Northwestern University is a private research university based in Evanston, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida. C.. Along with its undergraduate programs, Northwestern is known for its Kellogg School of Management, Pritzker School of Law, Feinberg School of Medicine, Bienen School of Music, Medill School of Journalism, McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science. Northwestern is a large research university with a comprehensive doctoral program, attracting over $700 million in sponsored research each year. Northwestern has the ninth-largest university endowment in the United States, valued at $11.014 billion as of August 2018. The University's former and present faculty and alumni include 19 Nobel Prize laureates, 38 Pulitzer Prize winners, six MacArthur Genius Fellows, 16 Rhodes Scholars, 65 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and two Supreme Court Justices. Northwestern's School of Communication is a leading producer of Academy Award, Emmy Award and Tony Award–winning actors, playwrights and directors.
Northwestern was founded in 1851 by John Evans, for whom the city of Evanston is named, eight other lawyers and Methodist leaders. Its founding purpose was to serve the Old Northwest Territory, an area that includes the states of Ohio, Illinois, Michigan and parts of Minnesota. Instruction began in 1855 and women were admitted in 1869. Today, the main campus is a 240-acre parcel in Evanston, along the shores of Lake Michigan 12 miles north of downtown Chicago; the university's law and professional schools are located on a 25-acre campus in Chicago's Streeterville neighborhood. In 2008, the university opened a campus in Education City, Qatar with programs in journalism and communication. In 2016, Northwestern opened its San Francisco space at 44 Montgomery St. which hosts journalism and marketing programs. The University is a founding member of the Big Ten Conference and remains the only private university in the conference; the Northwestern Wildcats compete in 19 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA's Division I Big Ten Conference.
The foundation of Northwestern University can be traced to a meeting on May 31, 1850, of nine prominent Chicago businessmen, Methodist leaders, attorneys who had formed the idea of establishing a university to serve what had been known from 1787 to 1803 as the Northwest Territory. On January 28, 1851, the Illinois General Assembly granted a charter to the Trustees of the North-Western University, making it the first chartered university in Illinois; the school's nine founders, all of whom were Methodists, knelt in prayer and worship before launching their first organizational meeting. Although they affiliated the university with the Methodist Episcopal Church, they favored a non-sectarian admissions policy, believing that Northwestern should serve all people in the newly developing territory by bettering the economy in Evanston. John Evans, for whom Evanston is named, bought 379 acres of land along Lake Michigan in 1853, Philo Judson developed plans for what would become the city of Evanston, Illinois.
The first building, Old College, opened on November 5, 1855. To raise funds for its construction, Northwestern sold $100 "perpetual scholarships" entitling the purchaser and his heirs to free tuition. Another building, University Hall, was built in 1869 of the same Joliet limestone as the Chicago Water Tower built in 1869, one of the few buildings in the heart of Chicago to survive the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. In 1873 the Evanston College for Ladies merged with Northwestern, Frances Willard, who gained fame as a suffragette and as one of the founders of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, became the school's first dean of women. Northwestern admitted its first female students in 1869, the first woman was graduated in 1874. Northwestern fielded its first intercollegiate football team in 1882 becoming a founding member of the Big Ten Conference. In the 1870s and 1880s, Northwestern affiliated itself with existing schools of law and dentistry in Chicago. Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law is the oldest law school in Chicago.
As the university increased in wealth and distinction, enrollments grew, these professional schools were integrated with the undergraduate college in Evanston. The Association of American Universities invited Northwestern to become a member in 1917. Under Walter Dill Scott's presidency from 1920 to 1939, Northwestern began construction of an integrated campus in Chicago designed by James Gamble Rogers to house the professional schools. In 1933 a proposal to merge Northwestern with the University of Chicago rejected. Northwestern became one of the first six universities in the United States to establish a Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps in the 1920s. Northwestern played host to the first-ever NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship game in 1939 in the original Patten Gymnasium, demolished and relocated farther north along with the Dearborn Observatory to make room for the Technological Institute. After the golden years of the 1920s, the Great Depression in the United States hit Northwestern h
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies; the term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country, dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions: In the former Soviet republics, some former Eastern Bloc countries, the older 65.8–74 MHz band is used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz; this band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is being phased out in many countries.
In those countries the 87.5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used; the frequency of an FM broadcast station is an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe and Africa, only multiples are used. In the UK odd or are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. In most countries the maximum permitted frequency error is specified, the unmodulated carrier should be within 2000 Hz of the assigned frequency. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500, 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500 kHz frequency separation when closer frequency spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as interfering signals are more attenuated and so have less effect on neighboring frequencies.
Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation which conveys information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal; because transmitted FM signals use more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is used with the higher frequencies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, land mobile radio systems. The maximum frequency deviation of the carrier is specified and regulated by the licensing authorities in each country. For a stereo broadcast, the maximum permitted carrier deviation is invariably ±75 kHz, although a little higher is permitted in the United States when SCA systems are used. For a monophonic broadcast, again the most common permitted. However, some countries specify a lower value for monophonic broadcasts, such as ±50 kHz. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the baseband.
This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise; these processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In the Americas and South Korea, 75 µs is used; this applies to both stereo transmissions. For stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing; the use of pre-emphasis becomes a problem because of the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. Pre-emphasizing these high frequency sounds would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Modulation control devices are used to prevent this.
Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing, at his experimental 41 MHz station W2XDG located on the 85th floor of the Empire State Building in New York City; these FM multiplex transmissions started in November 1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing signal for the fax program and a telegraph “order” channel. These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network, were transmitted using the same system of subcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter link system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were replaced with much improved results.
The first FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from Major Armstrong's experimental station KE2XCC at Alpine, New Jersey occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-cha
Steven Michael Wojciechowski known as Wojo, is an American basketball coach and former player, the head coach at Marquette University, having served as associate head coach at Duke under head coach Mike Krzyzewski. He played point guard at Duke University from 1994 until 1998. Wojciechowski is a 1994 graduate of the Cardinal Gibbons School in Baltimore, where he played under Baltimore Catholic League head coach Ray Mullis and was named to the East squad of the 1994 McDonald's All-American Team, playing alongside 1994 High School Player of the Year Felipe López, against future Duke teammates Trajan Langdon and Ricky Price. During Wojciechowski's career, the Duke Blue Devils achieved an 87–44 record and played in the NCAA South Regional final in the 1997–98 season. During his senior year, Wojciechowski earned NABC Defensive Player of the Year honors, was an honorable mention All-American, he is ranked eighth at Duke for career eighth for career assists. He achieved the second highest number of steals in a single season with 82 in 1997.
Following his graduation from Duke, Wojciechowski was undrafted in the 1998 NBA Draft, played professional basketball in Poland for a year. He returned to Duke in 1999 as an intern in the Duke Management Company and was a basketball analyst on the Duke Radio Network. Wojciechowski was offered a coaching job by Krzyzewski and began his career as an assistant coach in 1999, was promoted to associate coach in 2008. Wojciechowski coached Duke's frontcourt players; the Blue Devils won the NCAA championship in 2001 and 2010. On April 1, 2014, Wojciechowski was hired as the new Marquette head basketball coach, replacing Buzz Williams, who left for Virginia Tech. Duke profile
New York Daily News
The New York Daily News titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City. As of May 2016, it was the ninth-most circulated daily newspaper in the United States, it was founded in 1919, was the first U. S. daily printed in tabloid format. It reached its peak circulation at 2.4 million copies a day. The Daily News was founded as the Illustrated Daily News. Patterson and his cousin, Robert R. McCormick were co-publishers of the Chicago Tribune and grandsons of Tribune Company founder Joseph Medill; when Patterson and McCormick could not agree on the editorial content of the Chicago paper, the two cousins decided at a meeting in Paris that Patterson would work on the project of launching a Tribune-owned newspaper in New York. On his way back, Patterson met with Alfred Harmsworth, the Viscount Northcliffe and publisher of the Daily Mirror, London's tabloid newspaper. Impressed with the advantages of a tabloid, Patterson launched the Daily News on June 26, 1919; the Daily News was not an immediate success, by August 1919, the paper's circulation had dropped to 26,625.
Still, New York's many subway commuters found the tabloid format easier to handle, readership grew. By the time of the paper's first anniversary in June 1920, circulation was over 100,000 and by 1925, over a million. Circulation reached its peak at 2.4 million daily and 4.7 million on Sunday. The Daily News carried the slogan "New York's Picture Newspaper" from 1920 to 1991, for its emphasis on photographs, a camera has been part of the newspaper's logo from day one; the paper's slogan, developed from a 1985 ad campaign, is "New York's Hometown Newspaper", while another has been "The Eyes, the Ears, the Honest Voice of New York". The Daily News continues to include large and prominent photographs, for news and sports, as well as intense city news coverage, celebrity gossip, classified ads, comics, a sports section, an opinion section. News-gathering operations were, for a time, organized using two-way radios operating on 173.3250 MHz, allowing the assignment desk to communicate with its personnel who utilized a fleet of "radio cars".
