A soap opera is an ongoing drama serial on television or radio, featuring the lives of many characters and their emotional relationships. The term soap opera originated from radio dramas being sponsored by soap manufacturers. BBC Radio's The Archers, first broadcast in 1950, is the world's longest-running radio soap opera; the first serial considered to be a "soap opera" was Painted Dreams, which debuted on October 20, 1930 on Chicago radio station WGN. Early radio series such as Painted Dreams were broadcast in weekday daytime slots five days a week. Most of the listeners would be housewives. Thus, the shows were consumed by a predominantly female audience; the first nationally broadcast radio soap opera was Clara, Lu, Em, which aired on the NBC Blue Network at 10:30 p.m. Eastern Time on January 27, 1931. A crucial element that defines the soap opera is the open-ended serial nature of the narrative, with stories spanning several episodes. One of the defining features that makes a television program a soap opera, according to Albert Moran, is "that form of television that works with a continuous open narrative.
Each episode ends with a promise that the storyline is to be continued in another episode". In 2012, Los Angeles Times columnist Robert Lloyd wrote of daily dramas, "Although melodramatically eventful, soap operas such as this have a luxury of space that makes them seem more naturalistic. You spend more time with the minor characters. An individual episode of a soap opera will switch between several different concurrent narrative threads that may at times interconnect and affect one another or may run independent to each other; each episode may feature some of the show's current storylines, but not always all of them. In daytime serials and those that are broadcast each weekday, there is some rotation of both storyline and actors so any given storyline or actor will appear in some but not all of a week's worth of episodes. Soap operas bring all the current storylines to a conclusion at the same time; when one storyline ends, there are several other story threads at differing stages of development.
Soap opera episodes end on some sort of cliffhanger, the season finale ends in the same way, only to be resolved when the show returns for the start of a new yearly broadcast. Evening soap operas and those that air at a rate of one episode per week are more to feature the entire cast in each episode, to represent all current storylines in each episode. Evening soap operas and serials that run for only part of the year tend to bring things to a dramatic end-of-season cliffhanger. In 1976, Time magazine described American daytime television as "TV's richest market," noting the loyalty of the soap opera fan base and the expansion of several half-hour series into hour-long broadcasts in order to maximize ad revenues; the article explained that at that time, many prime time series lost money, while daytime serials earned profits several times more than their production costs. The issue's cover notably featured its first daytime soap stars, Bill Hayes and Susan Seaforth Hayes of Days of Our Lives, a married couple whose onscreen and real-life romance was covered by both the soap opera magazines and the mainstream press at large.
The main characteristics that define soap operas are "an emphasis on family life, personal relationships, sexual dramas and moral conflicts. Fitting in with these characteristics, most soap operas follow the lives of a group of characters who live or work in a particular place, or focus on a large extended family; the storylines follow personal relationships of these characters. "Soap narratives, like those of film melodramas, are marked by what Steve Neale has described as'chance happenings, missed meetings, sudden conversions, last-minute rescues and revelations, deus ex machina endings.'" These elements may be found from EastEnders to Dallas. Due to the prominence of English-language television, most soap-operas are English. However, several South African soap operas started incorporating a multi-language format, the most prominent being 7de Laan, which incorporates Afrikaans, English and several other Bantu languages which make up the 11 Official Languages of South Africa. In many soap operas, in particular daytime serials in the US, the characters are attractive, seductive and wealthy.
Soap operas from the United Kingdom and Australia tend to focus on more everyday characters and situations, are set in working class environments. Many of the soaps produced in those two countries explore social realist storylines such as family discord, marriage breakdown or financial problems. Both UK and Australian soap operas feature comedic elements affectionate comic stereotypes such as the gossip or the grumpy old man, presented as a comic foil to the emotional turmoil that surrounds them; this diverges from US soap operas. UK soap operas make a claim to presenting "reality
Coast to Coast AM
Coast to Coast AM is an American late-night radio talk show that deals with a variety of topics. Most the topics relate to either the paranormal or conspiracy theories; the program is distributed by Premiere Networks, both as part of its talk network and separately as a syndicated program. The program now airs seven nights a week 1:00 a.m. – 5:00 a.m. Eastern Time Zone. Created and hosted and made famous by the late Art Bell, the program is now hosted by George Noory. According to estimates by Talkers Magazine, Coast to Coast AM has a cumulative weekly audience of around 2.75 million unique listeners listening for at least five minutes, making it the most listened-to program in its time slot. Today, the program is heard on more than 600 stations in the U. S. Canada, Australia; the Coast to Coast AM format consists of a combination of long-format interviews. The subject matter covers unusual topics and is full of personal stories related to callers, junk science, pseudo-experts and non-peer-reviewed scientists.
