Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations referred to as NGOs, are non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations that are active in humanitarian, health care, public policy, human rights and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives. They are thus a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens, but this is not how the term is used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries; the explanation of the term by NGO.org is ambivalent. It first says an NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group, organized on a local, national or international level, but goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
NGOs are funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run by volunteers. NGOs are diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, take different forms in different parts of the world; some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation; the number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 10 million. Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India. China is estimated to have 440,000 registered NGOs. About 1.5 million domestic and foreign NGOs operated in the United States in 2017. The term'NGO' is not always used consistently.
In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO, vice versa. Political parties and trade unions are considered NGOs only in some countries. There are many different classifications of NGO in use; the most common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation". An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities; these activities might include human rights, improving health, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, national, or international; the term "non-governmental organization" was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations was created. The UN, itself an intergovernmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies — i.e. non-governmental organizations — to be awarded observer status at its assemblies and some of its meetings. The term became used more widely. Today, according to the UN, any kind of private organization, independent from government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit, non-prevention, but not an opposition political party.
One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention, or a global ban on landmines. Public surveys reveal that NGOs enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful - but not always sufficient - proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. NGO/GRO types can be understood by their level of how they operate. Charitable orientation involves a top-down effort with little participation or input by beneficiaries, it includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the disadvantaged people groups. Service orientation includes NGOs with activities such as the provision of health, family planning or education services in which the programme is designed by the NGO and people are expected to participate in its implementation and in receiving the service.
Participatory orientation is characterized by self-help projects where local people are involved in the implementation of a project by contributing cash, land, labour etc. In the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. Empowering orientation aims to help poor people develop a clearer understanding of the social and economic factors affecting their lives, to strengthen their awareness of their own potential power to control their lives. There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators. Community-based organizations arise out of people's own initiatives, they can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the urban poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services, providing such services. City-wide organizations include organizations such as chambers of commerce and industry, coaliti
Wangarĩ Muta Maathai was a renowned Kenyan social and political activist and the first African woman to win the Nobel laureate. She was educated in the United States at Mount St. Scholastica and the University of Pittsburgh, as well as the University of Nairobi in Kenya, she died of cancer on Sunday September 11, 2011. In 1977, Maathai founded the Green Belt Movement, an environmental non-governmental organization focused on the planting of trees, environmental conservation, women's rights. In 1984, she was awarded the Right Livelihood Award in 2004. Maathai was an elected member of Parliament and served as assistant minister for Environment and Natural resources in the government of President Mwai Kibaki between January 2003 and November 2005, she was an Honorary Councillor of the World Future Council. She received several awards. In 2011, Maathai died of complications from ovarian cancer. On 1 April 1940, Maathai was born in the village of Ihithe, Nyeri District, in the central highlands of the colony of Kenya.
Her family was Kikuyu, the most populous ethnic group in Kenya, had lived in the area for several generations. Around 1943, Maathai's family relocated to a White-owned farm in the Rift Valley, near the town of Nakuru, where her father had found work. Late in 1947, she returned to Ihithe with her mother, as two of her brothers were attending primary school in the village, there was no schooling available on the farm where her father worked, her father remained at the farm. Shortly afterward, at the age of eight, she joined her brothers at Ihithe Primary School. At age eleven, Maathai moved to St. Cecilia's Intermediate Primary School, a boarding school at the Mathari Catholic Mission in Nyeri. Maathai studied at St. Cecilia's for four years. During this time, she converted to Catholicism, she was involved with the Legion of Mary, whose members attempted "to serve God by serving fellow human beings." Studying at St. Cecilia's, she was sheltered from the ongoing Mau Mau uprising, which forced her mother to move from their homestead to an emergency village in Ihithe.
