisticated culture.
The historic Chickasaw Indian tribe, believed to be their descendants occupied the site. French explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto encountered the Chickasaw tribe in that area in the 16th century. J. D. L. Holmes, writing in Hudson's Four Centuries of Southern Indians, notes that this site was a third strategic point in the late 18th century through which European powers could control United States encroachment and their interference with Indian matters—after Fort Nogales and Fort Confederación: "... Chickasaw Bluffs, located on the Mississippi River at the present-day location of Memphis. Spain and the United States vied for control of this site, a favorite of the Chickasaws."In 1795 the Spanish Governor-General of Louisiana, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet sent his Lieutenant Governor, Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, to negotiate and secure consent from the local Chickasaw so that a Spanish fort could be erected on the bluff. Holmes notes that consent was reached despite opposition from "disappointed Americans and a pro-American faction of the Chickasaws", when the "pro-Spanish faction signed the Chickasaw Bluffs Cession and Spain provided the Chickasaws with a trading post…".
Fort San Fernando de las Barrancas remained a focal point of Spanish activity until, as Holmes summarizes: he Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckney's Treaty of 1795, all of the careful, diplomatic work by Spanish officials in Louisiana and West Florida, which has succeeded for a decade in controlling the Indians, was undone. The United States gained the right to navigate the Mississippi River and won control over the Yazoo Strip north of the thirty-first parallel; the Spanish dismantled the fort, shipping its iron to their locations in Arkansas. In 1796, the site became the westernmost point of the newly admitted state of Tennessee, located in what was called the Southwest United States; the area was still occupied and controlled by the Chickasaw nation. Captain Isaac Guion led an American force down the Ohio River to claim the land, arriving on July 20, 1797. By this time, the Spanish had departed; the fort's ruins went unnoticed twenty years when Memphis was laid out as a city, after the United States government paid the Chickasaw for land.
The city of Memphis was founded on May 22, 1819 by John Overton, James Winchester and Andrew Jackson. They named it after the ancient capita
University of Mississippi
The University of Mississippi is a public research university in Oxford, Mississippi. Including the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, it is the state's largest university by enrollment; the university was chartered by the Mississippi Legislature on February 24, 1844, four years admitted its first enrollment of 80 students. The university is classified as an "R1: Doctoral University—Very High Research Activity" by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education and has an annual research and development budget of $121.6 million. The university ranked 145 in the 2018 edition of the US News Rankings of Best National Universities. Across all its campuses, the university comprises some 23,258 students. In addition to the main campus in Oxford and the medical school in Jackson, the university has campuses in Tupelo, Booneville and Southaven. About 55 percent of its undergraduates and 60 percent overall come from Mississippi, 23 percent are minorities, it is one of the 33 colleges and universities participating in the National Sea Grant Program and a participant in the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program.
Ole Miss was a center of activity during the American civil rights movement when a race riot erupted in 1962 following the attempted admission of James Meredith, an African-American, to the segregated campus. While the university was integrated that year, the use of Confederate symbols and motifs has remained a controversial aspect of the school's identity and culture. In response the university has attempted to take proactive measures to rebrand its image, including banning the display of Confederate flags in Vaught-Hemingway Stadium in 1997 abandoning the Colonel Reb mascot in 2003, removing "Dixie" from the Pride of the South marching band's repertoire in 2016. In 2018, following a racially charged rant on social media by an alum and academic building namesake, former Chancellor Jeffrey Vitter reaffirmed the university's commitment to "honest and open dialogue about its history", in making its campuses "more welcoming and inclusive"; the Mississippi Legislature chartered the University of Mississippi on February 24, 1844.
The university opened its doors to its first class of 80 students four years in 1848. For 23 years, the university was Mississippi's only public institution of higher learning, for 110 years it was the state's only comprehensive university. Politician Pryor Lea was a founding trustee; when the university opened, the campus consisted of six buildings: two dormitories, two faculty houses, a steward's hall, the Lyceum at the center. Constructed from 1846 to 1848, the Lyceum is the oldest building on campus; the Lyceum housed all of the classrooms and faculty offices of the university. The building's north and south wings were added in 1903, the Class of 1927 donated the clock above the eastern portico; the Lyceum is now the home of the university's administration offices. The columned facade of the Lyceum is represented on the official crest of the university, along with the date of establishment. In 1854, the university established the fourth state-supported, public law school in the United States, began offering engineering education.
With the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, classes were interrupted when the entire student body from the University of Mississippi enlisted in the Confederate army, forming an infantry group nicknamed the University Greys. However, all 135 students were killed during a 100 % casualty rate. Most died during the battles of Vicksburg; the Lyceum was used as a hospital during the Civil War for both Union and Confederate soldiers those who were wounded at the battle of Shiloh. Two hundred-fifty soldiers who died in the campus hospital were buried in a cemetery on the grounds of the university. During the post-war period, the university was led by former Confederate general A. P. Stewart, a Rogersville, Tennessee native, he served as Chancellor from 1874 to 1886. The university became coeducational in 1882 and was the first such institution in the Southeast to hire a female faculty member, Sarah McGehee Isom, doing so in 1885; the student yearbook was published for the first time in 1897. A contest was held to solicit suggestions for a yearbook title from the student body.