While program content is focused on paranormal and fringe subjects, world-class scientists such as Michio Kaku and Brian Greene are featured in long-format interviews. Topics discussed include the near-death experience, climate change, quantum physics, remote viewing, contact with extraterrestrials, psychic reading, metaphysics and religion, conspiracy theories, Area 51, Ouija boards, crop circles, Bigfoot, the Hollow Earth hypothesis, science fiction literature. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, the events of that day and current U. S. counter-terrorism strategy have become frequent themes. George Noory, the primary host since Art Bell retired, took interest in the 2012 phenomenon and believed that a transformative event could happen, but stated on air that he believed human civilization would still exist on December 22, 2012. In 2008, Noory volunteered an elaboration of the show's policy respecting the controversial opinions of regular guests, he explained that, provided there was no element of hostility toward third parties, it was program policy to allow expression of opinion unchallenged.
He gave as an example Richard C. Hoagland's contention that features on Mars are artificial, constructed by a civilization that once inhabited the planet. Noory agrees with whomever is making the statements; the Halloween edition of Coast to Coast AM becomes Ghost to Ghost AM, as listeners call in with their ghost stories. The New Year's Eve show entails listeners calling in their predictions for the coming year, the host rating the predictions made a year earlier. In recent years, the host of the New Year's Eve prediction show has been cautioning the open line callers that they may not predict the assassination of any person or the death of the US president. Coast to Coast AM is broadcast on over 600 United States affiliates, as well as many Canadian affiliates, several of which stream the show on their station's website; the affiliate group is fronted by 12 clear-channel stations, among them WBT in Charlotte, WHO in Des Moines, WWL in New Orleans, WOR in New York City, KFBK in Sacramento, KFI in Los Angeles.
George Noory hosts the show on the first Sunday of every month. Las Vegas-based investigative journalist George Knapp hosts the third and fourth Sunday of each month, when there is a fifth Sunday, George Noory or another fill-in will host. Since the controversial firing of host John B. Wells, many Saturday episodes, as well as Sunday episodes not hosted by Knapp or Noory, are hosted by Connie Willis, Lisa Garr, Ian Punnett, or Canadian political conspiracy talk show host Richard Syrett. Syrett and others host some Fridays when Noory travels to Denver to record his video show Beyond Belief. Jimmy Church is another guest host, sometimes getting the whole weekend. Mike Siegel hosted the show from April 2000 until February 2001, he became a frequent substitute for the show's original host, Art Bell in late 1999, when Bell announced his retirement in early 2000, he recommended Siegel to succeed him. Siegel maintained the format of the show that Bell had created, but his personal style was different, the show became less popular.
Siegel hosted the show from Seattle, where he lived. Early in 2001, Bell decided to return, Siegel left the show. Other past hosts include weekend host Ian Punnett, Hilly Rose, Barbara Simpson, Rollye James and Dave Schrader. In January 2012, John B. Wells replaced Punnett as host of the second Sunday evening programs, he was fired in January 2014 because the show's producers wanted to go in a "different direction on Saturday nights", is now the host of his own subscriber based program, Caravan to Midnight. On the February 4, 2014 episode of that program, Wells stated that he thought he had been fired from Coast to Coast because he hated Barack Obama to the point where he can't bear the sight or sound of him, going further to state that he avoids "even speaking his name," expressing his view that Obama is an extremist and that the Affordable Care Act is a bad program and that health care coverage is not a right, but a privilege. A controversial show found Wells giving Alex Jones unchallenged.
