WXSU-LP is the student-run radio station at Salisbury University in Salisbury, Maryland. The station known as WSUR, was forced to change call letters when registering with the FCC because of an existing television station with those call letters in Puerto Rico. WXSU-LP first went live to the Salisbury community in 2005 with 100 watt signal; the station operates during the Fall and Spring semesters from Late August to Mid-May. WXSU-LP is considered a "Big 6 Student Organization" at Salisbury University because it is one of the six top student organizations that receives block funding from the university; the station can be picked up around the Salisbury area and is located in the Guerrieri University Center. The station is available on the campus cable system in partnership with SUTV on channel 7-6 and 8-1. WXSU-LP broadcasts online streaming as of August 2013 on UStream. WXSU-LP has created an app WXSU963 available for free download on the Apple App Store and Google Play App Store. WXSU-LP works with the campus community and Registered Student Organizations to provide DJ services and promotions for meaningful events.
WXSU-LP is celebrating 40 years as a student-run radio organization from its beginning as WSSC in 1974. The first broadcast date of WSSC was November 6, 1974 and the first song to be played was “Enter the Young” by the Association. WXSU-LP can be contacted through its request hotline, 548-4760, its office phone line, 543-6195 WSSC was founded as a student-run radio station in 1974 when students felt that the campus of Salisbury State College, was missing something; the station was located in the basement of a residence hall on the north side of campus. The station broadcast on a carrier current AM channel and was known as WSSC 530AM; as the station and SSC began to grow, WSSC was moved to its next location in the gymnasium—Tawes Gym. Tawes was located where the new Fulton Hall stands today; the station began broadcasting on the college's cable network on Channel 11, where it remained until the summer of 2002, when it moved to Channel 44. The carrier current broadcast was dropped for an improved sound on a stereo cable frequency, 107.5 FM, was broadcast both on campus, throughout all of Salisbury via the local cable company until summer of 2002.
In 1991, WSUR moved to its current location in the Guerrieri University Center. In the fall of 1999, WSUR took an early jump into the 21st century and began a live audiostream, sent all over the world first using Shoutcast, changing to a Windows Media Player and Real Player stream. Official website Query the FCC's FM station database for WXSU Radio-Locator information on WXSU-LP Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WXSU
Ocean City, Maryland
Ocean City, Maryland the Town of Ocean City, is an Atlantic resort town in Worcester County, Maryland. Ocean City is a major beach resort area along the East Coast of the United States; the population was 7,102 at the 2010 U. S. Census, although during summer weekends the city hosts between 320,000 and 345,000 vacationers, up to 8 million visitors annually. During the summer, Ocean City becomes the second most populated municipality in Maryland, after Baltimore, it is part of the Salisbury, MD-DE Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau. The land upon which the city was built, as well as much of the surrounding area, was obtained by Englishman Thomas Fenwick from the Native Americans. In 1869, businessman Isaac Coffin built the first beach-front cottage to receive paying guests. During those days, people arrived by stage ferry, they came to fish off the shore, to enjoy views of the Atlantic Ocean pounding against the long strip of sandy beach, to collect seashells, or just to sit back and watch the rolling surf.
Soon after, other simple boarding houses were built on the strip of sand, with the activity attracting prominent businessmen from the Maryland Eastern Shore, Baltimore and Wilmington. They came not so much to visit. A decision was made to develop it and 250 lots were cut into it, a corporation was formed to help with the development of the land; the corporation stock of 4,000 shares sold for $25 each. Prior to 1870, what is now Ocean City was known as "The Ladies' Resort to the Ocean." The Atlantic Hotel, the first major hotel in the town, opened July 4, 1875. The Atlantic Hotel was owned by the Atlantic Hotel Company, but Charles W. Purnell bought it in 1923, it is still owned and operated by the Purnell family. Besides the beach and ocean, it offered dancing and billiard rooms to the visitors of its more than 400 rooms, for years it was the northern-most attraction in Ocean City. By 1878 tourists could come by the Wicomico & Pocomoke Railroad from Berlin to the shores of Sinepuxent Bay across from the town.