When she completed her studies there in 1956, she was rated first in her class, was granted admission to the only Catholic high school for girls in Kenya, Loreto High School in Limuru. As the end of East African colonialism approached, Kenyan politicians, such as Tom Mboya, were proposing ways to make education in Western nations available to promising students. John F. Kennedy a United States Senator, agreed to fund such a program through the Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. Foundation, initiating what became known as the Kennedy Airlift or Airlift Africa. Maathai became one of some 300 Kenyans selected to study in the United States in September 1960, she received a scholarship to study at Mount St. Scholastica College, in Atchison, where she majored in biology, with minors in chemistry and German. After receiving her bachelor of science degree in 1964, she studied at the University of Pittsburgh for a master's degree in biology, her graduate studies there were funded by the Africa-America Institute, during her time in Pittsburgh, she first experienced environmental restoration, when local environmentalists pushed to rid the city of air pollution.
In January 1966, Maathai received her MSc in biological sciences, was appointed to a position as research assistant to a professor of zoology at University College of Nairobi. Upon returning to Kenya, Maathai dropped her forename, preferring to be known by her birth name, Wangarĩ Muta; when she arrived at the university to start her new job, she was informed that it had been given to someone else. Maathai believed this was because of tribal bias. After a two-month job search, Professor Reinhold Hofmann, from the University of Giessen in Germany, offered her a job as a research assistant in the microanatomy section of the newly established Department of Veterinary Anatomy in the School of Veterinary Medicine at University College of Nairobi. In April 1966, she met Mwangi Mathai, another Kenyan who had studied in America, who would become her husband, she rented a small shop in the city, established a general store, at which her sisters worked. In 1967, at the urging of Professor Hofmann, she traveled to the University of Giessen in Germany in pursuit of a doctorate.
She studied both at the University of Munich. In the spring of 1969, she returned to Nairobi to continue studies at the University College of Nairobi as an assistant lecturer. In May and Mwangi Maathai married; that year, she became pregnant with her first child, her husband campaigned for a seat in Parliament, narrowly losing. During the course of the election, Tom Mboya, instrumental in founding the program which sent her overseas, was assassinated; this led to President Kenyatta effectually ending multi-party democracy in Kenya. Shortly after, her first son, was born. In 1971, she became the first Eastern African woman to receive a PhD, her doctorate in veterinary anatomy, from the University College of Nairobi, which became the University of Nairobi the following year, she completed her dissertation on the differentiation of gonads in bovines. Her daughter, was born in December 1971. Maathai continued to teach at Nairobi, becoming a senior lecturer in anatomy in 1975, chair of the Department of Veterinary Anatomy in 1976 and associate professor in 1977.
She was the first woman in Nairobi appointed to any of these positions. During this time, she campaigned for equal benefits for the women working on the staff of the university, going so far as trying to turn the academic staff association of the univ
Ian Cedric Audley Player DMS was a South African international conservationist. Born in Johannesburg, Player was educated at St. John’s College, South Africa and served in the 6th Armoured Division attached to the American 5th Army in Italy 1944–46, his conservation career started with the Natal Parks Board in 1952 and whilst Warden of the Umfolozi Game Reserve, he spearheaded two key initiatives: Operation Rhino - that saved the few remaining southern race of white rhino. Protected status for the Umfolozi and St. Lucia Wilderness Areas - The first wilderness areas to be zoned in South Africa and on the African continent. Dr. Player was the Founder of the Wilderness Leadership School, which still runs the original wilderness trails to this day; this led to the formation of the Wild Foundation, the Wilderness Foundation SA, Wilderness Foundation UK, Magqubu Ntombela Foundation not to mention the World Wilderness Congresses, first convened in 1977. Amongst many orders and awards he counts Knight of the Order of the Golden Ark and the Decoration for Meritorious Service.
He was the recipient of two honorary doctorates: Doctor of Philosophy, Honoris Causa from the University of Natal. Doctor of Laws from Rhodes University. Player died on 30 November 2014 of a stroke, he was the brother of professional golfer Gary Player. His archives and legacy are owned and managed by Marc Player, who has initiated several projects including books a feature-length movie, a TV series built around Operation Rhino and the PLAYER INDABA which seeks global "PLAYERS' to raise funds to fight the extension of various threatened animal species; the famous movie director and producer Howard Hawks, wanted a movie about people who catch animals in Africa for zoos, a dangerous profession with exciting scenes the likes of which had never been seen on-screen before. The name of his blockbuster movie is Hatari!, starring John Wayne. Hawks increased his knowledge on animal catching from the humane work of Dr. Player. In 1952 South Africa was disastrously embarked to eliminate all large wild animals to protect livestock, only 300 white rhinos survived.
