Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both; the signal types can be digital audio. The earliest radio stations did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated; the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an "oscillation valve"; the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the reverse direction because the plate was not heated and thus not capable of thermionic emission of electrons. Known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and as a radio wave detector; this improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cat's whisker.
However, what was still required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4, 1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25, 1906, Lee De Forest patented his three-element Audion, it wasn't put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was becoming viable. However, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. While many early experimenters attempted to create systems similar to radiotelephone devices by which only two parties were meant to communicate, there were others who intended to transmit to larger audiences. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year.. In The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6, 1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station.
In 1916, Frank Conrad, an electrical engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania garage with the call letters 8XK. The station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2, 1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America; the commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license. The first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself: the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election; the Montreal station that became CFCF began broadcast programming on May 20, 1920, the Detroit station that became WWJ began program broadcasts beginning on August 20, 1920, although neither held a license at the time. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconi's New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920, where she sang two arias and her famous trill.
She was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922; the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923. Radio Argentina began scheduled transmissions from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires on August 27, 1920, making its own priority claim; the station got its license on November 19, 1923. The delay was due to the lack of official Argentine licensing procedures before that date; this station continued regular broadcasting of entertainment and cultural fare for several decades. Radio in education soon followed and colleges across the U. S. began adding radio broadcasting courses to their curricula. Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts introduced one of the first broadcasting majors in 1932 when the college teamed up with WLOE in Boston to have students broadcast programs.
Broadcasting service is – according to Article 1.38 of the International Telecommunication Union´s Radio Regulations – defined as «A radiocommunication service in which the transmission are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmission.» Definitions identical to those contained in the Annexes to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union are marked "" or "" respectively. A radio broadcasting station is associated with wireless transmission, though in practice broadcasting transmission take place using both wires and radio waves; the point of this is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can receive the broadcast. In line to ITU Radio Regulations each broadcasting station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. Broadcasting by radio takes several forms; these include FM stations. There are several subtypes, namely commercial broadcasting, non-commercial educational public broadcasting and non-profit varieties as well as community radio, student-run campus radio stations, and
K-Love is a contemporary Christian music radio programming service in the United States operated by the Educational Media Foundation. The network is one of three formats produced by the Educational Media Foundation, the other two being K-Love Classics and Air1; as of March 2013, the network's programming is simulcast on over 440 FM stations and translators in 47 U. S. states and 1 U. S. Territory. K-Love has over 12 million listeners weekly online and in cities across the United States on FM radio including Anchorage, Denver, Los Angeles and New York City, it is the sixth-most online-streamed station in the world. K-Love began in 1980 as a single radio station with the call sign KCLB, it was a full-time contemporary Christian music radio station, launched by radio personality Bob Anthony, in Middletown, California. After several tries at purchasing a station in San Francisco, a small, non-commercial radio station was acquired just north of San Francisco for $67,000. On October 15, 1982, 91.9 KCLB came on the air for the first time with Bob Anthony as announcer.
The first song played on KCLB was "Praise The Lord" by The Imperials, a hit on the Christian Music charts in 1979. With the slogan "The Positive Alternative, Christian Music Radio KCLB 92FM", the station continued to grow in listeners. In 1986, Dick Jenkins was hired as General Manager; that same year, Bob Anthony moved to Oregon, to start a new radio ministry. On September 12, 1988, a 9,000-acre brush fire destroyed KCLB's main transmitter building on Geyser Peak; the radio station transmitter was relocated to 4,000-foot Mount Saint Helena. The new location improved signal strength, listeners reported they could now hear the station as far as 125 miles away; as KCLB continued to expand its signal reach, in 1987 the signal could be heard on transmitters in San Rafael and Monterey, California that rebroadcast KCLB's signal. In 1988, KCLB changed its call letters to KLVR, adopted its on-air brand name K-Love and the slogan "Encouraging Words, Positive Music, K-Love Radio". By 1989, the signal could be heard in Santa Cruz, San Jose, Los Gatos, California via microwave transmission and television subcarriers.