By 1881, a line was completed across Sinepuxent Bay to the shore, bringing rail passengers on the Baltimore and Atlantic Railroad directly into the town to a train station on Philadelphia Avenue and returning to larger city markets with locally caught fish from Ocean City. The Ocean City Inlet was formed during a significant hurricane in 1933, which destroyed the train tracks across the Sinepuxent Bay; the inlet separated. The Army Corps of Engineers took advantage of nature's intervention and made the inlet at the south end of Ocean City permanent; the inlet helped to establish Ocean City as an important Mid-Atlantic fishing port as it offered easy access to the fishing grounds of the Atlantic Ocean. In the late 1930s, the Army Corps of Engineers dredged a new channel on the bayside of Ocean City to allow larger boats to have access to Sinepuxent Bay; the dredge was pumped back onto the western shore of Ocean City allowing the creation of Chicago Avenue and St. Louis Avenue, leading to new development where only marshland had been.
Ocean City has become a well-known city in Maryland due to the rapid expansion of Ocean City that took place during the post-war boom. In 1952, with the completion of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge, Ocean City became accessible to people in the Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area. In 1964, with the completion of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel, a whole new pathway to the south was opened. Ocean City became one of the largest vacation areas of the East Coast. By the 1970s, big business flourished and gave birth to the construction of more than 15,000 condominium units, creating high-rise condominiums that gave investors a glimpse of the ocean and pounding surf. However, throughout the 1980s, into the 1990s, the width of the beach began to shrink, prompting the first of a series of beach replenishment projects; the original pier was destroyed by a fire in 1994. There was a small water park and giant walk-through haunted house with live actors near the end of the pier and a New Orleans-style Hollywood in Wax Museum on the boardwalk side.
In the late 1980s the Wax Museum was turned into a Photon laser tag arena. The building now houses the Ripley's Believe it or Not! museum. In 2002, Ocean City undertook the most recent of many, multimillion-dollar, beach restoration programs, in an attempt to slow the westward migration of its beaches; the program deposited it onto the beach. A dune line was re-established in front of Ocean City's building line. Another similar project began; the Sandy Point Site and St. Paul's by-the-sea Protestant Episcopal Church are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Today, the Ocean City area continues to sprawl westward across the bay and toward Berlin and Ocean Pines, it was part of the Ocean Pines Micropolitan Statistical Area until, subsumed by the Salisbury Metropolitan Area. The resort area accommodates 8 million visitors per year; the town supports a year-round population of about 8,000, with the town itself being a major employer. Summer employment in Ocean City rises many multiples above that level, supported by a large number of college-age and young adults—many native to Eastern Europe and Ireland—attracted by numerous job opportunities.
In the summer and government agencies are augmented with about 100 seasonal police officers, plus extra firefighters and other workers. Tourism in the off-season has picked up pace over the past decade. Today, Ocean Maryland has become one of the most popular vacation areas of the East Coast. Warmer months lik
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, is still used worldwide for medium wave transmissions, but on the longwave and shortwave radio bands; the earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have greatly shrunk due to competition from FM radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting, satellite radio, HD radio and Internet streaming. AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, have lower audio fidelity.
Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music to FM and digital stations. The idea of broadcasting — the unrestricted transmission of signals to a widespread audience — dates back to the founding period of radio development though the earliest radio transmissions known as "Hertzian radiation" and "wireless telegraphy", used spark-gap transmitters that could only transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. In October 1898 a London publication, The Electrician, noted that "there are rare cases where, as Dr. Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, it was recognized that this would involve significant financial issues, as that same year The Electrician commented "did not Prof. Lodge forget that no one wants to pay for shouting to the world on a system by which it would be impossible to prevent non-subscribers from benefiting gratuitously?"On January 1, 1902, Nathan Stubblefield gave a short-range "wireless telephone" demonstration, that included broadcasting speech and music to seven locations throughout Murray, Kentucky.
However, this was transmitted using induction rather than radio signals, although Stubblefield predicted that his system would be perfected so that "it will be possible to communicate with hundreds of homes at the same time", "a single message can be sent from a central station to all parts of the United States", he was unable to overcome the inherent distance limitations of this technology. The earliest public radiotelegraph broadcasts were provided as government services, beginning with daily time signals inaugurated on January 1, 1905, by a number of U. S. Navy stations. In Europe, signals transmitted from a station located on the Eiffel tower were received throughout much of Europe. In both the United States and France this led to a small market of receiver lines designed geared for jewelers who needed accurate time to set their clocks, including the Ondophone in France, the De Forest RS-100 Jewelers Time Receiver in the United States The ability to pick up time signal broadcasts, in addition to Morse code weather reports and news summaries attracted the interest of amateur radio enthusiasts.