Player started his famed rhino catching technique to relocate and save the white rhinos. Player’s humane project was called Operation Rhino and the renowned film documentary named Operation Rhino was produced. Hawks studied this film documentary to help incorporate aspects of it into his film Hatari!. In June 1964, Player appeared on the panel show To Tell the Truth as himself, highlighting his role as warden of Hluhluwe–Imfolozi Park and his work protecting white rhinos. Host Bud Collyer noted that scenes of white rhinos shown at the beginning of the episode were from Ivan Tors' movie Rhino!, released a few weeks earlier, for which Player acted as a technical advisor. Men and Canoes – 1964 - Reissued 2007 - ISBN 978-0-9802501-2-1 White Rhino Saga – 1972 - ISBN 978-0-00-211938-2 Big Game – 1972 - ASIN: B0007BO5E4 Man and the Wilderness – 1986 - ASIN: B0007BQ0FG Zululand Wilderness: Shadow and Soul – 1997 - ISBN 978-0-86486-340-9 - archive Ian Player Perspective, stories by and about Dr. Ian Player WILD Foundation Wilderness Foundation SA Wilderness Foundation UK and articles about him on their blog Wilderness Leadership School
Felipe de Jesús Calderón Hinojosa, is a Mexican politician who served as President of Mexico from 1 December 2006 to 30 November 2012. He was a member of the National Action Party for thirty years before quitting the party in November 2018. Prior to the presidency, Calderón received two master's degrees and went on to work within the PAN while it was still an important opposition party. Calderón served as National President of the party, Federal Deputy, Secretary of Energy in Vicente Fox's cabinet, he served in the cabinet of the previous administration up until he resigned to run for the Presidency and secured his party's nomination. In the 2006 Presidential election, he ran as the PAN candidate. After a heated campaign and a controversial electoral process, the Federal Electoral Institute's official results gave Calderón a tiny lead above PRD candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador. While López Obrador and the PRD disputed the results and called for a complete recount of the votes, Calderón's victory was confirmed months on September 5, 2006, by the Federal Electoral Tribunal.
Calderón's inauguration ceremony at the Congress of the Union was tense and lasted less than five minutes, as he only recited the oath of office while the PRD legislators shouted in protest against the alleged electoral fraud, afterwards he left the building for security reasons as some of the legislators engaged in violent brawls. His presidency was marked by the ignition of the Mexican Drug War, which began immediately after he took office, was considered by many observators as a strategy to gain popular legitimacy for the new President after the convoluted elections. Calderón sanctioned Operation Michoacán, the first large-scale deployment of federal troops against the drug cartels. By the end of his administration, the official number of deaths related to the drug war was at least 60,000; the murder rate skyrocketed during his presidency parallel to that of the ignition of the drug war, with the murder rate peaking in 2010 and decreasing during the last two years of his term. Calderón's term was marked by the Great Recession, which resulted in a 4.7% drop in gross domestic product for 2009.
An economic recovery the following year resulted in growth of 5.11%. In 2007, Calderón established ProMéxico, a public trust fund that promotes Mexico's interests in international trade and investment; the total foreign direct investment during Calderón's presidency was US$70.494 billion. As a result of the countercyclical package passed in 2009 to address the effects of the global recession, the national debt increased from 22.2% to 35% of GDP by December 2012. The poverty rate increased from 43 to 46%. Other significant events during Calderón's presidency include the 2008 passing of criminal justice reforms, the 2009 flu pandemic, the 2010 establishment of the Agencia Espacial Mexicana, the 2011 founding of the Pacific Alliance and the achievement of universal healthcare through Seguro Popular in 2012. Under the Calderón administration sixteen new Protected Natural Areas were created, he began a one-year fellowship at John F. Kennedy School of Government in January 2013, returned to Mexico following the end of his tenure.
