K-Love is a contemporary Christian music radio programming service in the United States operated by the Educational Media Foundation. The network is one of three formats produced by the Educational Media Foundation, the other two being K-Love Classics and Air1; as of March 2013, the network's programming is simulcast on over 440 FM stations and translators in 47 U. S. states and 1 U. S. Territory. K-Love has over 12 million listeners weekly online and in cities across the United States on FM radio including Anchorage, Denver, Los Angeles and New York City, it is the sixth-most online-streamed station in the world. K-Love began in 1980 as a single radio station with the call sign KCLB, it was a full-time contemporary Christian music radio station, launched by radio personality Bob Anthony, in Middletown, California. After several tries at purchasing a station in San Francisco, a small, non-commercial radio station was acquired just north of San Francisco for $67,000. On October 15, 1982, 91.9 KCLB came on the air for the first time with Bob Anthony as announcer.
The first song played on KCLB was "Praise The Lord" by The Imperials, a hit on the Christian Music charts in 1979. With the slogan "The Positive Alternative, Christian Music Radio KCLB 92FM", the station continued to grow in listeners. In 1986, Dick Jenkins was hired as General Manager; that same year, Bob Anthony moved to Oregon, to start a new radio ministry. On September 12, 1988, a 9,000-acre brush fire destroyed KCLB's main transmitter building on Geyser Peak; the radio station transmitter was relocated to 4,000-foot Mount Saint Helena. The new location improved signal strength, listeners reported they could now hear the station as far as 125 miles away; as KCLB continued to expand its signal reach, in 1987 the signal could be heard on transmitters in San Rafael and Monterey, California that rebroadcast KCLB's signal. In 1988, KCLB changed its call letters to KLVR, adopted its on-air brand name K-Love and the slogan "Encouraging Words, Positive Music, K-Love Radio". By 1989, the signal could be heard in Santa Cruz, San Jose, Los Gatos, California via microwave transmission and television subcarriers.
K-Love expanded its reach during the 1990s by purchasing small stations and translators, repeating its signal. In 1992, K-Love began using satellite technology to expand to locations further away than just northern California; the Educational Media Foundation continued to purchase small translators in California but bought stations in Portland, Phoenix, Oklahoma City and San Antonio. During the 1990s, K-Love began to expand its on-air personalities. David Pierce joined in 1991. Mike Novak, JD Chandler and Larry Wayne started working air shifts in the late 1990s. In addition to expanding the on-air talent, K-Love expanded its facilities and moved its headquarters from Santa Rosa to Sacramento in 1993. In 1998 K-Love increased its reach online by streaming live on klove.com. During the decade of the 2000s, K-Love went through a period of expansion through the purchase of stations and translators across the United States. On October 5, 2000, Colorado Christian University sold KWBI Morrison / Denver, KJOL Grand Junction and KDRH Glenwood Springs, Colorado as well as 18 translators to K-Love.
The Colorado radio network was sold for a reported $16.6 million. A Colorado Christian University release said the board considered "many offers from Christian, as well as other suitors," but the priority was finding a buyer committed to "top-quality Christian programming." KWBI is now KLDV, is one of K-Love's most listened to signals. K-Love picked up the KWBI calls for their radio station in Kansas. In 2003, the EMF took advantage of a window of time where the Federal Communications Commission allowed for the filing of new applications for FM translators known as the "2003 Auction 83 filing window" and labelled as the "Great Translator Invasion of 2003." During that time, the FCC received over 13,000 applications for original construction permits on translators. EMF filled over 800 applications, of which over 250 have been approved, most of those now carry the K-Love network. In January 2007, the EMF purchased 94.3 WJKL Elgin, which broadcasts to the Chicago area, for $17 million. Shortly after the purchase, a flood hit the WJKL transmitter site that knocked the station off the air for more than a week.
WJKL now broadcasts from Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois to the Chicago market. On November 30, 2007, K-Love purchased 97.3 KCXM, an ESPN radio affiliate for Kansas City, for $16 million. The call letters were changed to KLRX shortly after and now broadcasts from Lee's Summit to the Kansas City area; as a result and other station purchases, plus the new translators approved during the 2003 filing window, the K-Love radio network grew to be the largest broadcaster of contemporary Christian music in the world. By 2010, K-Love had an estimated listenership of 6 million people, from both terrestrial stations and on-line streams. In 2002, the EMF moved its headquarters from California, to Rocklin; the new headquarters now housed K-Love, Air1 and Christian Music Planet magazine. On July 15, 2009, K-Love bought 101.9 WKLU, which broadcasts to Indianapolis, for $4.75 million, plus $1.55 million for the studio. The studio became the broadcast location for the K-Love Morning Show. In January 2004, K-Love partnered with Premier Christian Cruises and had its first annual "K-LOVE Friends & Family Music Cruise".