It was recognized that, much like the telegraph had preceded the invention of the telephone, the ability to make audio radio transmissions would be a significant technical advance. Despite this knowledge, it still took two decades to perfect the technology needed to make quality audio transmissions. In addition, the telephone had been used for distributing entertainment, outside of a few "telephone newspaper" systems, most of which were established in Europe. With this in mind, most early radiotelephone development envisioned that the device would be more profitably developed as a "wireless telephone" for personal communication, or for providing links where regular telephone lines could not be run, rather than for the uncertain finances of broadcasting; the person credited as the primary early developer of AM technology is Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden. The original spark-gap radio transmitters were impractical for transmitting audio, since they produced discontinuous pulses known as "damped waves".
Fessenden realized that what was needed was a new type of radio transmitter that produced steady "undamped" signals, which could be "modulated" to reflect the sounds being transmitted. Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. S. Patent 706,737, which he applied for on May 29, 1901, was issued the next year, it called for the use of a high-speed alternator that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave transmitter. Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while doing developmental work for the United States Weather Service on Cobb Island, Maryland; because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves. He reported that, in the fall of 1900, he transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers, which appears to have been the first successful audio transmission using radio signals.
However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical. For a time he continued working with more sophist
Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both; the signal types can be digital audio. The earliest radio stations did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated; the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an "oscillation valve"; the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the reverse direction because the plate was not heated and thus not capable of thermionic emission of electrons. Known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and as a radio wave detector; this improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cat's whisker.
However, what was still required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4, 1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25, 1906, Lee De Forest patented his three-element Audion, it wasn't put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was becoming viable. However, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. While many early experimenters attempted to create systems similar to radiotelephone devices by which only two parties were meant to communicate, there were others who intended to transmit to larger audiences. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year.. In The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6, 1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station.
In 1916, Frank Conrad, an electrical engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania garage with the call letters 8XK. The station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2, 1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America; the commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license. The first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself: the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election; the Montreal station that became CFCF began broadcast programming on May 20, 1920, the Detroit station that became WWJ began program broadcasts beginning on August 20, 1920, although neither held a license at the time. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconi's New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920, where she sang two arias and her famous trill.
She was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922; the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923. Radio Argentina began scheduled transmissions from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires on August 27, 1920, making its own priority claim; the station got its license on November 19, 1923. The delay was due to the lack of official Argentine licensing procedures before that date; this station continued regular broadcasting of entertainment and cultural fare for several decades. Radio in education soon followed and colleges across the U. S. began adding radio broadcasting courses to their curricula. Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts introduced one of the first broadcasting majors in 1932 when the college teamed up with WLOE in Boston to have students broadcast programs.
Broadcasting service is – according to Article 1.38 of the International Telecommunication Union´s Radio Regulations – defined as «A radiocommunication service in which the transmission are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmission.» Definitions identical to those contained in the Annexes to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union are marked "" or "" respectively. A radio broadcasting station is associated with wireless transmission, though in practice broadcasting transmission take place using both wires and radio waves; the point of this is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can receive the broadcast. In line to ITU Radio Regulations each broadcasting station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. Broadcasting by radio takes several forms; these include FM stations. There are several subtypes, namely commercial broadcasting, non-commercial educational public broadcasting and non-profit varieties as well as community radio, student-run campus radio stations, and
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies; the term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country, dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions: In the former Soviet republics, some former Eastern Bloc countries, the older 65.8–74 MHz band is used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz; this band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is being phased out in many countries.
In those countries the 87.5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used; the frequency of an FM broadcast station is an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe and Africa, only multiples are used. In the UK odd or are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. In most countries the maximum permitted frequency error is specified, the unmodulated carrier should be within 2000 Hz of the assigned frequency. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500, 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500 kHz frequency separation when closer frequency spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as interfering signals are more attenuated and so have less effect on neighboring frequencies.
Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation which conveys information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal; because transmitted FM signals use more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is used with the higher frequencies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, land mobile radio systems. The maximum frequency deviation of the carrier is specified and regulated by the licensing authorities in each country. For a stereo broadcast, the maximum permitted carrier deviation is invariably ±75 kHz, although a little higher is permitted in the United States when SCA systems are used. For a monophonic broadcast, again the most common permitted. However, some countries specify a lower value for monophonic broadcasts, such as ±50 kHz. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the baseband.
