David Michael Letterman is an American television host, comedian and producer. He hosted late night television talk shows for 33 years, beginning with the February 1, 1982, debut of Late Night with David Letterman on NBC, ending with the May 20, 2015, broadcast of Late Show with David Letterman on CBS. In total, Letterman hosted 6,080 episodes of Late Night and Late Show, surpassing his friend and mentor Johnny Carson as the longest-serving late night talk show host in American television history. In 1996 Letterman was ranked 45th on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time. In 2002, The Late Show with David Letterman was ranked seventh on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. Letterman hosts the Netflix series My Next Guest Needs No Introduction with David Letterman. Letterman is a television and film producer, his company, Worldwide Pants, produced his shows as well as The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson and several prime-time comedies, the most successful of, Everybody Loves Raymond, now in syndication.
Several late-night hosts have cited Letterman's influence, including Conan O'Brien, Stephen Colbert, Jimmy Fallon, Jimmy Kimmel, John Oliver, Seth Meyers. Letterman was born in Indiana, his father, Harry Joseph Letterman, was a florist. His mother, Dorothy Marie Letterman Mengering, a church secretary for the Second Presbyterian Church of Indianapolis, was an occasional figure on Letterman's show at holidays and birthdays, he lived on the north side of Indianapolis, about 12 miles from the Indianapolis Motor Speedway and he enjoyed collecting model cars, including racers. In 2000, he told an interviewer for Esquire that, while growing up, he admired his father's ability to tell jokes and be the life of the party. Harry Joseph Letterman survived a heart attack at age 36; the fear of losing his father was with Letterman as he grew up. The elder Letterman died of a second heart attack at age 57. Letterman attended his hometown's Broad Ripple High School and worked as a stock boy at the local Atlas Supermarket.
According to the Ball State Daily News, he had wanted to attend Indiana University, but his grades were not good enough, so he instead attended Ball State University, in Muncie, Indiana. He is a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity, he graduated in 1969 from what was the Department of Radio and Television. A self-described average student, Letterman endowed a scholarship for what he called "C students" at Ball State. Though he registered for the draft and passed his physical after graduating from college, he was not drafted for service in Vietnam because of receiving a draft lottery number of 346. Letterman began his broadcasting career as an announcer and newscaster at the college's student-run radio station—WBST—a 10-watt campus station which now is part of Indiana Public Radio, he was fired for treating classical music with irreverence. He became involved with the founding of another campus station—WAGO-AM 570, he credits Paul Dixon, host of the Paul Dixon Show, a Cincinnati-based talk show shown in Indianapolis while he was growing up, for inspiring his choice of career: I was just out of college, I didn't know what I wanted to do.
And all of a sudden I saw him doing it. And I thought: That's what I want to do! Soon after graduating from Ball State in 1969, Letterman began his career as a radio talk show host on WNTS and on Indianapolis television station WLWI as an anchor and weatherman, he received some attention for his unpredictable on-air behavior, which included congratulating a tropical storm for being upgraded to a hurricane and predicting hail stones "the size of canned hams." He would occasionally report the weather and the day's high and low temps for fictitious cities while on another occasion saying that a state border had been erased when a satellite map accidentally omitted the state border between Indiana and Ohio, attributing it to dirty political dealings. He starred in a local kiddie show, made wisecracks as host of a late night TV show called "Freeze-Dried Movies", hosted a talk show that aired early on Saturday mornings called Clover Power, in which he interviewed 4-H members about their projects.
In 1971 Letterman appeared as a pit road reporter for ABC Sports' tape-delayed coverage of the Indianapolis 500. Letterman was introduced as Chris Economaki, although this was corrected at the end of the interview. Letterman interviewed Mario Andretti. In 1975, encouraged by his then-wife Michelle and several of his Sigma Chi fraternity brothers, Letterman moved to Los Angeles, with hope of becoming a comedy writer, he and Michelle headed west. As of 2012, he still owned the truck. In Los Angeles, he began performing comedy at The Comedy Store. Jimmie Walker saw him on stage.
Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both; the signal types can be digital audio. The earliest radio stations did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated; the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an "oscillation valve"; the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the reverse direction because the plate was not heated and thus not capable of thermionic emission of electrons. Known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and as a radio wave detector; this improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cat's whisker.