Prominent sports cartoonists have included Bruce Stark and Ed Murawinski. Columnists have included Walter Kaner. Editorial cartoonists have included C. D. Batchelor; the paper published a Monday-Friday afternoon counterpart, Daily News Tonight, between August 19, 1980 and August 28, 1981. Occasional "P. M. Editions" were published as extras in 1991, during the brief tenure of Robert Maxwell as publisher. In 1982, again in the early 1990s during a newspaper strike, the Daily News went out of business. In the 1982 instance, the parent Tribune Company offered the tabloid up for sale. In 1991, millionaire Robert Maxwell offered financial assistance to the News to help it stay in business; when Maxwell died shortly thereafter, the News seceded from his publishing empire, which splintered under questions about whether Maxwell had the financial backing to sustain it. After Maxwell's death in 1991, the paper was held together in bankruptcy by existing management, led by editor James Willse, who became interim publisher after buying the paper from Tribune.
Mort Zuckerman bought the paper in 1993. From its founding until 1991, the Daily News was owned by the Tribune Company. In 1948, the News established WPIX, whose call letters were based on the News's nickname of "New York's Picture Newspaper"; the television station became a Tribune property outright in 1991, remains in the former Daily News Building. The News maintains local bureaux in the Bronx and Queens, at City Hall, within One Police Plaza, at the various state and federal courthouses in the city. In January 2012, former News of the World and New York Post editor Colin Myler was appointed editor-in-chief of the Daily News. Myler was replaced by his deputy Jim Rich in September 2015. On September 4, 2017, the publishing operations of the former Tribune Company, announced that it had acquired the Daily News. Tronc had bought the Daily News for $1, assuming "operational and pension liabilities". By the time of purchase, circulation had dropped to 200,000 on 260,000 on Sundays. In July 2018, tronc fired half of the paper's editorial staff, including the editor-in-chief, Jim Rich.
Rich was replaced by Robert York and Editor-in-Chief of tronc-owned The Morning Call in Allentown, Pennsylvania. The paper's social media staff were included in the cut. New York Times journalist Alan Feuer said the Daily News focuses on "deep sourcing and doorstep reporting", providing city-centered "crime reportage and hard-hitting coverage of public issues rather than portraying New York through the partisan divide between liberals and conservatives". According to Feuer, the paper is known for "speaking to and for the city’s working class" and for "its crusades against municipal misconduct"; the New York Times has described the Daily News's editorial stance as "flexibly centrist" with a "high-minded, if populist, legacy". The News endorsed Rep
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation transmissions. It was the first method developed for making audio radio transmissions, is still used worldwide for medium wave transmissions, but on the longwave and shortwave radio bands; the earliest experimental AM transmissions began in the early 1900s. However, widespread AM broadcasting was not established until the 1920s, following the development of vacuum tube receivers and transmitters. AM radio remained the dominant method of broadcasting for the next 30 years, a period called the "Golden Age of Radio", until television broadcasting became widespread in the 1950s and received most of the programming carried by radio. Subsequently, AM radio's audiences have greatly shrunk due to competition from FM radio, Digital Audio Broadcasting, satellite radio, HD radio and Internet streaming. AM transmissions are much more susceptible than FM or digital signals are to interference, have lower audio fidelity.
Thus, AM broadcasters tend to specialise in spoken-word formats, such as talk radio, all news and sports, leaving the broadcasting of music to FM and digital stations. The idea of broadcasting — the unrestricted transmission of signals to a widespread audience — dates back to the founding period of radio development though the earliest radio transmissions known as "Hertzian radiation" and "wireless telegraphy", used spark-gap transmitters that could only transmit the dots-and-dashes of Morse code. In October 1898 a London publication, The Electrician, noted that "there are rare cases where, as Dr. Lodge once expressed it, it might be advantageous to'shout' the message, spreading it broadcast to receivers in all directions". However, it was recognized that this would involve significant financial issues, as that same year The Electrician commented "did not Prof. Lodge forget that no one wants to pay for shouting to the world on a system by which it would be impossible to prevent non-subscribers from benefiting gratuitously?"On January 1, 1902, Nathan Stubblefield gave a short-range "wireless telephone" demonstration, that included broadcasting speech and music to seven locations throughout Murray, Kentucky.
