FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies; the term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country, dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions: In the former Soviet republics, some former Eastern Bloc countries, the older 65.8–74 MHz band is used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz; this band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is being phased out in many countries.
In those countries the 87.5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used; the frequency of an FM broadcast station is an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe and Africa, only multiples are used. In the UK odd or are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. In most countries the maximum permitted frequency error is specified, the unmodulated carrier should be within 2000 Hz of the assigned frequency. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500, 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500 kHz frequency separation when closer frequency spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as interfering signals are more attenuated and so have less effect on neighboring frequencies.
Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation which conveys information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal; because transmitted FM signals use more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is used with the higher frequencies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, land mobile radio systems. The maximum frequency deviation of the carrier is specified and regulated by the licensing authorities in each country. For a stereo broadcast, the maximum permitted carrier deviation is invariably ±75 kHz, although a little higher is permitted in the United States when SCA systems are used. For a monophonic broadcast, again the most common permitted. However, some countries specify a lower value for monophonic broadcasts, such as ±50 kHz. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the baseband.
This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise; these processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In the Americas and South Korea, 75 µs is used; this applies to both stereo transmissions. For stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing; the use of pre-emphasis becomes a problem because of the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. Pre-emphasizing these high frequency sounds would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Modulation control devices are used to prevent this.
Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing, at his experimental 41 MHz station W2XDG located on the 85th floor of the Empire State Building in New York City; these FM multiplex transmissions started in November 1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing signal for the fax program and a telegraph “order” channel. These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network, were transmitted using the same system of subcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter link system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were replaced with much improved results.
The first FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from Major Armstrong's experimental station KE2XCC at Alpine, New Jersey occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-cha
Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area
The Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area known as Champaign–Urbana and Urbana–Champaign as well as Chambana, is a metropolitan area in east-central Illinois. It is the 191st largest metropolitan area in the U. S, it is composed of three counties, Champaign and Piatt. The Office of Management and Budget has designated the three-county Champaign–Urbana area as one of its metropolitan statistical areas, which are used for statistical purposes by the Census Bureau and other agencies; the area has a population of 231,891 as determined by the 2010 U. S. Census; the area is anchored by the principal cities of Champaign and Urbana and is home to the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, the flagship campus of the University of Illinois system.. Journalists treat the metropolitan area as just one city. For example, in 1998, Newsweek included the Champaign-Urbana Metropolitan Area in its list of the top ten tech cities. Champaign-Urbana ranked tenth as one of the top twenty-five green cities in the United States, in a survey made by Country Home magazine.
A number of major developments have changed downtown Champaign since the beginning of the 21st century. Beginning in the 1990s, city government began to aggressively court development, including by investing millions of dollars in public funds into downtown improvements and by offering developers incentives, such as liquor licenses, to pursue projects in the area; the 9-story M2 on Neil project is such an example. The project began in 2007 by taking down the facade of the deteriorated Trevett-Mattis Banking Co. which occupied the building site. The facade was retained on the M2 building. Residents first began to lease space in the M2 in the winter of 2009; the M2 includes not just condos for residential occupation, but retail and office space in its lower floors, a common trend in new developments in the urban core. Across the street, a 9-story Hyatt Place boutique hotel opened in the summer of 2014. In the Campustown area adjoining the University of Illinois, the new 24-story highrise apartment building 309 Green was ostensibly completed in the fall of 2007 but had partial occupancy at least through the fall of 2008.
It is 256 feet tall, making it a full 3 stories higher than the older 21-story Tower at Third, the first contribution to the Urbana–Champaign skyline. The Burnham 310 Project, at 18 stories, taller, was finished in the fall of 2008 and includes student luxury apartments and a County Market grocery store. Burnham 310 connects downtown Champaign to Campustown. In 2013-14, four other mixed-use buildings have been built in Campustown, with heights of 26, 13, 8, 5 stories. On the University of Illinois campus, Memorial Stadium has gone under major renovation, with construction of new stands and luxury suites. Across Kirby Avenue, the Assembly Hall, first built in 1963 and renamed the State Farm Center as part of a major renovation begun in 2014, continues to be the home of Illini basketball and is expected to resume hosting concerts and other performing arts after renovation is completed in late 2016. In the late 2000s, the restoration of the Champaign County Courthouse bell tower capped the expansion and renovation of Courthouse facilities and provided a striking focal point in downtown Urbana.