However, what was still required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4, 1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25, 1906, Lee De Forest patented his three-element Audion, it wasn't put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was becoming viable. However, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. While many early experimenters attempted to create systems similar to radiotelephone devices by which only two parties were meant to communicate, there were others who intended to transmit to larger audiences. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year.. In The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6, 1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station.
In 1916, Frank Conrad, an electrical engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania garage with the call letters 8XK. The station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2, 1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America; the commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license. The first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself: the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election; the Montreal station that became CFCF began broadcast programming on May 20, 1920, the Detroit station that became WWJ began program broadcasts beginning on August 20, 1920, although neither held a license at the time. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconi's New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920, where she sang two arias and her famous trill.
She was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922; the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923. Radio Argentina began scheduled transmissions from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires on August 27, 1920, making its own priority claim; the station got its license on November 19, 1923. The delay was due to the lack of official Argentine licensing procedures before that date; this station continued regular broadcasting of entertainment and cultural fare for several decades. Radio in education soon followed and colleges across the U. S. began adding radio broadcasting courses to their curricula. Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts introduced one of the first broadcasting majors in 1932 when the college teamed up with WLOE in Boston to have students broadcast programs.
Broadcasting service is – according to Article 1.38 of the International Telecommunication Union´s Radio Regulations – defined as «A radiocommunication service in which the transmission are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmission.» Definitions identical to those contained in the Annexes to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union are marked "" or "" respectively. A radio broadcasting station is associated with wireless transmission, though in practice broadcasting transmission take place using both wires and radio waves; the point of this is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can receive the broadcast. In line to ITU Radio Regulations each broadcasting station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. Broadcasting by radio takes several forms; these include FM stations. There are several subtypes, namely commercial broadcasting, non-commercial educational public broadcasting and non-profit varieties as well as community radio, student-run campus radio stations, and
Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
WFNI is a commercial AM radio station in Indianapolis, Indiana. It carries an all-sports radio format; the studios and offices are located at 40 Monument Circle in downtown Indianapolis. The transmitter and antenna are located off Perry Worth Drive near Interstate 65 in Whitestown, northwest of Indianapolis. WFNI is simulcast on an FM translator W298BB at 107.5 MHz. AM 1070 is the former home of WIBC, which had broadcast on that frequency since 1938. In 2007, WIBC's talk programming moved to co-owned 93.1 FM, an all-sports format began on 1070, carrying local hosts weekdays with ESPN Radio Network programming heard nights, weekends and in the early morning. WFNI broadcasts using 50,000 watts of directional power during the daytime, using four towers, 10,000 watts of directional power at night, using six towers. Both the daytime and nighttime directional signals focus more power to the southeast direction from the antenna site; the daytime directional signal includes a small lobe to the southwest.
AM 1070 is a clear-channel frequency, reserved for Class A KNX in Los Angeles, requiring WFNI to reduce nighttime power and use a directional antenna to avoid interference. WFNI broadcasts in HD. WFNI was born as a result of a two-company station swap; these moves were provoked in part because Emmis had acquired the rights to the Indianapolis Colts football team for the 2007 season, which left the station with the rights to all major sports teams in Indianapolis. To avoid tedious shuffling of games among its stations and frequent preemption of regular programming, Emmis decided to clear a frequency for a new all-sports station in Indianapolis; the move began on October 8, 2007, when the format and branding of Top 40 WNOW was sold to Radio One and moved to 100.9 MHz, the former frequency of now defunct smooth jazz WYJZ. This was done so that Emmis could clear the 93.1 frequency for news/talk WIBC, on 1070 kHz on the AM dial. That move was made on December 26, 2007, with 93.1 stunting an all-Christmas music format as WEXM, between October 8 and December 25.