This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise; these processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In the Americas and South Korea, 75 µs is used; this applies to both stereo transmissions. For stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing; the use of pre-emphasis becomes a problem because of the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. Pre-emphasizing these high frequency sounds would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Modulation control devices are used to prevent this.
Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing, at his experimental 41 MHz station W2XDG located on the 85th floor of the Empire State Building in New York City; these FM multiplex transmissions started in November 1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing signal for the fax program and a telegraph “order” channel. These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network, were transmitted using the same system of subcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter link system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were replaced with much improved results.
The first FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from Major Armstrong's experimental station KE2XCC at Alpine, New Jersey occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-cha
Salisbury is a city in and the county seat of Wicomico County, United States, the largest city in the state's Eastern Shore region. The population was 30,343 at the 2010 census. Salisbury is the principal city of Maryland-Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city is the commercial hub of the Delmarva Peninsula, long devoted to agriculture and had a southern culture. It calls itself "The Comfortable Side of Coastal". Salisbury's location at the head of Wicomico River was a major factor in growth. At first, it was a small colonial outpost set up by Lord Baltimore; the Gillis-Grier House, Honeysuckle Lodge, Sen. William P. Jackson House, Pemberton Hall, Perry-Cooper House, Poplar Hill Mansion, Union Station, F. Leonard Wailes Law Office are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Salisbury's location at the head of the Wicomico River was seen to be a convenient location for trading purposes. Due to the similar physical attributes as well as the nationality of Salisbury's founders, many historians believe that the name was inspired by the City of Salisbury, England, an ancient cathedral city.
Salisbury had a role in the Civil War, as it served as a location where Union forces encamped in order to search for sympathizers from the South. These Union forces worked to inhibit the movement of contraband to Confederate forces in the South. Disaster struck Salisbury in both 1866, as fires burned through two-thirds of the Town. Although met with adversity, the resolve of the people of Salisbury was unshaken as the county in which Salisbury was located in continued to grow, Salisbury was considered to be the heart, or major town, of the county. In 1867, when the Wicomico County was formed out of parts of both Somerset and Worcester Counties, Salisbury became the government seat. Today, Salisbury attracts a wide variety of different businesses in addition to the county and federal government offices. Adding to the diversity of Salisbury, the City is host to a wide variety of events celebrating local culture and the arts; these events include 3rd Friday, an event held in downtown Salisbury on the third Friday of each month, celebrating local music and nonprofit organizations.
Salisbury is home to a historical City Park, the Salisbury Zoo, The Centre at Salisbury shopping mall, the Wicomico Youth & Civic Center. Salisbury is located at 38°21′57″N 75°35′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.87 square miles, of which 13.40 square miles is land and 0.47 square miles is water. The city has a varying elevation of 17 to 45 feet above sea level; the nearest major cities to Salisbury are Baltimore 106 miles. C. 119 miles, Philadelphia 128 miles, Norfolk 132 miles, Wilmington 96 miles. Salisbury's location on the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Maryland gives it a humid subtropical climate, with hot, humid summers and, on average, cool to mild winters; the monthly daily average temperature ranges from 37.9 °F in January to 78.6 °F in July. On average, Salisbury annually receives 45.9 inches of precipitation, with 9.9 inches of snowfall. The Köppen climate classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa". Salisbury is the principal city of the Salisbury, Maryland-Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area, which consists of Somerset and Worcester counties in Maryland and Sussex County in Delaware.
As of the census of 2000, there were 23,743 people, 9,061 households, 4,802 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,145.5 people per square mile. There were 9,612 housing units at an average density of 868.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 60.71% White, 32.32% African American, 0.23% Native American, 3.19% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.47% from other races, 2.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.39% of the population. There were 9,061 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.4% were married couples living together, 18.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.0% were non-families. 33.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.00. In 2005, 324 new single family homes were built, with an average value of $119,358. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 21.8% under the age of 18, 21.8% from 18 to 24, 26.9% from 25 to 44, 17.0% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,191, the median income for a family was $35,527. Males had a median income of $26,829 versus $21,920 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,228. About 16.5% of families and 23.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.9% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 30,343 people, 11,983 households, 6,040 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,264.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,401 housing units at an average density of 1,000.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 55.7% White, 34.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 3.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.1% from other races, 3.2% from two or
The Delmarva Peninsula, or Delmarva, is a large peninsula on the East Coast of the United States, occupied by Delaware and parts of the Eastern Shores of Maryland and Virginia. The peninsula is 170 miles long. In width, it ranges from 70 miles near its center, to 12 miles at the isthmus on its northern edge, to less near its southern tip of Cape Charles, it is bordered by the Chesapeake Bay on the west, the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, the Elk River and its isthmus on the north. In older sources, the peninsula between Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay was referred to variously as the Delaware and Chesapeake Peninsula or the Chesapeake Peninsula; the toponym Delmarva is a clipped compound of Delaware and Virginia, which in turn was modeled after Delmar, a border town named after two of those states. While Delmar was founded and named in 1859, the earliest uses of the name Delmarva occurred several decades and appear to have been commercial; the northern isthmus of the peninsula is transected by Delaware Canal.