However, this was transmitted using induction rather than radio signals, although Stubblefield predicted that his system would be perfected so that "it will be possible to communicate with hundreds of homes at the same time", "a single message can be sent from a central station to all parts of the United States", he was unable to overcome the inherent distance limitations of this technology. The earliest public radiotelegraph broadcasts were provided as government services, beginning with daily time signals inaugurated on January 1, 1905, by a number of U. S. Navy stations. In Europe, signals transmitted from a station located on the Eiffel tower were received throughout much of Europe. In both the United States and France this led to a small market of receiver lines designed geared for jewelers who needed accurate time to set their clocks, including the Ondophone in France, the De Forest RS-100 Jewelers Time Receiver in the United States The ability to pick up time signal broadcasts, in addition to Morse code weather reports and news summaries attracted the interest of amateur radio enthusiasts.
It was recognized that, much like the telegraph had preceded the invention of the telephone, the ability to make audio radio transmissions would be a significant technical advance. Despite this knowledge, it still took two decades to perfect the technology needed to make quality audio transmissions. In addition, the telephone had been used for distributing entertainment, outside of a few "telephone newspaper" systems, most of which were established in Europe. With this in mind, most early radiotelephone development envisioned that the device would be more profitably developed as a "wireless telephone" for personal communication, or for providing links where regular telephone lines could not be run, rather than for the uncertain finances of broadcasting; the person credited as the primary early developer of AM technology is Canadian-born inventor Reginald Fessenden. The original spark-gap radio transmitters were impractical for transmitting audio, since they produced discontinuous pulses known as "damped waves".
Fessenden realized that what was needed was a new type of radio transmitter that produced steady "undamped" signals, which could be "modulated" to reflect the sounds being transmitted. Fessenden's basic approach was disclosed in U. S. Patent 706,737, which he applied for on May 29, 1901, was issued the next year, it called for the use of a high-speed alternator that generated "pure sine waves" and produced "a continuous train of radiant waves of uniform strength", or, in modern terminology, a continuous-wave transmitter. Fessenden began his research on audio transmissions while doing developmental work for the United States Weather Service on Cobb Island, Maryland; because he did not yet have a continuous-wave transmitter he worked with an experimental "high-frequency spark" transmitter, taking advantage of the fact that the higher the spark rate, the closer a spark-gap transmission comes to producing continuous waves. He reported that, in the fall of 1900, he transmitted speech over a distance of about 1.6 kilometers, which appears to have been the first successful audio transmission using radio signals.
However, at this time the sound was far too distorted to be commercially practical. For a time he continued working with more sophist
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, United States, owned by Tribune Publishing. Founded in 1847, self-styled as the "World's Greatest Newspaper", it remains the most-read daily newspaper of the Chicago metropolitan area and the Great Lakes region, it is the eighth-largest newspaper in the United States by circulation. Traditionally published as a broadsheet, on January 13, 2009, the Tribune announced it would continue publishing as a broadsheet for home delivery, but would publish in tabloid format for newsstand, news box, commuter station sales; this change, proved to be unpopular with readers and in August 2011, the Tribune discontinued the tabloid edition, returning to its traditional broadsheet edition through all distribution channels. The Tribune's masthead is notable for displaying the American flag, in reference to the paper's motto, "An American Paper for Americans"; the motto is no longer displayed on the masthead. The Tribune was founded by James Kelly, John E. Wheeler, Joseph K. C.
Forrest, publishing the first edition on June 10, 1847. Numerous changes in ownership and editorship took place over the next eight years; the Tribune was not politically affiliated, but tended to support either the Whig or Free Soil parties against the Democrats in elections. By late 1853, it was running xenophobic editorials that criticized foreigners and Roman Catholics. About this time it became a strong proponent of temperance; however nativist its editorials may have been, it was not until February 10, 1855 that the Tribune formally affiliated itself with the nativist American or Know Nothing party, whose candidate Levi Boone was elected Mayor of Chicago the following month. By about 1854, part-owner Capt. J. D. Webster General Webster and chief of staff at the Battle of Shiloh, Dr. Charles H. Ray of Galena, through Horace Greeley, convinced Joseph Medill of Cleveland's Leader to become managing editor. Ray became editor-in-chief, Medill became the managing editor, Alfred Cowles, Sr. brother of Edwin Cowles was the bookkeeper.