These, among other developments, have given the Twin Cities a more urban feel. The outlying parts of the metropolitan area differ from the suburban areas of many other metropolitan areas. Instead of a sprawling suburban skirt that encircles the urban area, the urban area abuts large swaths of farmland, with small to medium-sized villages that originated as farming communities. But, as the willingness of professionals to commute longer distances has increased in recent decades, new residential developments have arisen on their edges, dotting the surrounding landscape; some of these villages are home to as many as 5,000 residents or more, but most are smaller. Most of these outlying communities, such as Savoy, Mahomet, St. Joseph, arguably Rantoul and Monticello as well, are dependent on Champaign and Urbana for economic and infrastructure support. Predominantly, these cities and villages lie in Champaign County; these areas are populated to a substantial extent with commuters who work in Champaign or Urbana, but reside outside the two cities.
Because higher paid professors and technology professionals who work for the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, the many clinics and hospitals in town, or in the Research Park, are more to maintain cars for commuting longer distances and to afford owner-occupied single-family housing, these areas lacking in mass transit and high-density rental projects have a higher median household income than Champaign or Urbana. In addition to residential developments in the surrounding agricultural communities, residential neighborhoods are growing up in unincorporated areas within a short radius of the city limits, while the cities themselves are expanding to annex areas of new development. While the annexed areas benefit from municipal services, developments that are willing to forego city sewer systems and police protection can enjoy the lower tax rates the surrounding townships levy, as fewer services are provided. Areas under construction extend as far as around Rising Road west of I-57 and north and east of Willard Airport.
Some of this land is in Champaign Township, while some has been annexed to either Champaign or Savoy. Additional land development is occurring north of I-74 in la
WPCD is a radio station broadcasting an Alternative format. Licensed to Champaign, United States, the station serves the Illinois college area District 505; the station is owned by Parkland College and features programming from AP Radio. Query the FCC's FM station database for WPCD Radio-Locator information on WPCD Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WPCD
The News-Gazette (Champaign–Urbana)
The News-Gazette is a daily newspaper serving eleven counties in the eastern portion of Central Illinois and the Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area. Based in Champaign, the paper is independently owned by News-Gazette Media which in turn is owned 100% by the Marajen Stevick Foundation, an Illinois nonprofit corporation. Local radio stations WDWS, WKIO and WHMS are owned by News-Gazette Media as well; the paper traces its history to the Urbana Union, founded in 1852. By the turn of the century, it had moved to become the Champaign Daily News. In 1919, David W. Stevick and publisher of the Daily News, bought the Champaign Daily Gazette and merged them into the current paper, he passed it to his widow, Helen M. Stevick. Helen died in 1967 and was succeeded by her daughter, Marajen Stevick Chinigo, who ran the paper until her death in 2002. In 1979, the paper's longtime rival, the Champaign-Urbana Courier, ceased publication; this left Champaign with only one daily newspaper for the first time. The two papers had long been alike, as both were afternoon newspapers.
The Courier focused on news from Urbana. From its founding until June 2009, The News-Gazette published its main edition in the afternoon; the paper was well known in the area as being one of the only afternoon papers left. Beginning in the late 1990s, the paper printed an edition geared towards Champaign and Urbana, published in the morning. Due to the decreasing revenue from print advertising, The News-Gazette switched to morning publication only on June 1, 2009. Since 1937, it has been co-owned with the area's oldest commercial radio station, WDWS. An FM sister was added in 1949. Another rock station, WUIL, was purchased in May 2010; the News-Gazette has a circulation ranging from 22,000–30,000. The News-Gazette is acclaimed for its sports section, it has ranked among the top sports sections among small markets in the country. Loren Tate, a Champaign sports writer and broadcaster, has been covering the Illinois Fighting Illini for The News-Gazette and WDWS since 1965; the News-Gazette has been an Illinois Press Association award-winning newspaper for editorial and advertising excellence.