K-Love expanded its reach during the 1990s by purchasing small stations and translators, repeating its signal. In 1992, K-Love began using satellite technology to expand to locations further away than just northern California; the Educational Media Foundation continued to purchase small translators in California but bought stations in Portland, Phoenix, Oklahoma City and San Antonio. During the 1990s, K-Love began to expand its on-air personalities. David Pierce joined in 1991. Mike Novak, JD Chandler and Larry Wayne started working air shifts in the late 1990s. In addition to expanding the on-air talent, K-Love expanded its facilities and moved its headquarters from Santa Rosa to Sacramento in 1993. In 1998 K-Love increased its reach online by streaming live on klove.com. During the decade of the 2000s, K-Love went through a period of expansion through the purchase of stations and translators across the United States. On October 5, 2000, Colorado Christian University sold KWBI Morrison / Denver, KJOL Grand Junction and KDRH Glenwood Springs, Colorado as well as 18 translators to K-Love.
The Colorado radio network was sold for a reported $16.6 million. A Colorado Christian University release said the board considered "many offers from Christian, as well as other suitors," but the priority was finding a buyer committed to "top-quality Christian programming." KWBI is now KLDV, is one of K-Love's most listened to signals. K-Love picked up the KWBI calls for their radio station in Kansas. In 2003, the EMF took advantage of a window of time where the Federal Communications Commission allowed for the filing of new applications for FM translators known as the "2003 Auction 83 filing window" and labelled as the "Great Translator Invasion of 2003." During that time, the FCC received over 13,000 applications for original construction permits on translators. EMF filled over 800 applications, of which over 250 have been approved, most of those now carry the K-Love network. In January 2007, the EMF purchased 94.3 WJKL Elgin, which broadcasts to the Chicago area, for $17 million. Shortly after the purchase, a flood hit the WJKL transmitter site that knocked the station off the air for more than a week.
WJKL now broadcasts from Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois to the Chicago market. On November 30, 2007, K-Love purchased 97.3 KCXM, an ESPN radio affiliate for Kansas City, for $16 million. The call letters were changed to KLRX shortly after and now broadcasts from Lee's Summit to the Kansas City area; as a result and other station purchases, plus the new translators approved during the 2003 filing window, the K-Love radio network grew to be the largest broadcaster of contemporary Christian music in the world. By 2010, K-Love had an estimated listenership of 6 million people, from both terrestrial stations and on-line streams. In 2002, the EMF moved its headquarters from California, to Rocklin; the new headquarters now housed K-Love, Air1 and Christian Music Planet magazine. On July 15, 2009, K-Love bought 101.9 WKLU, which broadcasts to Indianapolis, for $4.75 million, plus $1.55 million for the studio. The studio became the broadcast location for the K-Love Morning Show. In January 2004, K-Love partnered with Premier Christian Cruises and had its first annual "K-LOVE Friends & Family Music Cruise".
Passage on the cruise sold out 13 weeks after sales began in April 2003. In 2001, Christian radio personality Jon Rivers, along with his wife Sherry, became the K-Love Morning Show hosts, bro
WTKI is a radio station licensed to serve Huntsville, United States. The station is owned by FRC of Alabama LLC, doing business as "Focus Radio Communications", its studios and transmitter are located just west of downtown Huntsville. In November 2009, FRC began operating WTKI under a local marketing agreement, broadcasting a combined news/talk/sports format; some programming is provided by Fox Business Network. In 2010, the station will broadcast at least 85 Southern League baseball games as the flagship station of the Huntsville Stars Radio Network; the network includes sister station WIEZ and WWIC in Scottsboro. This station signed on as WFUN on November 26, 1946, was acquired by the Huntsville Broadcasting Company in May 1948; the station served Huntsville since as WFUN, WFIX, WKGL, WHOH, now WTKI. WFIX was a full-service middle-of-the-road adult contemporary station, until the market upheaval of the 1980s when Arbitron expanded the survey area beyond Madison County and the FM stations began their rise to local market dominance.
