The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
WNBC, virtual channel 4, is the flagship station of the NBC television network, licensed to New York City and serving the New York metropolitan area. It is owned by the NBC Owned Television Stations subsidiary of NBCUniversal and operates as part of a television duopoly with WNJU. WNBC's studios are co-located with NBC's corporate headquarters at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in Midtown Manhattan and its transmitter is located at One World Trade Center. WNBC holds the distinction as the oldest continuously operating commercial television station in the United States. In the few areas of the eastern United States where an NBC station is not receivable over-the-air, WNBC is available on satellite via DirecTV, it is carried on Dish Network and certain cable providers in markets where an NBC affiliate is unavailable. The station is carried via WKAQ-DT3 in San Juan, Puerto Rico. DirecTV allows subscribers in Greater Los Angeles to receive WNBC for an additional monthly fee. What is now WNBC traces its history to experimental station W2XBS, founded by the Radio Corporation of America, in 1928, just two years after NBC was founded as the first nationwide radio network.
A test bed for the experimental RCA Photophone theater television system, W2XBS used the low-definition mechanical television scanning system, was used for reception and interference tests. The call letters W2XBS meant W2XB-south, with W2XB being the call letters of the first experimental station, started a few months earlier at General Electric's main factory in Schenectady, New York, which evolved into today's WRGB. GE was the parent company of both RCA and NBC, technical research was done at the Schenectady plant; the station broadcast on the frequencies of 2.0 to 2.1 megahertz. In 1929, W2XBS upgraded its transmitter and broadcast facilities to handle transmissions of sixty vertical lines at twenty frames per second, on the frequencies of 2.75 to 2.85 megahertz. In 1928, Felix the Cat was one of the first images broadcast by television when RCA chose a papier-mâché Felix doll for an experimental broadcast on W2XBS; the doll was chosen for its tonal contrast and its ability to withstand the intense lights needed in early television and was placed on a rotating phonograph turntable and televised for about two hours each day.
The doll remained on the turntable for nearly a decade as RCA fine-tuned the picture's definition, converted to electronic television. The station left the air sometime in 1933 as RCA turned its attention to all-electronic cathode ray tube television research at its Camden, New Jersey facility, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir K. Zworykin. In 1935, the all-electronic CRT system was authorized as a "field test" project and NBC converted a radio studio in the RCA Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center for television use. In mid-1936, small-scale, irregularly scheduled programming began to air to an audience of some 75 receivers in the homes of high-level RCA staff, a dozen or so sets in a closed circuit viewing room in 52nd-floor offices of the RCA Building; the viewing room hosted visiting organizations or corporate guests, who saw a live program produced in the studios many floors below. Viewership of early NBC broadcasts was restricted to those authorized by the company, whose installed set base reached about 200.
Technical standards for television broadcasting were in flux as well. Between the time experimental transmissions began in 1935 and the beginning of commercial television service in 1941, picture definition increased from 343 to 441 lines, to the 525-line standard used for analog television from the start of full commercial service until the end of analog broadcasts in mid-2009; the sound signal was changed from AM to FM, the spacing of sound and vision carriers was changed several times. Shortly after NBC began a semi-regular television transmission schedule in 1938, DuMont Laboratories announced TV sets for sale to the public, a move that RCA was saving for the opening of the World's Fair on April 30, 1939, the day that scheduled television programming was to begin in New York on NBC with much fanfare. In response, NBC ceased all TV broadcasting for several weeks until RCA sets went on sale and regular NBC telecasts commenced the day the fair opened; as W2XBS broadcasting on "Channel 1", the station scored numerous "firsts", including the first televised Broadway drama, live news event covered by mobile unit, live telecast of a Presidential speech, the first live telecasts of college and Major League Baseball, the first telecast of a National Football League game, the first telecast of a National Hockey League game, the first network telecast of a political convention seen on W3XE Philadelphia and W2XB Schenectady, NY, the broadcast of the feature film The Crooked Circle on June 18, 1940.
But in August 1940, W2XBS transmissions were temporarily put on hold, as "Channel 1" was reassigned by the FCC to 50-56 MHz and technical adjustments needed to be made for the conversion. The station returned to the air in October, just in time to broadcast Franklin D. Roosevelt's second and final appearance on live television, when his speech at Madison Square Garden on October 28, 1940 was telecast over W2XBS. On June 24, 1941, W2XBS received a commercial license under the calls WNBT, thus becoming one
Ultra high frequency
Ultra high frequency is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz and 3 gigahertz known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one tenth of a meter. Radio waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the super-high frequency or microwave frequency range. Lower frequency signals fall into lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate by line of sight, they are used for television broadcasting, cell phones, satellite communication including GPS, personal radio services including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, walkie-talkies, cordless phones, numerous other applications. The IEEE defines the UHF radar band as frequencies between 1 GHz. Two other IEEE radar bands overlap the ITU UHF band: the L band between 1 and 2 GHz and the S band between 2 and 4 GHz. Radio waves in the UHF band travel entirely by line-of-sight propagation and ground reflection. UHF radio waves are blocked by hills and cannot travel far beyond the horizon, but can penetrate foliage and buildings for indoor reception.