Katherine Albrecht, consumer rights advocate Howard Bloom, author of The God Problem, The Lucifer Principle, Global Brain, Reinventing Capitalism and former publicist for Prince and Michael Jackson. Gerald Celente and political forecaster. Neal Chase, disputed leader
A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be distributed live or on demand. Webcasting is "broadcasting" over the Internet; the largest "webcasters" include existing radio and TV stations, who "simulcast" their output through online TV or online radio streaming, as well as a multitude of Internet only "stations". Webcasting consists of providing non-interactive linear streams or events. Rights and licensing bodies offer specific "webcasting licenses" to those wishing to carry out Internet broadcasting using copyrighted material. Webcasting is used extensively in the commercial sector for investor relations presentations, in e-learning, for related communications activities. However, webcasting does not bear much, if any, relationship to web conferencing, designed for many-to-many interaction; the ability to webcast using cheap/accessible technology has allowed independent media to flourish.
There are many notable independent shows that broadcast online. Produced by average citizens in their homes they cover many interests and topics. Webcasts relating to computers and news are popular and many new shows are added regularly. Webcasting differs from podcasting in that webcasting refers to live streaming while podcasting refers to media files placed on the Internet. Webcasting is the distribution of media files through the internet; the earliest graphically-oriented web broadcasts were not streaming video, but were in fact still frames which were photographed with a web camera every few minutes while they were being broadcast live over the Internet. One of the earliest instances of sequential live image broadcasting was in 1991 when a camera was set up next to the Trojan Room in the computer laboratory of the University of Cambridge, it provided a live picture every few minutes of the office coffee pot to all desktop computers on that office's network. A couple of years its broadcasts went to the Internet, became known as the Trojan Room Coffee Pot webcam, gained international notoriety as a feature of the fledgling World Wide Web.
In 1996 an American college student and conceptual artist, Jenny Ringley, set up a web camera similar to the Trojan Room Coffee Pot's webcam in her dorm room. That webcam photographed her every few minutes while it broadcast those images live over the Internet upon a site called JenniCam. Ringley wanted to portray all aspects of her lifestyle and the camera captured her doing everything – brushing her teeth, doing her laundry, having sex with her boyfriend, her website generated millions of hits upon the Internet, became a pay site in 1998, spawned hundreds of female imitators who would use streaming video to create a new billion dollar industry called camming, brand themselves as camgirls or webcam models. One of the earliest webcast equivalent of an online concert and one of the earliest examples of webcasting itself was by Apple Computer's Webcasting Group in partnership with the entrepreneurs Michael Dorf and Andrew Rasiej. Together with David B. Pakman from Apple, they launched the Macintosh New York Music Festival from July 17–22, 1995.
This event audio webcast concerts from more than 15 clubs in New York City. Apple webcast a concert by Metallica on June 10, 1996 live from Slim's in San Francisco. In 1995, Benford E. Standley produced one of the first audio/video webcasts in history. On October 31, 1996, UK rock band Caduseus broadcast their one-hour concert from 11 pm to 12 midnight at Celtica in Machynlleth, Wales, UK – the first live streamed audio and simultaneous live streamed video multicast – around the globe to more than twenty direct "mirrors" in more than twenty countries. In September 1997, Nebraska Public Television started webcasting Big Red Wrap Up from Lincoln, Nebraska which combined highlights from every Cornhusker football game, coverage of the coaches' weekly press conferences, analysis with Nebraska sportswriters, appearances by special guests and questions and answers with viewers. On August 13, 1998, it is believed the first webcast wedding took place, between Alan K'necht and Carrie Silverman in Toronto Canada.
On October 22, 1998, the first Billy Graham Crusade was broadcast live to a worldwide audience from the Raymond James Stadium in Tampa Florida courtesy of Dale Ficken and the WebcastCenter in Pennsylvania. The live signal was broadcast via satellite to PA encoded and streamed via the BGEA website; the first teleconferenced/webcast wedding to date is believed to have occurred on December 31, 1998. Dale Ficken and Lorrie Scarangella wed on this date as they stood in a church in Pennsylvania, were married by Jerry Falwell while he sat in his office in Lynchburg, Virginia. All major broadcasters now have a webcast of their output, from the BBC to CNN to Al Jazeera to UNTV in television to Radio China, Vatican Radio, United Nations Radio and the World Service in radio. On November 4, 1994, Stef van der Ziel distributed the first live video images over the web from the Simplon venue in Groningen. On November 7, 1994, WXYC, the college radio station of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill became the first radio station in the world to broadcast its signal over the internet.