Since 2008, The News-Gazette's advertising department has been awarded the Illinois Press Association's Annual James S. Copley Memorial Sweepstakes Award for Daily Newspaper Advertising Excellence 6 times; this is considered to be the top honor available and is awarded for overall excellence in advertising. The News-Gazette prints special reports or series from Associated Press writers about the state or national government; the newspaper's website is the most viewed commercial website in East Central Illinois. It is viewed by around 30,000-35,000 unique visitors a day, receives 3.5 million page views per month. On April 11, 2017, The News-Gazette announced plans to phase out its local printing and packaging operations by mid-summer 2017; the Journal Star in Peoria will provide all printing and packaging services, the move will eliminate 35 full- and part-time positions. Official website
Champaign is a city in Champaign County, United States. The city is 135 miles south of Chicago, 124 miles west of Indianapolis, 178 mi northeast of St. Louis, Missouri; the United States Census Bureau estimates the city was home to 87,432 people as of July 1, 2017. Champaign is the tenth-most populous city in Illinois, the state's fourth-most populous city outside the Chicago metropolitan area, it is included in the Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area. Champaign is notable for sharing the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign with its sister city of Urbana. Champaign is home to Parkland College which serves about 18,000 students during the academic year. Due to the university and a number of well known technology startup companies, it is referred to as the hub, or a significant landmark, of the Silicon Prairie. Champaign houses offices for Sony, for the Fortune 500 companies Abbott, Archer Daniels Midland, Deere & Company, Dow Chemical Company, IBM, State Farm. Champaign was founded in 1855, when the Illinois Central Railroad laid its rail track two miles west of downtown Urbana.
Called "West Urbana", it was renamed Champaign when it acquired a city charter in 1860. Both the city and county name were derived from Ohio. During February 1969, Carl Perkins joined with Bob Dylan to write the song "Champaign, Illinois", which Perkins released on his album On Top; the band Old 97's took another Bob Dylan song, "Desolation Row", combined its melody with new lyrics to make a new song "Champaign, Illinois", which they released with Dylan's blessing on their 2010 album The Grand Theatre Volume One. It achieved considerable popularity; the two "Champaign, Illinois" songs are not similar to each other, except that Bob Dylan was involved in both of them. On September 22, 1985, Champaign hosted the first Farm Aid concert at the University of Illinois' Memorial Stadium; the concert raised over $7 million for American family farmers. In 2005, Champaign-Urbana was the location of the National Science Olympiad Tournament, attracting young scientists from all 50 states; the city hosts the state Science Olympiad competition every year.
The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign once again hosted the National competition on May 20–22, 2010. In 2013, Champaign was rated fifth best place in the United States for a healthy work-life balance. According to the 2010 census, Champaign has a total area of 22.457 square miles, of which 22.43 square miles is land and 0.027 square miles is water. Champaign is located on high ground, providing sources to the Kaskaskia River to the west, the Embarras River to the south. Downtown Champaign drains into Boneyard Creek, which feeds the Saline Branch of the Salt Fork Vermilion River. Champaign shares a border with the neighboring city of Urbana. Champaign and the bordering village of Savoy form the Champaign-Urbana Metropolitan Area known as Champaign-Urbana, it may be colloquially known as the "Twin Cities" or Chambana. The following diagram represents localities within a 35 miles radius of Champaign; the city has a humid continental climate, typical of the Midwestern United States, with hot summers and cold, moderately snowy winters.