Passage on the cruise sold out 13 weeks after sales began in April 2003. In 2001, Christian radio personality Jon Rivers, along with his wife Sherry, became the K-Love Morning Show hosts, bro
North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement
The North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement refers to a series of international treaties that defined technical standards for AM band radio stations. These agreements addressed how frequency assignments were distributed among the signatories, with a special emphasis on high-powered clear channel allocations; the initial NARBA bandplan known as the "Havana Treaty", was signed by the United States, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Haiti on December 13, 1937, took effect March 29, 1941. A series of modifications and adjustments followed under the NARBA name. NARBA's provisions were supplanted in 1983, with the adoption of the Regional Agreement for the Medium Frequency Broadcasting Service in Region 2, which covered the entire Western hemisphere. However, current AM band assignments in North America reflect the standards first established by the NARBA agreements. Organized AM radio broadcasting began in the early 1920s, the United States soon dominated the North American airwaves, with more than 500 stations by the end of 1922.
Due to a change in the ionosphere after the sun sets, nighttime signals from AM band stations are reflected for distances extending for hundreds of kilometers. This is valuable in providing radio programming to sparsely settled areas using high-powered transmitters. However, it leads to the need for international cooperation in station assignments, to avoid mutually interfering signals. In an effort to rationalize assignments, a major reallocation went into force in the U. S. on November 11, 1928, following the standards set by the Federal Radio Commission's General Order 40. At that time, the AM band was defined as 96 frequencies, running in 10 kilocycle-per-second steps from 550 to 1500 kHz, which were divided into what became known as "Local", "Regional", "Clear Channel" frequencies; the only provision the FRC made addressing international concerns was that six frequencies — 690, 730, 840, 910, 960, 1030 — were designated for exclusive Canadian use. On May 5, 1932, through an exchange of letters, the U.
S. and Canada informally endorsed and expanded the 1928 standards, including recognition of Canadian use of 540 kHz. During the 1930s, Canada began using 1510 kHz, while in 1934 the U. S. authorized two experimental high-fidelity stations on each of 1550 kHz. By 1939, Cuban stations existed on frequencies as high as 1600 kHz; as other countries Mexico and Cuba, developed their own radio broadcasting services, the need arose to standardize engineering practices, reduce interference, more distribute clear channel assignments. Moreover, the development of better frequency control, directional antennas, made it possible for additional stations to operate on the same or close by frequencies without increasing interference. A key objective for the United States was that, in exchange for receiving clear channel assignments, Mexico would eliminate the high-powered English-language "border blaster" stations, directing their programming toward the U. S. and causing significant interference to U. S. and Canadian stations.
However, an initial international meeting held in Mexico City in the summer of 1933 failed due to a lack of agreement over how many clear channel frequencies would be assigned to Mexico. In 1937, a series of radio conferences, this time successful, was held in Havana and the initial NARBA agreement was signed on December 13, 1937 by representatives from the United States, Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Haiti; the most significant change was the formal addition of ten broadcasting frequencies, from 1510 to 1600 kHz, with the 106 available frequencies divided into Clear Channel and Local designations. The official lower limit remained at 550 kHz, as it was not possible to add stations at the bottom of the broadcast band due to the need to protect 500 kHz — a maritime international distress frequency — from interference. Under the Agreement, most existing stations operating on 740 kHz or higher would have to change frequencies. Open frequencies were created throughout the band by "stretching out" the existing assignments, achieved by following a table which in most cases moved all the stations on a common frequency to a new, dial position.