Translated versions including Subtitling are now possible using SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language. A wedcast of a wedding. Allows family and friends of the couple to watch the wedding in real time on the Internet, it is sometimes used for weddings in exotic locations, such as Cancun and the Riviera Maya, Hawaii or the Caribbean, for which it is expensive or difficul
HD Radio is a trademarked term for Xperi's in-band on-channel digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD or as a standard broadcast. The HD format provides the means for a single radio station to broadcast one or more different programs in addition to the program being transmitted on the radio station's analog channel, it was developed by iBiquity. In September 2015 iBiquity was acquired by DTS bringing the HD Radio technology under the same banner as DTS' eponymous theater surround sound systems.. It was acquired by Xperi in 2016, it was selected by the U. S. Federal Communications Commission in 2002 as a digital audio broadcasting method for the United States, is the only digital system approved by the FCC for digital AM/FM broadcasts in the United States, it is known as NRSC-5, with the latest version being NRSC-5-D.
Other digital radio systems include FMeXtra, Digital Audio Broadcasting, Digital Radio Mondiale, Compatible AM-Digital. While HD Radio does allow for an all-digital mode, this system is used by some AM and FM radio stations to simulcast both digital and analog audio within the same channel as well as to add new FM channels and text information. Although HD Radio broadcasting's content is free-to-air, listeners must purchase new receivers in order to receive the digital portion of the signal. By May 2018, HD Radio technology was claimed to be used by more than 3500 individual services in the United States; this compares with more than 2200 services operating with the DAB system. HD Radio increases the bandwidth required in the FM band to 400 kHz for the analog/digital hybrid version; this makes adoption outside the United States problematic. In the United States the FM broadcast band channels have a spacing of 200 kHz, as opposed to the 100 kHz, normal elsewhere; the 200 kHz spacing means that in practice, stations having concurrent or adjacent coverage areas will not be spaced at less than 400 kHz in order to respect protection ratios which would not be met with 200 kHz spacing.
This leaves space for the digital sidebands. Outside the US, spacing can be 300 kHz; the FCC has not indicated any intent to force off analog radio broadcasts as it has with analog television broadcasts, as it would not result in the recovery of any radio spectrum rights which could be sold. Thus, there is no deadline. In addition, there are many more analog AM/FM radio receivers than there were analog televisions, many of these are car stereos or portable units that cannot be upgraded. Digital information is transmitted using OFDM with an audio compression algorithm called HDC.. HD Radio equipped stations pay a one-time licensing fee for converting their primary audio channel to iBiquity's HD Radio technology, 3% of incremental net revenues for any additional digital subchannels; the cost of converting a radio station can run between $100,000 and $200,000. Receiver manufacturers pay a royalty. If the primary digital signal is lost the HD Radio receiver will revert to the analog signal, thereby providing seamless operation between the newer and older transmission methods.
The extra HD-2 and HD-3 streams are not simulcast on analog, causing the sound to drop-out or "skip" when digital reception degrades. Alternatively the HD Radio signal can revert to a more-robust 20 kilobit per second stream, though the sound is reduced to AM-like quality. Datacasting is possible, with metadata providing song titles or artist information. IBiquity Digital claims that the system approaches CD quality audio and offers reduction of both interference and static. Sending pure digital data through the 20 kilohertz AM channel is equivalent to sending data through two 33 kbit/s analog telephone lines, thus limiting the maximum throughput possible. By using spectral band replication the HDC+SBR codec is able to simulate the recreation of sounds up to 15,000 Hz, thus achieving moderate quality on the bandwidth-tight AM band; the HD Radio AM hybrid mode offers two options which can carry 40 or 60 kbit/s of data, but most AM digital stations default to the more-robust 40 kbit/s mode which features redundancy.