He left the National Action Party on 11 November 2018, stated that he intends to form his own political party. Felipe Calderón was born in Michoacán, he is the youngest of five brothers and son of Carmen Hinojosa Calderón and the late Luis Calderón Vega. His father was a co-founder of an important political figure; the elder Calderón served a term as federal deputy. He spent most of his life working within the party and spent most of his free time promoting the PAN; the young Calderón was active in his father's campaigns. As a boy, he distributed party pamphlets and flyers, rode PAN campaign vehicles and chanted slogans at rallies. After growing up in Morelia, Calderón moved to Mexico City, where he received a bachelor's degree in law from the Escuela Libre de Derecho, he received a master's degree in economics from the Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México and a Master of Public Administration degree in 2000 from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Following his father's example, he joined the PAN, with the desire of one day becoming Mexico's president.
It was in the National Action Party that Calderón met his wife, Margarita Zavala, who served in Congress as a federal deputy. They have María, Luis Felipe and Juan Pablo. Calderón is Roman Catholic. To demands for detailed revelation of his personal positions on abortion, Calderón responded that he voted for life. Calderón's administration sought to maintain moderate positions on social policy and supported Mexican legislation guaranteeing abortion for rape victims, when pregnancy endangers a woman's life or in cases of severe fetal deformity; as for his economic policies, he supports balanced fiscal policies, flat taxes, lower taxes, free trade. Calderón was president of the PAN's youth movement in his early twenties, he was a local representative in the Legislative Assembly and, on two different occasions, in the federal Chamber of Deputies. He ran for the governorship of Michoacán in 1995 and served as national president of the PAN from 1996 to 1999. During his tenure, his party maintained control
The Umfolozi River is a river in KwaZulu-Natal, a province of South Africa. It is formed by the confluence of the Black and White Umfolozi Rivers near the southeastern boundary of the Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Game Reserve; the isiZulu name imFolozi is considered to describe the zigzag course followed by both tributaries, though other explanations have been given. The river flows in an easterly direction to the Indian Ocean at Maphelana, a coastal resort just south of the St Lucia River mouth, it meandered over the Monzi Flats, where it split into numerous slow-flowing channels before entering the St. Lucia Estuary at Honeymoon Bend; the slow-moving water and reed beds in channels operated as a natural filtering system that removed silt from the Umfolozi floodwaters and created a rich habitat for numerous species. During the 1950s, the Umfolozi Landowners Association contained and artificially channeled the river through the Monzi Flats to develop sugarcane farms; the new Umfolozi canal resulted in the unfiltered water depositing its silt load after entering the slower moving St. Lucia Estuary.
This caused the estuary mouth to silt up. There had only been one record of this occurring until that time, during the sustained drought during the 1930s. At 28°20′58″S 31°58′46″E the Black Umfolozi River and the White Umfolozi River, join to form the Umfolozi; the government started a costly dredging operation in the estuary mouth area, but it proved ineffective. After years of dredging, the next plan was to prevent the Umfolozi River from entering the St Lucia estuary; the Umfolozi River was canalized straight out to sea at Maphelana. The impact of this decision continues; the changes threaten the coral reefs, which provide fish protect the shore. In addition, it jeopardizes the associated good snorkeling available at Cape Vidal, part of iSimangaliso Wetland Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site; the scaly yellowfish is a fish found in the Umfolozi River System as well as in the Umzimkulu, Umkomazi and the Mgeni. It is a common endemic species in KwaZulu-Natal Province and it lives in different habitats between the Drakensberg foothills and the coastal lowlands.
List of rivers of South Africa List of estuaries of South Africa List of dams in South Africa List of drainage basins of South Africa Water Management Areas A map of Major South African Rivers Mfolozi River Mouth Location Map
Extreme Ice Survey
The Extreme Ice Survey, based in Boulder, uses time-lapse photography, conventional photography and video to document the effects of global warming on glacial ice. It is the most wide-ranging glacier study conducted using ground-based, real-time photography. Starting in 2007 the EIS team installed as many as 43 time-lapse cameras at a time at 18 glaciers in Greenland, Alaska, the Nepalese Himalaya, the Rocky Mountains of the U. S; the cameras shoot every half hour of daylight. The team supplements the time-lapse record by repeating shots at fixed locations in Iceland, the Canadian province of British Columbia and the French and Swiss Alps. Collected images are being used for scientific evidence and as part of a global outreach campaign aimed at educating the public about the effects of climate change. EIS imagery has appeared in time-lapse videos displayed in the terminal at Denver International Airport. Major findings were published in 2012 in Ice: Portraits of the World’s Vanishing Glaciers by James Balog.