This provided gaps of unassigned frequencies, most of which became clear channels allocated to Mexico and Canada. A majority of the frequency shifts were limited to between 10 and 30 kHz, which conserved the electrical height of a station's existing vertical radiator towers, an important factor for readjusting directional antenna parameters to accommodate the new frequency. Individual stations were specified to be Class I, II III or IV, with the class determining the maximum power a station could use and its interference protection standards. In all of the participating countries Class I and II stations were assigned to Clear Channel frequencies, while Class III was synonymous with a Regional frequency assignment. In the United States, Class IV stations were only assigned to Local frequencies, although in other countries they were assigned to both Local and Regional ones. A major change was the provision that some clear channels were allocated to be used by two stations — those maintaining sole use of a frequency were classified as Class I-A, while stations sharing a clear channel were known as Class I-B.
The Agreement assigned six Class I-A frequencies each to Mexico and Canada, one to Cuba. Reflecting the existence
WITR is a student-run broadcast radio station in Henrietta, New York. It is a college radio station, owned by the Rochester Institute of Technology, it was assigned the WITR call letters by the Federal Communications Commission. Its signal can be received 25 miles south of the RIT campus, north into the city of Rochester; the office and recording studios are located in the A-Level of the Student Alumni Union just past the RITZ Sports Zone. In 2015, a new studio, Studio X, was constructed on the main floor of the Student Alumni Union. WITR is marketed as being in the independent music industry and broadcasts a formidable variety of genres, in addition to its regularly-scheduled indie music format. Weekly shows are produced in-studio by students and feature the following genres: world, hip-hop, R&B, modern metal, disco, jazz, punk rock, Spanish/Latin, electronica, blues, classical and glam; the station additionally has a wide array of sports broadcasting. Namely, WITR broadcasts all RIT Tigers men's ice hockey games and RIT Tigers women's ice hockey home games.
WITR's vinyl record library is the second largest in New York State. In 1992, the count was estimated at 5,000 CDs. In March 2010, the station unveiled a new logo and branding, changing from "Modern Music and More" to "The Pulse of Music"; the current layout of WITR consists of 4 main departments headed by an executive board. WITR's executive board consists of six positions: general manager, member at large, program director, chief engineer, business director and events coordinator; the four departments are the Programming Department, Events Department, Engineering Department and Business Department. Each department is headed by the applicable executive board member and is assisted by anywhere from one to five other "officer" positions; the general manager and member at large do not head up a department and are tasked with maintaining the station as a whole. The member at large takes on issues with members while the general manager faces outward toward RIT and the FCC. WITR official website Query the FCC's FM station database for WITR Radio-Locator information on WITR Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WITR
WXXI is a National Public Radio member station in Rochester, New York, broadcasting news and informational programming on a 24-hour daily schedule. Its programs can be heard on WXXI-FM's HD Radio signal. WXXI dates its origins to July 2, 1984, when it signed on with its current mix of NPR news programming, local news and talk, public affairs programming geared to serve adult listeners in the six-county Rochester metropolitan area which its signal covers; the station is the successor to WSAY, a facility founded and built by the late Gordon P. Brown in 1936 as a small local area station with a 250 watt signal on 1210 kHz; as a result of the NARBA agreement it moved to 1240 kHz in 1941. In the pre-war era WSAY became best known as the home of local music programs at a time when its network-affiliated competitors were airing a mix of local news and sports with national drama and music/variety shows supplied by the NBC and CBS networks. WSAY was the first station to hire an African-American announcer for a regular shift.
Following World War II WSAY received FCC permission to improve its signal by moving to the regional 1370 kHz frequency. It relocated its transmitter from a downtown Rochester building with rooftop antenna to a modern four-tower plant in suburban Brighton, it increased power first to 1,000 watts and shortly afterward to 5,000 watts full-time. Over the next three decades WSAY operated under a number of formats, from pop standards to top 40 to progressive rock to country. Gordon Brown owned WSAY until his death in 1979, his estate sold it to the Dickey family; the Dickeys operated it from 1980 to 1984 under a variety of formats from personality adult contemporary to country to talk changing its callsign to WRTK. The license and facility was sold to the WXXI Public Broadcasting Council, taken dark before its summer 1984 relaunch as WXXI with a round-the-clock noncommercial format of news and public affairs; the WXXI news and public affairs department produces local newscasts seven days a week and local talk programming every weekday, along with NPR news programming and locally produced documentary and specialty offerings.