HD Radio provides a pure digital mode, which lacks an analog signal for fallback and instead reverts to a 20 kbit/s signal during times of poor reception. The pure digital mode transmissions will stay within the AM station's channel instead of spilling into the channels next to the station transmitting "HD radio" as the hybrid stations do; the AM version of HD Radio technology uses the 20 kHz channel, overlaps 5 kHz into the opposite sideband of the adjacent channel on both sides. When operating in pure digital mode, the AM HD Radio signal fits inside a standard 20 kHz channel or an extended 30 kHz channel, at the discretion of the station manager; as AM radio stations are spaced at 9 kHz or 10 kHz intervals, much of the digital information overlaps adjacent channels when in hybrid mode. Some nigh
WTHR, virtual and VHF digital channel 13, is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Indianapolis, United States. Owned by the Dispatch Broadcast Group of Columbus, Ohio, it is a sister station to low-powered, Class A MeTV affiliate WALV-CD, channel 46 and Columbus' CBS affiliate WBNS-TV. WTHR and WALV share studios on North Meridian Street in downtown Indianapolis. On cable, WTHR is available on Charter Spectrum channel 12, Comcast Xfinity and AT&T U-verse channel 13; the station first signed on the air on October 30, 1957, as WLWI. Founded by the Crosley Broadcasting Corporation, it operated as an ABC affiliate, taking the affiliation from Bloomington-licensed WTTV, which had affiliated with the network one year earlier. WLWI was one of four Crosley stations that made up the "WLW Television Network", alongside the company's television and the regional network's flagship WLWT in Cincinnati, WLWC in Columbus and WLWD in Dayton, Ohio. Crosley owned WLW radio in Cincinnati, WLWA in Atlanta and WOAI-TV in San Antonio.
Channel 13 and its sister stations in Ohio shared common programming and similar on-air branding which reflected their connection to each other. Channel 13 called itself "WLW-I" to trade on its association with WLW radio, which can be heard in most of the market during the day with a good radio. From 1957 to 1962, the station was tied up in one of the most heated licensing disputes in early television history; the Federal Communications Commission awarded the construction permit to build a television station on channel 13 to a group headed by Union Federal Savings and Loan president George Sadlier. However, after an appeal, the FCC awarded the permit to Crosley. One of the other competitors, Richard Fairbanks, owner of WIBC sued to force new license hearings. Fairbanks contended that the FCC had erred in awarding the last VHF channel allocation in Indianapolis to a company based in Cincinnati when there were viable applicants based in Indiana; the suit, was filed too late to prevent WLWI from signing on under Crosley ownership.
The District of Columbia Court of Appeals overturned the FCC's decision in 1958, but allowed Crosley to continue running the station pending further action by the FCC. In 1961, the FCC awarded Fairbanks the channel 13 license; the following year and Fairbanks reached a deal in which Crosley traded WLWA to Fairbanks in return for being allowed to keep WLWI. Amid this instability in ownership, WLWI found the going rather difficult, it was dogged by a weaker network affiliation. WLWI spent most of its first 17 years of operation languishing as a third place also-ran behind NBC affiliate WFBM-TV and then-CBS affiliate WISH-TV. In some cases, it fell to fourth place in the local ratings behind then-independent station WTTV. In late 1974, Avco Broadcasting Corporation announced it was exiting the broadcasting business in an effort to raise cash; the Wolfe family, owners of the Columbus Dispatch and WBNS-AM-FM-TV in Columbus, bought WLWI from Avco in August 1975. With new ownership in place, the quality of the station's programming began to improve, but WTHR remained stuck at third place in the ratings behind WISH and WRTV.
Meanwhile, ABC rose to first place during the decade and was seeking out stronger affiliates in many markets. At the same time, NBC tumbled to last place among the "Big Three" networks. Under the circumstances, long-dominant WRTV was receptive to an offer from ABC. WTHR and WRTV swapped networks on June 1, 1979, with channel 13 becoming the market's NBC affiliate and channel 6 becoming an ABC affiliate; the switch to NBC provided a major windfall for WTHR starting when the NFL's Indianapolis Colts moved from Baltimore in 1984. Ratings improved in the 1980s with NBC's powerful primetime lineup, but not enough to get the station out of third place. On April 7, 1991, WTHR participated in an experiment in which it moved NBC primetime programming one hour earlier. Channel 13 first saw a significant ratings boost in the mid-1990s, buoyed by NBC's stronger programming as well as improvements in its news department, it has long since left its ratings-challenged past behind, is now one of the strongest NBC affiliates in the nation.
On September 2, 2007, WTHR celebrated its 50th anniversary.
Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument (Indianapolis)
The Indiana State Soldiers and Sailors Monument is a 284 ft 6 in neoclassical monument built on Monument Circle, a circular, brick-paved street that intersects Meridian and Market streets in the center of downtown Indianapolis, Indiana. In the years since its public dedication on May 15, 1902, the monument has become an iconic symbol of Indianapolis, the state capital of Indiana, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on February 13, 1973 and was included in an expansion of the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza National Historic Landmark District in December 2016. It is located in the Washington Street-Monument Circle Historic District, it is the largest outdoor memorial and the largest of its kind in Indiana. It was designed by German architect Bruno Schmitz and built over a thirteen-year period, between 1888 and 1901; the monument's original purpose was to honor Hoosiers. The monument is the first in the United States to be dedicated to the common soldier; the obelisk-shaped monument is built of oolitic limestone from Indiana.
It rests on a raised foundation surrounded by fountains. Broad stone steps on its north and south sides lead to two terraces at its base. Stone tablets above the bronze entrance doors on the obelisk's north and south sides bear inscriptions commemorating Indiana's soldiers. An inscription above the tablets reads: "To Indiana's Silent Victors." An observation deck is accessible by stairs or elevator from the interior. In addition to its commemorative statuary and fountains, made of oolitic limestone and bronze, the basement of the monument contains the Colonel Eli Lilly Civil War Museum, a museum of Indiana history during the American Civil War. At the time of the monument's dedication in 1902, its cost was $598,318, it has been estimated. The memorial includes several notable outdoor sculptures, including Rudolph Schwarz's two massive limestone groupings of War and Peace, two smaller scenes named The Dying Soldier and The Return Home, four military figures at its base. Three astragals, one by Nikolaus Geiger and two others by George T. Brewster, surround the stone obelisk.
Additional sculptures include John H. Mahoney's bronze statues of George Rogers Clark, William Henry Harrison, James Whitcomb, Franklin Simmons's bronze statue of Oliver P. Morton. Brewster's 30-foot bronze statue of Victory crowns the obelisk; the Indianapolis monument is 15 feet shorter than New York City's 305-foot Statue of Liberty. The plot of land at the center of Indianapolis was used as a public gathering place, the site of the Indiana governor's residence, a city park. Construction on the monument began in 1888 and was dedicated in 1902; the original plan of Indianapolis, founded in 1821, platted by Alexander Ralston, included a circular, 80-foot wide street that surrounded a circular, 3-acre plot of land as the focal point at the center of town. The site was called the Governor's Circle because of its designation as the future site of the Indiana governor's residence; the Circle was a hub of community life from the town's beginning in 1821. It was used as a gathering place for religious services.
A weekly market was held on the site from 1822 to 1824. A governor's residence was built on the Circle in 1827. Due to the mansion's public location and poor construction, no governor lived there, it was a site for civic events and celebrations such as inaugural balls for new governors, fundraising events for charity, military receptions, Fourth of July celebrations, community meetings. By 1851 the building had deteriorated, it was torn down in 1857, the site became a vacant lot. As Indianapolis grew and developed during and after the Civil War, the area became a popular meeting place for mass gatherings, public rallies, celebrations of wartime victories. In 1867 the site was cleaned up, designated as the city's Circle Park; the park remained vacant until 1884, when a bronze statue of Oliver P. Morton, Indiana's Civil War-era governor, was erected at its center. Franklin Simmons, an American sculptor living in Rome, a noted sculptor of other Civil War memorial statues, created the statue of Morton, surrounded by an iron fence.
Dedication ceremonies took place on June 1884, with Indiana governor Conrad Baker presiding. Senator Benjamin Harrison and Colonel William Dudley delivered speeches during the event. Many times after the Civil War suggestions were made to build a monument honoring Indiana's Civil War veterans; the first proposal was made on April 1, 1862, when an anonymous editorial in the Indianapolis Daily Journal suggested a monument be erected in Circle Park. Talk of a monument continued in the years following the war. In 1867 governor Morton suggested a monument be erected on the highest point in Crown Hill Cemetery, but nothing came of it. In 1872 William H. English addressed a group of Civil War veterans and expressed his support for a monument at Crown Hill, but a bill introduced in the state legislature failed to pass. Other potential sites for the monument included University Park, Military Park, the corner of Washington and Illinois streets in the city's downtown business district, along the National Road.
No progress was ma