Several bridges cross the canal, the Chesapeake Bay Bridge and the Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel join the peninsula to mainland Maryland and Virginia, respectively. Another point of access is Lewes, reachable by the Cape May–Lewes Ferry from Cape May, New Jersey. Dover, Delaware's capital city, is the peninsula's largest city by population, but the main commercial area is Salisbury, near its center. Including all offshore islands, the total land area south of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal is 5,454 sq mi. At the 2000 census the total population was 681,030, giving an average population density of 124.86 inhabitants per square mile. Cape Charles forms the southern tip of the peninsula in Virginia; the entire Delmarva Peninsula falls within the Atlantic Coastal Plain, a flat and sandy area with few or no hills. The fall line, found in the region southwest of Wilmington and just north of the northern edge of the Delmarva Peninsula, is a geographic borderland where the Piedmont region transitions into the coastal plain.
Its Atlantic Ocean coast is formed by the Virginia Barrier Islands in the south and the Fenwick Island barrier spit in the north. The culture on Delmarva is starkly different from the rest of the Mid-Atlantic region and is much like that of the Southern United States. Many Delmarva counties are much more conservative than the "mainland" counties of Delaware and Virginia. Delmarva is driven by commercial fishing. Most of the land is rural, there are only a few large population centers. Many dialect studies show that Delmarva residents have a variation of Southern American English, prevalent in rural areas; the border between Maryland and Delaware, which resulted from the 80-year-long Penn–Calvert Boundary Dispute, consists of the east-west Transpeninsular Line and the perpendicular north-south portion of the Mason–Dixon line extending north to just beyond its tangental intersection with the Twelve-Mile Circle which forms Delaware's border with Pennsylvania. The border between Maryland and Virginia on the peninsula follows the Pocomoke River from the Chesapeake to a series of straight surveyed lines connecting the Pocomoke to the Atlantic Ocean.
All three counties in Delaware—New Castle and Sussex—are located on the peninsula. Of the 23 counties in Maryland, nine are on the Eastern Shore: Kent, Queen Anne's, Caroline, Wicomico and Worcester, as well as a portion of Cecil County. Two Virginia counties are on the peninsula: Northampton; the following is a list of some of the notable towns on the peninsula. Chestertown, Maryland, is the home of Washington College. Centreville, Maryland, is the county seat of Queen Anne's County. Easton, Maryland, is the county seat of Talbot County. St. Michael's, Maryland, is a popular tourist destination. Dover, Delaware, is the Delaware state capital and the peninsula's largest city in terms of population. Lewes, Delaware, is the site of the first European colonization in Delaware, is nicknamed "the first town in the first state", is a port city for the Cape May–Lewes Ferry. Ocean City, Maryland, is a popular resort town. Crisfield, Maryland, is a notable source of seafood. Seaford, the "Nylon Capital of the World", is the largest city in Sussex County.
Salisbury, Maryland, is the county seat of Wicomico County, the second largest city in the peninsula and the lower peninsula's only urbanized area. It is known as the "Crossroads of Delmarva", it is home to the Salisbury–Ocean City–Wicomico Regional Airport, the only airport on the peninsula with scheduled commercial flights. Delmar, part of the Salisbury Urbanized Area, lies across the Maryland-Delaware border from its twin, Delaware, on the Transpeninsular Line. Chincoteague, Virginia, is noted for its wild ponies and its beaches, administered by the U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service through Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge. Princess Anne, Maryland, is the county seat of Somerset County. Cambridge, Maryland, is a busy port on the Choptank River. Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, "the Nation's Summer Capital", has a sixteenfold increase in population from winter to