It operates from modern digital studios in the downtown Public Broadcasting Center, upgraded transmitting facilities at the Brighton location first brought on line by Gordon Brown in 1946. Its programming is simulcast on the HD-2 channel of sister FM station WXXI-FM, is streamed online 24 hours a day on the station's website, it has won numerous local and national awards for its program offerings. WXXI official website Query the FCC's AM station database for WXXI Radio-Locator Information on WXXI Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WXXI
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, is still used worldwide for medium wave transmissions, but on the longwave and shortwave radio bands; the earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have greatly shrunk due to competition from FM radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting, satellite radio, HD radio and Internet streaming. AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, have lower audio fidelity.
Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music to FM and digital stations. The idea of broadcasting — the unrestricted transmission of signals to a widespread audience — dates back to the founding period of radio development though the earliest radio transmissions known as "Hertzian radiation" and "wireless telegraphy", used spark-gap transmitters that could only transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. In October 1898 a London publication, The Electrician, noted that "there are rare cases where, as Dr. Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, it was recognized that this would involve significant financial issues, as that same year The Electrician commented "did not Prof. Lodge forget that no one wants to pay for shouting to the world on a system by which it would be impossible to prevent non-subscribers from benefiting gratuitously?"On January 1, 1902, Nathan Stubblefield gave a short-range "wireless telephone" demonstration, that included broadcasting speech and music to seven locations throughout Murray, Kentucky.
However, this was transmitted using induction rather than radio signals, although Stubblefield predicted that his system would be perfected so that "it will be possible to communicate with hundreds of homes at the same time", "a single message can be sent from a central station to all parts of the United States", he was unable to overcome the inherent distance limitations of this technology. The earliest public radiotelegraph broadcasts were provided as government services, beginning with daily time signals inaugurated on January 1, 1905, by a number of U. S. Navy stations. In Europe, signals transmitted from a station located on the Eiffel tower were received throughout much of Europe. In both the United States and France this led to a small market of receiver lines designed geared for jewelers who needed accurate time to set their clocks, including the Ondophone in France, the De Forest RS-100 Jewelers Time Receiver in the United States The ability to pick up time signal broadcasts, in addition to Morse code weather reports and news summaries attracted the interest of amateur radio enthusiasts.
It was recognized that, much like the telegraph had preceded the invention of the telephone, the ability to make audio radio transmissions would be a significant technical advance. Despite this knowledge, it still took two decades to perfect the technology needed to make quality audio transmissions. In addition, the telephone had been used for distributing entertainment, outside of a few "telephone newspaper" systems, most of which were established in Europe. With this in mind, most early radiotelephone development envisioned that the device would be more profitably developed as a "wireless telephone" for personal communication, or for providing links where regular telephone lines could not be run, rather than for the uncertain finances of broadcasting; the person credited as the primary early developer of AM technology is Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden. The original spark-gap radio transmitters were impractical for transmitting audio, since they produced discontinuous pulses known as "damped waves".
Fessenden realized that what was needed was a new type of radio transmitter that produced steady "undamped" signals, which could be "modulated" to reflect the sounds being transmitted. Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. S. Patent 706,737, which he applied for on May 29, 1901, was issued the next year, it called for the use of a high-speed alternator that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave transmitter. Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while doing developmental work for the United States Weather Service on Cobb Island, Maryland; because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves. He reported that, in the fall of 1900, he transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers, which appears to have been the first successful audio transmission using radio signals.
However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical. For a time he continued working with more sophist
WEOS is a college radio station licensed to Geneva, New York, broadcasting on 89.5 FM across the Finger Lakes region of New York. It broadcasts on a smaller relay transmitter on 90.3FM in Geneva. The station is owned by The Colleges of the Seneca, Inc. the legal name of Hobart and William Smith Colleges. The board of trustees of the colleges are the owners, with the current President Mark Gearan as its chair; the programming is NPR/public radio, with a focus more on news/talk shows. WEOS is an affiliate of National Public Radio, Public Radio International, American Public Media and Pacifica Radio. In addition, it acquires "public radio"-style programming from the Public Radio Satellite System, from the internet, from various national and local sources. WEOS maintains an active "community calendar" listing of local events. There are regular special broadcasts of lectures, panel discussions and live concerts from local and regional colleges and arts centers. In general, it maintains a public radio format.