Temperatures exceed 90 °F on an average of 24 days per year, fall below 0 °F on six nights annually. The record high temperature in Champaign was 109 °F in 1954, the record low was −25 °F, recorded on four separate occasions − in 1899, 1905, 1994 and 1999; as of the 2010 census, 81,055 people and 34,434 total housing units in Champaign. The population density was 3,974.6 people per square mile. There were 28,556 housing units at an average density of 1,681.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67.8% White, 15.62% African-American, 0.3% Native American, 10.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from other races, 3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino individuals of any race made up 6.3% of the population. According to the 2010 Census the city's 32,152 households, 21.5% included children under age 18, 33.1% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 53.7% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.25 persons and the average family size was 2.97. According to the 2010 Census of all individuals, 17.3% were under age 18, 22.5% from 20 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 18% from 45 to 64, 7.6% were age 65 or older. The median age was 25.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.9 males. According to the 2010 Census the median income for a household in the city was $41,403, the median income for a family was $72,819; the per capita income for the city was $24,855. About 11.9% of families and 26.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. The current city executive or Mayor of Champaign is Deborah Frank Feinen who assumed office in May 2015; the representative body of Champaign is known as the City Council. The City Council is composed of three At-Large members and one member from each of the five council districts located within the city limits.
As of May 2017, its members are: Tom Bruno, Will Kyles, Matthew Gladney, Clarissa Fourman, Alicia Beck, Angi
Danville is a city in and the county seat of Vermilion County, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 33,027. Danville was founded in 1827 on 60 acres of land donated by Guy W. Smith and 20 acres donated by Dan W. Beckwith; the sale of lots was set for April 10, 1827 and advertised in newspapers in Indianapolis and the state capital of Vandalia. The first post office was established in May of the same year in the house of Amos Williams, organizer of Vermilion and Edgar Counties and a prominent Danville citizen. Williams and Beckwith drew up the first plat map. Beckwith was moved to Indiana as a young man, he died in 1835 of pneumonia contracted on a horseback ride back from Washington. Danville became a major industrial city in the late early twentieth centuries. From the 1850s to the 1940s, Danville was an important coal mining area; the coal formation underlying eastern Illinois and western Indiana is named the "Danville Member," after the area where it was first discovered. With the closure of the mines and many factories, Danville's economic base suffered in the latter half of the 20th century.
The former mines were converted into lakes, creating fishing and recreation opportunities at parks such as Kickapoo State Recreation Area and Kennekuk Cove County Park. Danville is located 120 miles south of Chicago, 35 miles east of Champaign-Urbana, 90 miles west of Indianapolis, Indiana. Illinois Route 1, U. S. Route 136, U. S. Route 150 intersect in Danville. Lake Vermilion is located on the northwest side of town. According to the 2010 census, Danville has a total area of 17.967 square miles, of which 17.89 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in Danville have ranged from a low of 17 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 112 °F was recorded in July 1936. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.99 inches inches in February to 4.70 inches inches in June. Danville is the principal city of the Danville Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Danville and Vermilion County.
As of the census of 2000, there were 33,904 people, 13,327 households, 8,156 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,994.0 people per square mile. There were 14,886 housing units at an average density of 875.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 70.19% White, 24.37% African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.20% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.09% from other races, 1.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.57% of the population. There were 13,327 households out of which 28% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.0% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.8% were non-families. 33.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.9% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males. The median income for a household in the city is $30,431, the median income for a family is $39,308. Males have a median income of $31,027 versus $22,303 for females; the per capita income for the city is $16,476. 18.1% of the population and 13.4% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 26.8% are under the age of 18 and 10.5% are 65 or older. According to the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis, Danville is the cheapest place to live in the United States; the City of Danville maintains 17 parks, including Harrison Park Golf Course and FETCH Dog Park in Espenschied Park. Danville's main shopping center is the Village Mall, opened in 1975. Additional retail has spread north on Route 1/Vermilion Street since the early 90s, ranging from traditional big-box stores and retail infill and redevelopment of abandoned shopping centers.