Elma Meek, a student, submitted the winning entry of "Ole Miss." Meek's source for the term is unknown. This sobriquet was not only chosen for the yearbook, but became the name by which the university was informally known. "Ole Miss" is defined as the school's intangible spirit, separate from the tangible aspects of the university. The university began medical education in 1903, when the University of Mississippi School of Medicine was established on the Oxford campus. In that era, the university provided two-year pre-clinical education certificates, graduates went out of state to complete doctor of medicine degrees. In 1950, the Mississippi Legislature voted to create a four-year medical school. On July 1, 1955, the University Medical Center opened in the capital of Jackson, Mississippi, as a four-year medical school; the University of Mississippi Medical Center, as it is now called, is the health sciences campus of the University of Mississippi. It houses the University of Mississippi School of Medicine along with five other health science schools: nursing, health-related professions, graduate studies and pharmacy (The School of Pharmacy is split between the Ox
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, applied to the antenna; when excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons; the term transmitter is limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes. Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes, such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment, are not called transmitters though they have similar circuits; the term is popularly used more to refer to a broadcast transmitter, a transmitter used in broadcasting, as in FM radio transmitter or television transmitter.
This usage includes both the transmitter proper, the antenna, the building it is housed in. A transmitter can be a separate piece of electronic equipment, or an electrical circuit within another electronic device. A transmitter and a receiver combined in one unit is called a transceiver; the term transmitter is abbreviated "XMTR" or "TX" in technical documents. The purpose of most transmitters is radio communication of information over a distance; the information is provided to the transmitter in the form of an electronic signal, such as an audio signal from a microphone, a video signal from a video camera, or in wireless networking devices, a digital signal from a computer. The transmitter combines the information signal to be carried with the radio frequency signal which generates the radio waves, called the carrier signal; this process is called modulation. The information can be added to the carrier in several different ways, in different types of transmitters. In an amplitude modulation transmitter, the information is added to the radio signal by varying its amplitude.
In a frequency modulation transmitter, it is added by varying the radio signal's frequency slightly. Many other types of modulation are used; the radio signal from the transmitter is applied to the antenna, which radiates the energy as radio waves. The antenna may be enclosed inside the case or attached to the outside of the transmitter, as in portable devices such as cell phones, walkie-talkies, garage door openers. In more powerful transmitters, the antenna may be located on top of a building or on a separate tower, connected to the transmitter by a feed line, a transmission line. Electromagnetic waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration. Radio waves, electromagnetic waves of radio frequency, are generated by time-varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing through a metal conductor called an antenna which are changing their velocity or direction and thus accelerating. An alternating current flowing back and forth in an antenna will create an oscillating magnetic field around the conductor.
The alternating voltage will charge the ends of the conductor alternately positive and negative, creating an oscillating electric field around the conductor. If the frequency of the oscillations is high enough, in the radio frequency range above about 20 kHz, the oscillating coupled electric and magnetic fields will radiate away from the antenna into space as an electromagnetic wave, a radio wave. A radio transmitter is an electronic circuit which transforms electric power from a power source into a radio frequency alternating current to apply to the antenna, the antenna radiates the energy from this current as radio waves; the transmitter impresses information such as an audio or video signal onto the radio frequency current to be carried by the radio waves. When they strike the antenna of a radio receiver, the waves excite similar radio frequency currents in it; the radio receiver extracts the information from the received waves. A practical radio transmitter consists of these parts: A power supply circuit to transform the input electrical power to the higher voltages needed to produce the required power output.
An electronic oscillator circuit to generate the radio frequency signal. This generates a sine wave of constant amplitude called the carrier wave, because it serves to "carry" the information through space. In most modern transmitters, this is a crystal oscillator in which the frequency is controlled by the vibrations of a quartz crystal; the frequency of the carrier wave is considered the frequency of the transmitter. A modulator circuit to add the information to be transmitted to the carrier wave produced by the oscillator; this is done by varying some aspect of the carrier wave. The information is provided to the transmitter either in the form of an audio signal, which represents sound, a video signal which represents moving images, or for data in the form of a binary digital signal which represents a sequence of bits, a bitstream. Different types of transmitters use different modulation methods to transmit information: In an AM transmitter the amplitude of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to the modulation signal.
In an FM transmitter the frequency of the carrier is varied by the modulation signal. In an FSK transmitter, which transmits digital data, the frequency of the carrier is shifted between two frequencies which represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1. Many oth