Nature photojournalist James Balog founded the Extreme Ice Survey in 2007 after spending much of the previous two years photographing receding glaciers for National Geographic and The New Yorker. Balog saw extraordinary amounts of ice vanishing with shocking speed. Features that took centuries to develop were being destroyed much faster than scientific modeling had predicted, sometimes in just a few years—or just a few weeks. Balog founded the EIS to provide visual evidence of the dramatic effects of global warming; the project evolved into an intensive team effort, bringing together journalists and scientists and engineers. The EIS aims to show epochal change happening within the time frame of human life, to provide scientists with a photographic record to understand the mechanics and pace of glacial retreat and how it relates to climate change; the EIS team chose to put its time-lapse cameras — Nikon D200 DSLR cameras powered by a custom-made combination of solar panels and other electronics — at accessible and photogenic sites that represented regional conditions well, had high scientific value and were photographically and logistically manageable.
Each camera system weighs 125-150 pounds or more and had to be secured with anchors and guy wires against winds up to 150 mph, as well as against temperatures as low as -40°F, landslides, torrential rain and avalanches. The cameras shot once every hour, in daylight hours, for 8,000 images per camera per year; the total survey archives now include more than 800,000 frames. By capturing images in diverse locations throughout the Northern Hemisphere over several years, the EIS can provide a more complete picture of the effect of global warming across different geographic regions than previous ground-based, time-lapse studies; as of January 2012, the team has 27 cameras at 18 glaciers. The images of photojournalist James Balog have received international acclaim, including a Heinz Award, the Leica Medal of Excellence and the premier awards for both nature and science photography at World Press Photo in Amsterdam. Exhibitions of his images have been shown at more than 100 museums and galleries from Greece to Paris, New York to Los Angeles.
He was the first photographer commissioned to create a series of stamps for the U. S. Postal Service. Balog’s work has been published in numerous major magazines, including National Geographic, The New Yorker, Vanity Fair, The New York Times Magazine and Outside. Balog is the author of seven books: Wildlife Requiem, Survivors: A New Vision of Endangered Wildlife, James Balog’s Animals A to Z, Tree: A New Vision of the American Forest, Extreme Ice Now: Vanishing Glaciers and Changing Climate, A Progress Report. Balog, a Sustainability Ambassador for The North Face, holds a bachelor's degree in speech/communications from Boston College and a master's degree in geomorphology from the University of Colorado. Jason Box – Researcher at the Ohio State University Byrd Polar Research Center and assistant professor of geography at Ohio State. Since 1994, Box has completed 21 expeditions to the Greenland ice sheet. An authority on the relationship between Greenland glaciers and the earth’s climate, he contributed to the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change summary report.
Daniel B. Fagre – Ecologist and climate change research coordinator for the U. S. Geological Survey in Glacier National Park, Montana. Fagre has been doing repeat photography on the dwindling ice masses of Glacier National Park for nearly two decades and is the author of the 2007 book, Sustaining Rocky Mountain Landscapes: Science and Management of the Crown of the Continent Ecosystem. Tad Pfeffer – Researcher at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research and professor of civil and architectural engineering at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Pfeffer’s research includes studies of the mechanics and dynamics of glaciers, heat and mass transfer in snow, he has worked on glaciers for 30 years, including two decades of field work on Alaska’s Columbia Glacier. Pfeffer does extensive work with photography and photogrammetry of glaciers and landscapes, using the imagery to describe and analyze glacier changes. Pfeffer’s photography has appeared in numerous scientific publications, as well as American Scientist and GEO m