With the 1070 frequency open, Emmis launched its sports radio format on December 26 with a series of classic Indianapolis sporting events, ahead of its official launch date, January 7, 2008. Prior to WFNI's launch, ESPN Radio talk programming had been heard on 950 WXLW, a lower-power station, from 2002 to 2007. Before that, 1260 WNDE was an ESPN Radio network affiliate from 1992 till 1994 and again from 1996 until switching to Fox Sports Radio in 2002. WIBC carried some ESPN Radio programming from 1994 to 1996 GameNight on weekend evenings and some major live sporting events. ESPN Radio's national sports broadcasts are all heard on WFNI – sorting out an unusual rights division among as many as four stations in the market during the early 2000s. WFNI is the flagship station of the NBA's Indiana Pacers basketball team, it is the AM flagship for the NFL's Indianapolis Colts, simulcasting the games with sister station WLHK. As such, daily updates from Colts play-by-play voice Bob Lamey are heard in-season.
In addition, WFNI is the flagship for the WNBA's Indiana Fever. WFNI airs Indiana University football and the Indiana High School state championship games in football and girls' and boys' basketball. WFNI is the flagship of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network, carrying the IRL IndyCar Series, as well as the NASCAR Brickyard 400 and the Indianapolis motorcycle Grand Prix. In June 2010, it was announced that Butler Bulldogs men's basketball would move from WXNT to WFNI beginning in the 2010–11 season. In June 2010, WFNI programmed three daily local sports talk shows; the Grady and Big Joe Show with Michael Grady and former Indianapolis Colts lineman and longtime WIBC personality Joe Staysniak aired at 10 a.m. followed by The Dan Dakich Show from noon to 3 p.m. and The Ride with JMV from 3 to 7 p.m. Kravitz and Eddie was the station's inaugural afternoon-drive talk show, co-hosted by Eddie White and Indianapolis Star sports columnist Bob Kravitz, with producer Grady. Kravitz left the station on March 2010, leaving White as a solo host.
An Emmis press release on May 15 announced White would transition to a part-time station contributor. On May 24, The Ride with JMV took over the afternoon-drive slot. JMV had hosted the same slot on rival WNDE from 2004 to 2009. Grady remained as producer until becoming morning co-host in early 2011. On October 6, 2008, former Indiana and Bowling Green basketball coach Dan Dakich was added in the 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. timeslot. On April 5, 2010, Dakich moved to noon to 3 p.m. making room for Staysniak. Indiana Sports Talk, hosted by Bob Lovell, airs Friday and Saturday nights from August through May and focuses on high school sports scores and results; the program predates WFNI, having been syndicated statewide since 1994 by the Emmis-owned Network Indiana. In 2012, the show began airing on WIBC. WFNI, like WIBC before it, is the home of Indianapolis Motor Speedway historian Donald Davidson's nightly call-in show, The Talk of Gasoline Alley, throughout the month of May leading up to the Indianapolis 500.
The show began in 1970. Weekly local programs include Trackside, a two-hour auto racing discussion ho
NOAA Weather Radio
NOAA Weather Radio is an automated 24-hour network of VHF FM weather radio stations in the United States that broadcast weather information directly from a nearby National Weather Service office. The routine programming cycle includes local or regional weather forecasts, climate summaries, synopsis or zone/lake/coastal waters forecasts. During severe conditions the cycle is shortened into: hazardous weather outlooks, short-term forecasts, special weather statements or tropical weather summaries, it broadcasts other non-weather related events such as national security statements, natural disaster information and public safety statements sourced from the Federal Communications Commission's Emergency Alert System. NOAA Weather Radio uses automated broadcast technology that allows for the recycling of segments featured in one broadcast cycle seamlessly into another and more regular updating of segments to each of the transmitters, it speeds up the warning transmitting process. Weather radios are sold online and in retail stores that specialize in consumer electronics in Canada and the United States.
Additionally, they are available in many supermarkets and drugstores located in the southern and midwestern US, which are susceptible to severe weather—large portions of these regions are referred to as "Tornado Alley". The price of a consumer-grade weather radio varies depending on its extra features; the United States Weather Bureau first began broadcasting marine weather information in Chicago and New York City on two VHF radio stations in 1960 as an experiment. Proving to be successful, the broadcasts expanded to serve the general public in coastal regions in the 1960s and early 1970s; the U. S. Weather Bureau adopted its current name, National Weather Service, was operating 29 VHF-FM weather-radio transmitters under the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1970; the service was designed with boaters, fishermen and more in mind, allowing a listener to receive a "life-saving" alert from the National Weather Office, updated forecasts and other climatogical data in a condensed format at any time of the day.