Retail in the community has increased after a large influx of redevelopment and green development happened in 2013 with the addition of Meijer and the Kohl's Plaza. 1967–1971: Al Gardner 1971–1975: Rolland E. Craig 1975–1985: David S. Palmer, namesake of David S. Palmer Arena 1985: Wilbur Scharlau, appointed acting mayor by city council following Palmer's death 1985–1986: Hardin W. Hawes, appointed acting mayor following Scharlau's resignation 1986–1987: Wilbur Scharlau, appointed mayor following resignation of Hawes 1987–2003: Robert E. Jones, namesake of Danville Municipal building 2003–2018: Scott Eisenhauer, namesake of Danville Public Works Building 2018-present: Rickey Williams Jr. appointed Acting Mayor by the city council, following Eisenhauer’s resignation. Elected to full term on April 2, 2019. Defeated Former Vermilion County Board Chairman James McMahon, Alderman Steve Nichols, Donald Crews; the City of Danville website maintains the complete list
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, commercial and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." A slogan has the attributes of being memorable concise and appealing to the audience. The word slogan is derived from slogorn, an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic and Irish sluagh-ghairm. Slogans vary from the visual to the chanted and the vulgar, their simple rhetorical nature leaves little room for detail and a chanted slogan may serve more as social expression of unified purpose than as communication to an intended audience. George E. Shankel's research states that, "English-speaking people began using the term by 1704." The term at that time meant "the distinctive note, phrase or cry of any person or body of persons." Slogans were common throughout the European continent during the Middle Ages.
Crimmins' research suggests that brands are an valuable corporate asset, can make up a lot of a business's total value. With this in mind, if we take into consideration Keller's research, which suggests that a brand is made up of three different components; these include, name and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way. Therefore, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand. Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the brand name to be likable and the slogan message clear and concise. Dass, Kohli, & Thomas' research suggests that there are certain factors that make up the likability of a slogan; the clarity of the message the brand is trying to encode within the slogan. The slogan emphasizes the benefit of the service it is portraying; the creativity of a slogan is another factor that had a positive effect on the likability of a slogan. Lastly, leaving the brand name out of the slogan will have a positive effect on the likability of the brand itself.
Advertisers must keep into consideration these factors when creating a slogan for a brand, as it shows a brand is a valuable asset to a company, with the slogan being one of the three main components to a brands' image. The original usage refers to the usage as a clan motto among Highland clans. Marketing slogans are called taglines in the United States or straplines in the United Kingdom. Europeans use the terms baselines, claims or pay-offs. "Sloganeering" is a derogatory term for activity which degrades discourse to the level of slogans. Slogans are used to convey a message about the service or cause that it is representing, it written as a song. Slogans are used to capture the attention of the audience it is trying to reach. If the slogan is used for commercial purposes it is written to be memorable/catchy in order for a consumer to associate the slogan with the product it is representing. A slogan is part of the production aspect that helps create an image for the product, service or cause it's representing.
A slogan can be a few simple words used to form a phrase. In commercial advertising, corporations will use a slogan as part of promotional activity. Slogans can become a global way of identifying good or service, for example Nike's slogan'Just Do It' helped establish Nike as an identifiable brand worldwide. Slogans should catch the audience's attention and influence the consumer's thoughts on what to purchase; the slogan is used by companies to affect the way consumers view their product compared to others. Slogans can provide information about the product, service or cause its advertising; the language used in the slogans is essential to the message. Current words used can trigger different emotions; the use of good adjectives makes for an effective slogan. When a slogan is used for advertising purposes its goal is to sell the product or service to as many consumers through the message and information a slogan provides. A slogan's message can include information about the quality of the product.
Examples of words that can be used to direct the consumer preference towards a current product and its qualities are: good, real, great, perfect and pure. Slogans can influence. Slogans offer information to consumers in an creative way. A slogan can be used for a powerful cause; the slogan can be used to raise awareness about a current cause. A slogan should be clear with a supporting message. Slogans, when combined with action, can provide an influential foundation for a cause to be seen by its intended audience. Slogans, whether used for advertising purpose or social causes, deliver a message to the public that shapes the audiences' opinion towards the subject of the slogan. "It is well known that the text a human hears or reads constitutes 7% of the received information. As a result, any slogan possesses a support