Most of the programming is of a news/talk/information style, although there are a few hours of music shows on weekdays, several hours on weekends. Some programming is produced locally by volunteer community DJs, others by Hobart and William Smith students. WEOS reaches most of the central Finger Lakes region of New York State. There are a repeater or "translator" station. Both broadcast the same programming. WEOS 89.5FM: Located on a cellphone tower on Lake to Lake Road, near the village of Gorham, New York. Licensed for 6,000 watts effective radiated power via a 3-bay/full-wavelength Shively 6810 antenna array. Uses a Harris Z8HDC transmitter to create a HD Radio digital signal. Serves the Finger Lakes region. Actual reception of WEOS can vary with local terrain and the quality of receiver/antenna. W212BA 90.3FM: Located on a tower on top of the Winn-Seeley Gymnasium on the Hobart and William Smith Colleges campus. Licensed for 88 watts ERP via a 4-bay/full-wavelength ERI antenna array. Operating under Special Temporary Authority from the Federal Communications Commission to transmit 44 watts ERP.
Uses a Larcan DRT01 & LA25 heterodyning transmitter to copy WEOS's 89.7FM signal and retransmit it on 90.3FM in HD Radio. Serves downtown Geneva and the HWS campus. WITH 90.1FM: Related to WEOS is WITH 90.1FM broadcasting from the WSQG 90.9FM tower in North Lansing, with 1,000 watts ERP. WITH broadcasts a separate programming schedule from WEOS, focusing on Triple-A music. WITH is a partnership endeavor between WXXI in Rochester. WEOS started on May 6, 1949 as a carrier current radio station at Hobart and William Smith Colleges as a means of rebroadcasting recorded lectures from Western Civilization or other classes for students to either re-hear, or in some cases, hear for the first time if they missed class. However, there are records and citations that mention broadcast experiments and other related efforts in earlier years, one involving the broadcast of a Hobart and Union College football game in 1920; the station was operated by students. The station's studios were in Smith Hall, before moving to the basement of Sherrill Hall, where real broadcast studios were built in the 1960s.
The studios remained there until 1998. The station was granted a construction permit in 1970, for 91.3 MHz, at 10 watts ERP. However, this frequency would have precluded Syracuse from getting a public radio station. Through negotiation, the station applied for and changed its frequency to 89.7FM. The station went on the air in 1971, broadcasting a variety of programs both recorded and live, all forms of music and sports, including those of NPR; the transmitter site was on the roof of Eaton Hall. Through a series of power increases and improvements, the station increased its power and coverage in steps, first to 250 watts 460 watts, 1500 watts; the latter moved the transmitter site and tower to the roof of Winn-Seeley Gymnasium in the mid-1970s. The station had a Phelps-Dodge 4-bay antenna. In July 1988, lightning struck the antenna, a fire destroyed the transmitter and related equipment; the transmitter was to be replaced and back on the air by the start of the school year, but the new transmitter was destroyed in-transit in a truck accident.
The replacement transmitter did not arrive until mid December 1988. The Harris FM1-K was installed in a new location in Winn-Seeley gym, including its Optimod 8100A; the STL link was a buried multi-conductor shielded audio cable running from building to building from Sherrill Hall in the old Alpha System fire alarm conduit. The station used to run audio and voltages on these cables, in a home-built remote control; the advent of the new transmitter, a new remote control, allowed for the stereo send/return audio from remote pickup transmitters and the data to use this cable, which when equalized, was flat from 15 Hz to 22 kHz! In 1989, the antenna failed, was replaced by an ERI 4-bay antenna, still used today for a translator, W212BA 90.3FM. In 1994, The station applied for and was granted a construction permit to move the transmitter site off campus. For years, there was an effort to get the station's transmitter up on "Bean's Hill" to lessen multipath and help improve coverage; this came to pass with a move to Stanley, New York, on a tower site owned by Ontario County public safety.
The station we
The Finger Lakes are a group of 11 long, narrow north–south lakes in an area informally called the Finger Lakes region in Central New York, in the United States. This region straddles the northern and transitional edge, known as the Finger Lakes Uplands and Gorges ecoregion, of the Northern Allegheny Plateau and the Ontario Lowlands ecoregion of the Great Lakes Lowlands; the geological term finger lake refers to a long, narrow lake in an overdeepened glacial valley, while the proper name Finger Lakes goes back to the late 19th century. Cayuga and Seneca Lakes are among the deepest in the United States - 435 feet and 618 feet respecitvely - with bottoms well below sea level. Though none of the lakes' width exceeds 3.5 miles, Seneca Lake is 38.1 miles long, 66.9 square miles, the largest in total area. The origin of the name Finger Lakes is uncertain; the oldest known published use of finger lakes for this group of 11 lakes is in a United States Geological Survey paper by Thomas Chamberlin, published in 1883.