Since the mid-1980s the station has broadcast a number of formats, most notably talk radio, classic country, relationship radio, in 2002 flipped to sports talk as "ESPN 1450". The station was the radio flagship of the Huntsville Stars minor league baseball radio network until the 2007 station ownership and format change. WTKI broadcast games of the Huntsville Channel Cats of the Central Hockey League from the team's inception in 1995 through the penultimate 1998-1999 season; the station was assigned the WTKI call letters by the Federal Communications Commission on September 1, 1992. It has held those call letters since except for an eight-month period in 2002 when it was a "relationship radio" formatted female-oriented talk station known as WHOH, the "Heart of Huntsville." In November 2006, Christian Voice of Central Ohio Inc, headed by President Dan Baughman, agreed to buy WTKI from Mountain Mist Media, LLC. headed by President David Barnhardt, for a reported $475,000. As a result, the station flipped formats from sports talk to religious programming in early January 2007.
The station, branded as "ProTalk 1450", was operated as a simulcast of sister station WDPT until both ceased operations and went temporarily silent on January 30, 2009, due to the late 2000s recession. Both stations returned to the air in early November 2009 broadcasting a mix of talk radio and sports talk programming. On December 23, 2009, Christian Voice of Central Ohio Inc. applied to the FCC to transfer the broadcast license for WTKI to FRC of Alabama LLC, doing business as "Focus Radio Communications". As of February 10, 2010, the Commission has accepted this application for filing but taken no further action. Focus Radio, which has contracted to provide programming for both WTKI and WEKI under a local marketing agreement since November 2009, will pay a total of $235,000 for the licenses and assets of both stations. WEKI/WTKI official website Query the FCC's AM station database for WTKI Radio-Locator Information on WTKI Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WTKI
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Huntsville is a city located in Madison County in the Appalachian region of northern Alabama. Huntsville is the county seat of Madison County; the city extends south into Morgan County. Huntsville's population was 180,105 as of the 2010 census. Huntsville is the third-largest city in Alabama and the largest city in the five-county Huntsville-Decatur-Albertville, AL Combined Statistical Area, which at the 2013 census estimate had a total population of 683,871; the Huntsville Metropolitan Area's population was 417,593 in 2010 to become the 2nd largest in Alabama. Huntsville metro's population reached 441,000 by 2014, it grew across nearby hills north of the Tennessee River, adding textile mills munitions factories, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the United States Army Aviation and Missile Command nearby at the Redstone Arsenal. The National Trust for Historic Preservation named Huntsville to its "America's Dozen Distinctive Destinations for 2010" list; the first settlers of the area were Muscogee-speaking people.
The Chickasaw traditionally claim to have settled around 1300 after coming east across the Mississippi. A combination of factors, including depopulation due to disease, land disputes between the Choctaw and Cherokee, pressures from the United States government had depopulated the area prior to 1805; that year Revolutionary War veteran John Hunt settled in the land around the Big Spring. The 1805 Treaty with the Chickasaws and the Cherokee Treaty of Washington of 1806 ceded native claims to the United States Government; the area was subsequently purchased by LeRoy Pope, who named the area Twickenham after the home village of his distant kinsman Alexander Pope. Twickenham was planned, with streets laid out on the northeast to southwest direction based on the flow of Big Spring. However, due to anti-British sentiment during this period, the name was changed to "Huntsville" to honor John Hunt, forced to move to other land south of the new city. Both John Hunt and LeRoy Pope were Freemasons and charter members of Helion Lodge #1, the oldest Lodge in Alabama.
In 1811, Huntsville became the first incorporated town in Alabama. However, the recognized "founding" year of the city is the year of John Hunt's arrival; the city's sesquicentennial anniversary was held in 1955, the bicentennial was celebrated in 2005. David Wade arrived in Huntsville in 1817, he built the David Wade House on the north side of what is now Bob Wade Lane just east of Mt. Lebanon Road, it had six rough Doric columns on the portico. During the Great Depression, the house was measured as part of the Historic American Buildings Survey to be included in the government's Archive and was photographed by Frances Benjamin Johnston for the project; this project put architects and photographers to work to create an inventory of documentation and photographs of significant properties across the country. The house had been abandoned for years and was deteriorated, it was torn down in 1952. Today an imposing structure itself, survives at the property. Huntsville's quick growth was from wealth generated by the railroad industries.