This allows listeners get the latest weather when they need it, more lead-time to prepare during severe conditions. In 1974, NOAA Weather Radio, as it was now called, reached about 44 percent of the U. S. population over 66 nationwide transmitters. NWR grew to over 300 stations by the late 1970s. Local NWS staff were the voices heard on NWR stations from its inception until the late 1990s when "Paul" was introduced; the messages were recorded on tape, by digital means placed in the broadcast cycle. This technology limited the programming variability and locked it into a repetitive sequential order, it slowed down the speed of warning messages when severe weather happened, because each NWS office could have up to eight transmitters. "Paul" was a computerized voice using the DECtalk text-to-speech system. "Paul's" voice was difficult to understand. A new voice was introduced in 2016 and implemented nationwide by late in the year. Live human voices are still used for weekly tests of the Specific Area Message Encoding and 1050 Hz tone alerting systems, station IDs, in the event of system failure or computer upgrades.
They will be used on some stations for updates on the time and radio frequency. In the 1990s, the National Weather Service adopted plans to implement SAME technology nationwide. S. government provided the budget needed to develop the SAME technology across the entire radio network. Nationwide implementation occurred in 1997 when the Federal Communications Commission adopted the SAME standard as part of its new Emergency Alert System. NOAA Weather Radio public alerting expanded from weather only to "all hazards" being broadcast. NWR grew to over 800 radio stations by the end of 2001; as of January 2014, there were 1032 stations covering 97% of the United States, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa and the Northern Mariana Islands; as of January 2015, there were about 1025 stations in operation, with 95% effective coverage. In the wake of the 1965 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak, one of the key recommendations from the U. S. Weather Bureau's storm survey team, was the establishment of a nationwide radio network that could be used to broadcast weather warnings to the general public, key institutions, news media and the public safety community.
Starting in 1966, the Environmental Science Services Administration started a nationwide program known as "ESSA VHF Weather Radio Network." In the early 1970s, this was changed to NOAA Weather Radio. The service was expanded to coastal locations during the 1970s in the wake of Hurricane Camille based upon recommendations made by the Department of Commerce after the storm in September 1969. In 1970, 162.400 MHz was added as a primary channel. In 1975 Honolulu NWR station KBA99 was moved from 169.075 MHz to 162.550 MHz, at the same time 162.475 MHz frequency was introduced for NWR transmission. Many basic weather band receivers manufactured and sold from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s were configured to only receive these three "mai
Beech Grove, Indiana
Beech Grove is an excluded city in Marion County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city's population is 14,192; the city is located within the Indianapolis metropolitan area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.39 square miles, all land. The city's elevation, measured in feet above sea level, ranges from 766 to 845, it is higher than that of downtown Indianapolis. The city contains several small non-navigable waterways. Beech Creek, McFarland Creek, Pullman Creek, Victory Run all feed into Lick Creek, which feeds into the West Fork of the White River; the city is located within parts of four of Marion County's townships. In order of city land size, those townships are Perry, Franklin and Warren. In order of city population, the list is Perry and Franklin; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Beech Grove has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.
By the turn of the 20th century, the Beech Grove area was a rural section of Marion County. Notable residents included poet and women's-rights activist Sarah Tittle Bolton and Indianapolis financier Francis McClintock Churchman. Bolton's farm, "Beech Bank", Churchman's cattle farm, "Beech Grove Farm", both reflected the abundance of beech trees in this area; this would provide the reason for the city's name, although an early railroad stop in the area was known as "Ingallstown". The city's Sarah T. Bolton Park, situated on some of the former Beech Bank farmland, still contains several large beech trees along its southern boundary; the actual city came into existence as a company town for a new railroad repair facility, the Beech Grove Shops, constructed by the Cleveland, Chicago, St. Louis Railroad. Through acquisitions and mergers over the years, the railroad shops have been run by the New York Central, Penn Central and, Amtrak rail systems; the complex sits on 108 acres with 700,000 square feet underroof.