This paper was cited and Finger Lakes formally used as a proper name by R. S. Tarr in a Geological Society of America paper published in 1893. Older usage of Finger Lakes in either maps, reports, or any other documents remains to be verified; the 11 Finger Lakes, from east to west, are: Otisco Lake Skaneateles Lake Owasco Lake Cayuga Lake Seneca Lake Keuka Lake Canandaigua Lake Honeoye Lake Canadice Lake Hemlock Lake Conesus LakeOnondaga Lake to the east, although smaller, is sometimes called "the 12th Finger Lake", because it is similar in shape. It is in Appalachian hill terrain, with a historic village linked to other Finger Lakes by US 20, it may have been formed in the same manner as the Finger Lakes, as satellite photos show three valleys similar in character and spacing to the Finger Lakes east of Otisco Lake. The first is the Tully Valley, which includes a chain of small lakes at the south end that could be a "Finger Lake" that never formed because of a terminal moraine; the moraine caused the Tioughnioga River to flow south instead of north, the opposite of the Finger Lakes' waters.
The next two valleys to the east contain Butternut Creek, which flows north, the East Branch of the Tioughnioga River, which flows south. The next valley contains Limestone Creek; the next valley after that contains Cazenovia Lake. Oneida Lake, to the northeast of Syracuse, New York, is sometimes included as the "thumb", although it is shallow and somewhat different in character from the rest. Onondaga Lake, though just north of the Finger Lakes region, is not considered one of the Finger Lakes; as with Oneida and Cazenovia Lakes, it drains into the St. Lawrence River. Chautauqua Lake, Findley Lake and Kinzua Lake to the west are not considered Finger Lakes. Conesus, Canadice and Otisco are considered the minor Finger Lakes. Other, smaller lakes, including Silver and Lamoka lakes, dot this region. Silver Lake, west of Conesus Lake, would seem to qualify because it is in the Great Lakes watershed, but Waneta and Lamoka lakes are part of the Susquehanna River watershed as they drain into a tributary of the Chemung River.
East of Oneida and Cazenovia Lakes are the headwaters of the Susquehanna River and Hudson River watersheds. The 2,000-acre muckland of a valley in Potter, New York, part of Torrey Farms, was a 12th Finger Lake, as the waterline is just below the surface, it lies between Lakes Canandaigua and Seneca, was once a swamp. These glacial finger lakes originated. Around two million years ago, the first of many continental glaciers of the Laurentide Ice Sheet moved southward from the Hudson Bay area, initiating the Pleistocene glaciation; these scouring glaciers widened and accentuated the existing river valleys. Glacial debris terminal moraine left behind by the receding ice, acted as dams, allowing lakes to form. Despite the deep erosion of the valleys, the surrounding uplands show little evidence of glaciation, suggesting the ice was thin, or at least unable to cause much erosion at these higher altitudes; the deep cutting by the ice left some tributaries hanging high above the lakes—both Seneca and Cayuga have tributaries hanging as much as 120 m above the valley floors.
Much of the Finger Lakes area lies upon the Marcellus Shale and the Utica Shale, two prominent natural gas reserves. Due to the recent increase in fracking technology, the natural gas is now accessible to extraction. While some large landowners have leased their lands, a number of small landowners would like to follow suit, many residents of the Finger Lakes oppose the fracking process due to concerns about groundwater contamination and the industrial impact of the extraction related activities; the first direct actions and local legislative actions against fracking occurred in the Finger Lakes bioregion. In December 2014, the government of New York banned all fracking in the state, citing pollution risks; the Finger Lakes region contains evidence of pre-Iroquois habitation, such as The Bluff Point Stoneworks, but little is known about who may have constructed these enigmatic structures. The Finger Lakes region is a central part of the Iroquois homeland; the Iroquois tribes include the Seneca and Cayuga nations, for which the two largest Finger Lakes are named.
The Tuscarora tribe lived in the Finger Lakes region as well, from ca. 1720. The Onondaga and Oneida tribes lived at the