Since the wavelengths of UHF waves are comparable to the size of buildings, trees and other common objects and diffraction from these objects can cause fading due to multipath propagation in built-up urban areas. Atmospheric moisture reduces, or attenuates, the strength of UHF signals over long distances, the attenuation increases with frequency. UHF TV signals are more degraded by moisture than lower bands, such as VHF TV signals. Since UHF transmission is limited by the visual horizon to 30–40 miles and to shorter distances by local terrain, it allows the same frequency channels to be reused by other users in neighboring geographic areas. Public safety, business communications and personal radio services such as GMRS, PMR446, UHF CB are found on UHF frequencies as well as IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. The adopted GSM and UMTS cellular networks use UHF cellular frequencies. Radio repeaters are used to retransmit UHF signals when a distance greater than the line of sight is required; when conditions are right, UHF radio waves can travel long distances by tropospheric ducting as the atmosphere warms and cools throughout the day.
The length of an antenna is related to the length of the radio waves used. Due to the short wavelengths, UHF antennas are conveniently short. UHF wavelengths are short enough that efficient transmitting antennas are small enough to mount on handheld and mobile devices, so these frequencies are used for two way land mobile radio systems, such as walkie-talkies, two way radios in vehicles, for portable wireless devices. Omnidirectional UHF antennas used on mobile devices are short whips, sleeve dipoles, rubber ducky antennas or the planar inverted F antenna used in cellphones. Higher gain omnidirectional UHF antennas can be made of collinear arrays of dipoles and are used for mobile base stations and cellular base station antennas; the short wavelengths allow high gain antennas to be conveniently small. High gain antennas for point-to-point communication links and UHF television reception are Yagi, log periodic, corner reflectors, or reflective array antennas. At the top end of the band slot antennas and parabolic dishes become practical.
For satellite communication and turnstile antennas are used since satellites employ circular polarization, not sensitive to the relative orientation of the transmitting and receiving antennas. For television broadcasting specialized vertical radiators that are modifications of the slot antenna or reflective array antenna are used: the slotted cylinder, zig-zag, panel antennas. UHF television broadcasting fulfilled the demand for additional over-the-air television channels in urban areas. Today, much of the bandwidth has been reallocated to land mobile, trunked radio and mobile telephone use. UHF channels are still used for digital television. UHF spectrum is used worldwide for land mobile radio systems for commercial, public safety, military purposes. Many personal radio services use frequencies allocated in the UHF band, although exact frequencies in use differ between countries. Major telecommunications providers have deployed voice and data cellular networks in UHF/VHF range; this allows mobile phones and mobile computing devices to be connected to the public switched telephone network and public Internet.
UHF radars are said to be effective at tracking stealth fighters, if not stealth bombers. UHF citizens band: 476–477 MHz Television broadcasting uses UHF channels between 503 and 694 MHz Fixed point-to-point Link 450.4875 - 451.5125 MHz Land mobile service 457.50625 - 459.9875 MHz Mobile satellite service: 406.0000 - 406.1000 MHz Segment and Service examples: Land mobile for private, Australian and Territory Government, Rail industry and Mobile-Satellite 430–450 MHz: Amateur radio 470–806 MHz: Terrestrial television 1452–1492 MHz: Digital Audio Broadcasting Many other frequency assignments for Canada and Mexico are similar to their US counterparts 380–399.9 MHz: Terrestrial Trunked Radio service for emergency use 430–440 MHz: Amateur ra
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, similar non-television services may be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" is a television network available via cable television; when available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being used in legal contexts.
Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, ESPN. The abbreviation CATV is used for cable television, it stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, cable was run from them to individual homes; the origins of cable broadcasting for radio are older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one.
The standard cable used in the U. S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, built-in cable wiring in the walls distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s. Most cable companies require a set-top box or a slot on one's TV set for conditional access module cards to view their cable channels on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, an output cable from the box is attached to the television the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs.
Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel, being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box; the cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
In the most common system, multiple television channels are distributed to subscriber residences through a coaxial cable, which comes from a trunkline supported on utility poles originating at the cable company's local distribution facility, called the "headend". Many channels can be transmitted through one coaxial cable by a technique called frequency division multiplexing. At the headend, each television channel is translated to a different frequency. By giving each channel a different frequency "slot" on the cable, the separate television signals do not interfere with each other. At an outdoor cable box on the subscriber's residence the company's service drop cable is connected to cables distributing the signal to different rooms in the building. At each television, the subscriber's television or a set-top box provided by the cable company translates the desired channel back to its original frequency, it is displayed onscreen. Due to widespread cable theft in earlier analog systems, the signals are encrypted on m
Laff (TV network)
Laff, legal name Laff Media, LLC, is an American digital multicast television network, owned by Katz Broadcasting, a subsidiary of E. W. Scripps Company; the network specializes in comedy programming, featuring a mix of feature films and archived sitcoms. Laff is targeted at adults between the ages of 18 and 49 years old. Katz sold the network to affiliated TV stations via ad split but by October 2015 had moved to a carriage fees in exchange for the network get the ad inventory due to greater inventory with stations adding a third or fourth subchannel.1 Laff used direct response advertising as a meter of viewers before switching to Nielsen rating C-3 in late 2015.3 Laff's launch was announced by Katz Broadcasting in January 2015 as having a scheduled launch date of April 15, 2015, which coincides with Tax Day in the United States, when tax returns are due and, as Broadcasting & Cable writer Jon Lafayette noted in an article on Laff's launch, "people will need something to make them smile."Katz announced that television stations owned by ABC Owned Television Stations and 13 E. W. Scripps Company would serve as the network's charter affiliates.
On March 13, 2015, Katz Broadcasting announced an affiliation deal with the Cox Media Group to carry Laff on the subchannels of seven of its stations expanding its initial reach to 47% of the country. The following week on March 20, as part of a multi-network affiliation agreement with Katz, the Meredith Corporation announced that it would carry the network on two of its stations. On February 13, 2015, Laff acquired the syndication rights to five sitcoms. Laff followed that deal with three for film licensing with Walt Disney Studios and Sony Pictures Television by March 17. Laff made a multi-year deal for five sitcoms with Carsey-Werner Productions in April 2016. Roseanne reruns were removed on May 29, 2018 following ABC's cancellation of the show's revival, both decisions were based on a Roseanne Barr tweet considered racist. Laff's comedy-centered programming consists of a mix of theatrically released feature films, as well as off-network sitcoms. Laff would set itself apart from its multicast competitors by carrying more contemporary programming content, in contrast to the reruns of series from the 1980s and earlier found on other over-the-air networks which rely on acquired content.
The network provide additional content via the network's website and mobile app. Laff's program schedule will have access to 250 titles and films from the libraries of three film studios by virtue of multi-year program licensing agreements with Walt Disney Studios, Paramount Pictures, Sony Pictures Entertainment. In addition to films, much of Laff's programming lineup consists of reruns of sitcoms spanning over 800 episodes. According to Jim Cybill Grace Under Fire Grounded for Life Home Improvement Spin City That'70s Show The Drew Carey Show 3rd Rock from the Sun Night Court Ellen Empty Nest Roseanne Official website
Height above average terrain
Height above average terrain, or effective height above average terrain, is a measure of how high an antenna site is above the surrounding landscape. HAAT is used extensively in FM radio and television, as it is more important than effective radiated power in determining the range of broadcasts. For international coordination, it is measured in meters by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States, as Canada and Mexico have extensive border zones where stations can be received on either side of the international boundaries. Stations that want to increase above a certain HAAT must reduce their power accordingly, based on the maximum distance their station class is allowed to cover; the FCC procedure to calculate HAAT is: from the proposed or actual antenna site, either 12 or 16 radials were drawn, points at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 miles radius along each radial were used. The entire radial graph could be rotated to achieve the best effect for the station; the altitude of the antenna site, minus the average altitude of all the specified points, is the HAAT.
This can create some unusual cases in mountainous regions—it is possible to have a negative number for HAAT. The FCC has divided the Contiguous United States into three zones for the determination of spacing between FM and TV stations using the same frequencies. FM and TV stations are assigned maximum ERP and HAAT values, depending on their assigned zones, to prevent co-channel interference; the FCC regulations for ERP and HAAT are listed under Title 47, Part 73 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Maximum HAAT: 150 metres Maximum ERP: 50 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 241 km Maximum HAAT: 600 metres Maximum ERP: 100 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 290 km. In all zones, maximum ERP for analog TV transmitters is. In addition, Zone I-A consists of all of California south of 40° north latitude, Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. Zones I and I-A have the most "grandfathered" overpowered stations, which are allowed the same extended coverage areas that they had before the zones were established.