In 2007, Amtrak had 550 employees working there. In recognition of the city's heritage as a railroad town, Amtrak's business car 10001 is named The Beech Grove and is used by agency officials when they travel the system. Although Beech Grove was incorporated in late 1906, it did not see rapid growth until the completion of the railroad facility in 1908. Beech Grove grew with two annexations after World War II, with the final one taking place just before the Unigov legislation which merged Indianapolis with most of the rest of Marion County, preventing future annexation. Two famous actors have listed Beech Grove as their birthplace -- Steve McQueen. Webb was born before Beech Grove came into existence as a separate entity, while McQueen was born at the city's St. Francis Hospital. Both moved away from the area. On October 15, 1948, Beech Grove received the honor of a visit by a sitting President of the United States. Harry S. Truman, a Mason, came to the city's Masonic Lodge during his legendary'whistle stop' re-election campaign to participate in a ceremony involving a member of his staff, one of its members.
Within the traditional focus in Indiana on high-school basketball, the Beech Grove Hornets have earned one IHSAA State Championship—that of its girls team, in Class 3A of the 2003 tournament. From that team, senior Katie Gearlds won both the IHSAA's Patricia Roy Mental Attitude Award and the "Miss Basketball" honor for the entire State, she went on to be a four-year starter for Purdue University from 2003 to 2007, was the first Hornet graduate to play in an American professional sports major league. During the non-class years before 1996, the school had earned only three Sectional titles; the Hornets' most consistent state-level athletic success has come in wrestling, in which five students have won a total of seven individual state titles. The 1972 wrestling team endured the closest-ever runner-up finish in IHSAA wrestling history, ending up a half-point behind Bloomington. 60 Hornet wrestlers have winning 55 placement medals. In swimming, Andy McVey won two IHSAA individual titles in 1986, setting State records for that time.
Andy won this Herman F. Keller Mental Attitude Award. Beech Grove High School's "Marching Hornets" band program has earned four Indiana State School Music Association State Band Finals berths in its history, during the long service of former director James Williams; the present band, directed by alumnus Cory Wynn with the help of Scott Bradford and Chad Barton, has sought to return to that level of success, earning their first ISSMA Regional Gol
The National Broadcasting Company is an American English-language commercial terrestrial television network, a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is headquartered at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, with additional major offices near Los Angeles and Philadelphia; the network is one of the Big Three television networks. NBC is sometimes referred to as the "Peacock Network", in reference to its stylized peacock logo, introduced in 1956 to promote the company's innovations in early color broadcasting, it became the network's official emblem in 1979. Founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. At that time the parent company of RCA was General Electric. In 1930, GE was forced to sell the companies as a result of antitrust charges. In 1986, control of NBC passed back to General Electric through its $6.4 billion purchase of RCA. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as chief executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007, when he was succeeded by Jeff Zucker.
In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, forming NBC Universal. Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, acquired General Electric's remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBCUniversal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke. NBC has thirteen owned-and-operated stations and nearly 200 affiliates throughout the United States and its territories, some of which are available in Canada and/or Mexico via pay-television providers or in border areas over-the-air. During a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had a competing outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ, which served as the flagship for a loosely structured network; this station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, moved to New York City. WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&T's manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas.
The Bell System, AT&T's telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, using both wireless and wired methods. The 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a regular schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs, was an immediate success. In an early example of "chain" or "networking" broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island. C. WCAP. New parent RCA saw an advantage in sharing programming, after getting a license for radio station WRC in Washington, D. C. in 1923, attempted to transmit audio between cities via low-quality telegraph lines. AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines; the early effort fared poorly, since the uninsulated telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric and other electrical interference. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its embryonic network were incompatible with the company's primary goal of providing a telephone service.
AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&T's phone lines for network transmission. RCA spent $1 million to purchase WEAF and Washington sister station WCAP, shut down the latter station, merged its facilities with surviving station WRC; the division's ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse. NBC started broadcasting on November 15, 1926. WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On January 1, 1927, NBC formally divided their respective marketing strategies: the "Red Network" offered commercially sponsored entertainment and music programming. Various histories of NBC suggest the color designations for the two networks came from the color of the pushpins NBC engineers used to designate affiliate stations of WEAF and WJZ, or from the use of double-ended red and blue colored pencils. On April 5, 1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network known as the Pacific Coast Network.
This was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18, 1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network; the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. In 1936, the Orange Network affiliate stations became part of the Red Network, at the same time the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, called the NBC White Network. In 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building de