Many wealthy planters moved into the area from Virginia and the Carolinas. In 1819, Huntsville hosted a constitutional convention in Walker Allen's large cabinetmaking shop; the 44 delegates meeting there wrote a constitution for the new state of Alabama. In accordance with the new state constitution, Huntsville became Alabama's first capital when the state was admitted to the Union; this was a temporary designation for one legislative session only. The capital was moved to more central cities: to Cahawba to Tuscaloosa, to Montgomery. In 1855, the Memphis and Charleston Railroad was constructed through Huntsville, becoming the first railway to link the Atlantic seacoast with the lower Mississippi River. Huntsville opposed secession from the Union in 1861, but provided many men for the Confederacy's efforts; the 4th Alabama Infantry Regiment, led by Col. Egbert J. Jones of Huntsville, distinguished itself at the Battle of Manassas/Bull Run, the first major encounter of the American Civil War; the Fourth Alabama Infantry, which contained two Huntsville companies, were the first Alabama troops to fight in the war and were present when Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House in April 1865.
Eight generals of the war were born near Huntsville, evenly split with four on each side. On the morning of April 11, 1862, Union troops led by General Ormsby M. Mitchel seized Huntsville in order to sever the Confederacy's rail communications and gain access to the Memphis & Charleston Railroad. Huntsville was the control point for the Western Division of the Memphis & Charleston, by controlling this railroad the Union had a direct connection to Charleston, South Carolina. During the first occupation, the Union officers occupied many of the larger homes in the city while the other men camped on the outskirts. In the initial occupation, the Union troops searched for both Confederate troops hiding in the town and weapons. After they had established themselves, the occupying federals did not burn or pillage the city of Huntsville, though towns around it were sometimes targeted. Treatment toward the town was civil; the Union troops were forced to retreat some months but returned to Huntsville in the fall of 1863 and thereafter used the city as a base of operations for the remainder of the war.
While many homes and villages in the surrounding countryside were burned in retaliation for the active guerrilla warfare in the area, Huntsville itself was spared because it housed elements of the Union Army. After the Civil War, H
Green Mountain is a common name for "The Peak", the highest point on Ascension Island, which has gained some fame for claims that it is one of few large-scale artificial forests. Many early 19th-century accounts, including Charles Darwin's, described the volcanic island as barren with few plants, some of them endemic to the island, not to be found anywhere else. Scientists estimate the island's native vascular plants to be between 25 and 30 species, 10 of them endemic to Ascension; this impoverished flora is a consequence of the age of the isolation. In 1843, the British plant collector Joseph Dalton Hooker visited the island with Sir James Clark Ross's Antarctica expedition. Hooker proposed a plan to plant the island with vegetation to attempt to increase rainfall and make life more bearable for the garrison, stationed there. Crucially he saw the appointment of a farm superintendent as being the key to success. From that time on many plants have been introduced and Hooker's plan can be seen from one angle as an overwhelming success.
An 1865 Admiralty report stated on the subject of Green Mountain that " now possesses thickets of 40 kinds of trees, besides numerous shrubs. By the early 1900s many crops such as bananas and guavas were growing naturally, it is unlikely that this success led to an increase in rainfall, but increased capture of occult deposition by the greater amount of vegetation has resulted. The resulting cloud forest, is a mosaic of plants from a variety of habitats including woodland and shrubland; the ecosystem that has emerged is interesting for its entirely artificial nature as a result of the interactions between the introduced species from a variety of disparate climates and locations. The resulting ecosystem created by the British introductions has threatened several of the few endemic Ascension island species; because of this, Green Mountain is now a national park where endemic species are conserved. The mineral dalyite was first found at Green Mountain, in 1952; the Mountain, situated within the national park zone can be accessed via the main road from Georgetown.