One of the most powerful of these stations is WBCT in Grand Rapids, which operates at 320,000 watts and 238 meters HAAT. Zone III consists of all of Florida and the areas of Alabama, Louisiana and Texas within 241.4 kilometers of the Gulf of Mexico. Zone II is all the rest of the Continental United States and Hawaii. Above mean sea level Above ground level Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission List of broadcast station classes United States Federal Communications Commission 47 CFR Part 73 Index FCC: Mass Media Calculated Contours FCC: HAAT Calculator "Superpower" Grandfathered FM stations
WCBS-TV, channel 2, is the flagship station of the CBS television network, licensed to New York City. WCBS-TV is owned by the CBS Television Stations division of CBS Corporation, operates as part of a television duopoly with WLNY-TV, New York. WCBS-TV's studios are located within the CBS Broadcast Center on West 57th Street in Manhattan and its transmitter is located at One World Trade Center. In the few areas of the eastern United States where a CBS station is not receivable over-the-air, WCBS is available on Satellite television via DirecTV. WCBS-TV's history dates back to CBS' opening of experimental station W2XAB on July 21, 1931, using the mechanical television system, more-or-less perfected in the late 1920s, its first broadcast featured New York Mayor Jimmy Walker, Kate Smith, George Gershwin. The station had the first regular seven-day broadcasting schedule in American television, broadcasting 28 hours a week. Among its early programming included The Television Ghost, Helen Haynes and Piano Lessons.
Announcer-director Bill Schudt was the station's only paid employee. W2XAB pioneered program development including small-scale dramatic acts, monologues and the use of projection slides to simulate sets. Engineer Bill Lodge devised the first synchronized sound wave for a television station in 1932, enabling W2XAB to broadcast picture and sound on a single shortwave channel instead of the two needed. On November 8, 1932, W2XAB broadcast the first television coverage of presidential election returns; the station suspended operations on February 20, 1933, as monochrome television transmission standards were in flux, in the process of changing from a mechanical to an all-electronic system. W2XAB returned with an all-electronic system in 1939 from a new studio complex in Grand Central Station and a transmitter located at the Chrysler Building broadcasting on channel 2. W2XAB transmitted the first color broadcast in the United States on August 28, 1940. On June 24, 1941, W2XAB received a commercial construction permit and program authorization as WCBW.
The station went on the air at 2:30 p.m. on July 1, one hour after rival WNBT, making it the second authorized commercial television station in the United States. The Federal Communications Commission issued permits to CBS and NBC at the same time and intended WNBT and WCBW to sign on on July 1, so no one station could claim to be the "first". WCBW's initial broadcast was the first local newscast aired on a commercial station in the country, its assigned frequency was 60–66 MHz, now known as channel 3 but referred to as Channel 2 in the 1940–46 alignment of the VHF band. Program schedules were irregular through the summer and early fall of 1941. Regular daily operations began on October 29 and WCBW received a full Broadcast license, its construction permit and commercial program authorization on March 10, 1942. After the war, the FCC re-allocated FM bands. WCBW closed down its operation on the old channel 2 at the end of February 1946 in order to move to a new channel 2 at 54–60 MHz, it began operation on the new frequency, where it remained from the spring of 1946 until the end of analog full power television service in the late spring of 2009.
The call letters were changed to WCBS-TV on November 1, 1946, after the FCC allowed television stations owned by radio stations in the same city to use the same call letters as the radio station with the suffix -TV – it is the only station in the CBS-owned television station to have been built from the ground up by the network. On February 26, 1951, WCBS-TV became the first station to broadcast a scheduled feature film series, The Late Show. On August 11, 1951, WCBS-TV broadcast the first baseball game on color television, between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Boston Braves from Ebbets Field; as were all color programs at the time, it was transmitted via a field-sequential color system developed by CBS. Signals transmitted; the CBS color system was scrapped after the FCC embraced the alternative RCA all-electronic dot sequential system, compatible with the existing monochrome television standard, late in 1953. However, CBS telecast few programs in color, either locally or on the network, until the mid-1960s when color receivers began to grow in popularity.
In May 1997, the station adopted the "CBS 2" branding, along with sister stations KCBS-TV in Los Angeles and WBBM-TV in Chicago, while retaining a unique and distinctive logo. The practice of CBS-owned stations placing the network identity ahead of their local identity would end up being known as the "Viacom Mandate". WCBS-TV's over-the air signal was not affected by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks that destroyed the World Trade Center. Unlike its competitors, channel 2 had long maintained a full-powered backup transmitter at the Empire State Building after moving its main transmitter to the North Tower of the then-new World Trade Center in 1975; the station's coverage of the attacks was simulcast nationally on Viacom cable network VH1 that day. In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, WCBS-TV was the only full-coverage over-the-air television service operating in New York City, although the station lent transmission time to other stations who had lost their transmitters until they found suitable backup equipment and locations.
The backup transmitter had been put into operation once before, when the World Trade Center bombing of February 26, 1993 knocked most of the area's stations off the