However vehicle access does not extend to the top of the mountain. A footpath exists up to disused water catchment area; this continues to an observation station, where there is a Dew Pond, formed by the collection of water on top of the mountain. The area is maintained for visitors to a certain extent, a passage is provided through the dense vegetation; the highest point of the mountain is marked by an anchor chain, just up from the Dew Pond. Coevolution Ecological fitting International Mineralogical Association List of mountains and hills of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha Terraforming Ashmole, Philip. St Helena and Ascension Island: a natural history. Oswestry: Anthony Nelson. ISBN 0904614611. OCLC 45690660. "Ascensión". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Britain's Treasure Islands on BBC FOUR at BBC Programmes
WVNN is a commercial AM radio station licensed to Athens, serving parts of North Alabama including Huntsville and Decatur. Owned by Cumulus Media, it airs a News/Talk radio format. Programming on WVNN is simulcast on WVNN-FM 92.5 MHz, licensed to Trinity, Alabama. Collectively, the stations are branded as "NewsTalk 770 AM/92.5 FM WVNN." WVNN broadcasts at 7,000 watts by day non-directional, with its daytime transmitter located off Lee Highway in Huntsville. But because AM 770 is a clear channel frequency reserved for 50,000 watt Class A WABC in New York City, WVNN must reduce power at night to avoid interference, it drops to 250 watts and uses a directional antenna with a four-tower array on Looney Road in Athens, several miles from its daytime site. WVNN-AM-FM feature three Alabama-based shows on weekday mornings and afternoons, hosted by Dale Jackson, Will Anderson and Jeff Poor. Nationally syndicated conservative talk shows are heard the rest of the day with Rush Limbaugh in middays, at night Mark Levin, Ben Shapiro, Chris Plante, Michael Savage and Red Eye Radio.
WVNN-AM-FM carried University of Alabama football and Tennessee Titans football during the Fall, Alabama Vipers games in the Spring, as part of a simulcast with sister station, WUMP. Aside from occasional high school football games, or some spillover games from WUMP, WVNN-AM-FM offer no sports programming/ WVNN is descended from two radio stations. One is WJMW, a daytimer that first signed on in 1948. WJMW's frequency was 1010 kHz, it was required to go off the air at sunset. It was owned by the Athens Broadcasting Company, founded by Homer Felix "Pap" Dunnavant; the other station was a daytimer. WKSR went on the air in 1947, on 730 AM in Pulaski, Tennessee, a town about 60 miles north of Athens, it was owned by the Pulaski Broadcasting Company and was a Mutual Broadcasting System network affiliate. In 1953, the Athens Broadcasting Company acquired the license for WJMW and got permission from the Federal Communications Commission to move it to Athens, putting WJMW on the lower frequency; this would give the station greater range.
And the power was increased to 500 watts. But it remained a daytimer. At the same time, WKSR moved to 1420 kHz in Pulaski, Tennessee; the station made another move on the dial in the early 1980s, from AM 730 to AM 770. While WJMW had to now protect WABC in New York, it was more than 800 miles away; that was far enough for the FCC to allow the station to operate around the clock, with reduced power at night. The station switched its call sign to WVNN on September 26, 1988, it changed to a news/talk format, using news from ABC News Radio and talk shows from the ABC TalkRadio Network. WJMW was owned and operated by the Dunnavant family of Athens for 55 years prior to being sold to Cumulus Media as part of a four station deal in 2003; the sale ended a 55-year presence in the market for Athens Broadcasting, founded in 1948 by Pap Dunnavant. Cumulus acquired several other Huntsville-area stations, 94.1 WHRP, 730 WUMP, 92.5 WVNN-FM, 93.3 WWFF-FM and 104.3 WZYP. Notable former WVNN air personalities include George Rose who, along with his alter-ego "Cousin Josh" character, hosted The Cousin Josh Jam-O-Ree on several North Alabama radio stations in a career that began in 1948 at then-WJMW and ended at WKAC with his death in 2006.
Several well-known talk radio hosts spent early portions of their careers at WVNN, including Sean Hannity, Peter Thiele, Kevin Miller, Keith Larson, Darla Jaye, Mike Church. Will Anderson hosted a show on WVNN until August 2007 returned a few years later. Tim Knox hosted a show on WVNN until December 2007. News/Talk 770 AM/92.5 FM WVNN official website Cumulus Media corporate website Query the FCC's AM station database for WVNN Radio-Locator Information on WVNN Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for WVNN