Each purchased one third of the Tribune. Under their leadership, the Tribune distanced itself from the Know Nothings, became the main Chicago organ of the Republican Party. However, the paper continued to print anti-Catholic and anti-Irish editorials, in the wake of the massive Famine immigration from Ireland; the Tribune absorbed three other Chicago publications under the new editors: the Free West in 1855, the Democratic Press of William Bross in 1858, the Chicago Democrat in 1861, whose editor, John Wentworth, left his position when elected as Mayor of Chicago. Between 1858 and 1860, the paper was known as the Chicago Tribune. On October 25, 1860, it became the Chicago Daily Tribune. Before and during the American Civil War, the new editors supported Abraham Lincoln, whom Medill helped secure the presidency in 1860, pushed an abolitionist agenda; the paper remained a force in Republican politics for years afterwards. In 1861, the Tribune published new lyrics by William W. Patton for the song "John Brown's Body".
These rivaled the lyrics published two months by Julia Ward Howe. Medill served as mayor of Chicago for one term after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. Under the 20th-century editorship of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, who took control in the 1920s, the paper was isolationist and aligned with the Old Right in its coverage of political news and social trends, it used the motto "The American Paper for Americans". Through the 1930s to the 1950s, it excoriated the Democrats and the New Deal of Franklin D. Roosevelt, was resolutely disdainful of the British and French, enthusiastic for Chiang Kai-shek and Sen. Joseph McCarthy; when McCormick assumed the position of co-editor in 1910, the Tribune was the third-best-selling paper among Chicago's eight dailies, with a circulation of only 188,000. The young cousins added features such as advice columns and homegrown comic strips such as Little Orphan Annie and Moon Mullins, they promoted political "crusades", with their first success coming with the ouster of the Republican political boss of Illinois, Sen. William Lorimer.
At the same time, the Tribune competed with the Hearst paper, the Chicago Examiner, in a circulation war. By 1914, the cousins succeeded in forcing out Managing Editor William Keeley. By 1918, the Examiner was forced to merge with the Chicago Herald. In 1919, Patterson left the Tribune and moved to New York to launch his own newspaper, the New York Daily News. In a renewed circulation war with Hearst's Herald-Examiner, McCormick and Hearst ran rival lotteries in 1922; the Tribune won the battle. In 1922, the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, the Tribune Tower; the competition worked brilliantly as a publicity stunt, more than 260 entries were received. The winner was a neo-Gothic design by New York architects John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood; the newspaper sponsored a pioneering attempt at Arctic aviation in 1929, an attempted round-trip to Europe across Greenland and Iceland in a Sikorsky amphibious aircraft. But, the aircraft was destroyed by ice on July 15, 1929, near Ungava Bay at the tip of Labrador, Canada.
The crew were rescued by the Canadian science ship CSS Acadia. The Tribune's reputation for innovation extended to radio—it bought an early station, WDAP, in 1924 and renamed it WGN, the station call letters standing for the paper's self-description as the "Worl
A show tune is a song written as part of the score of a musical stage show or musical if the piece in question has become a standard, more or less detached in most people's minds from the original context. Particular musicals that have yielded popular “show tunes” include: Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein's Oklahoma!, South Pacific, The King and I, Flower Drum Song, The Sound of Music Jerome Kern and Hammerstein's Show Boat Rudolf Friml, Herbert Stothart, Otto Harbach and Hammerstein's Rose-Marie Rodgers and Lorenz Hart's Pal Joey Irving Berlin's Annie Get Your Gun, As Thousands Cheer, Call Me Madam Cole Porter's Anything Goes, Kiss Me, Can-Can George and Ira Gershwin's Girl Crazy, Oh, Kay! Jerry Bock and Sheldon Harnick's Fiddler on the Roof Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe's Brigadoon, Paint Your Wagon, My Fair Lady, Camelot Meredith Willson's The Music Man Frank Loesser's Guys and Dolls, How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim's West Side Story Leslie Bricusse and Anthony Newley's Stop the World – I Want to Get Off, The Roar of the Greasepaint – The Smell of the Crowd Lin-Manuel Miranda's Hamilton Bricusse, Frank Wildhorn and Steve Cuden's Jekyll & Hyde Jerry Herman's Milk and Honey, Dolly!, Dear World and Mabel, La Cage aux Folles Stephen Sondheim's A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, Follies, Sunday in the Park with George, Sweeney Todd, A Little Night Music and Into the Woods John Kander and Fred Ebb's Cabaret, Chicago Andrew Lloyd Webber's Evita, Jesus Christ Superstar, The Phantom of the Opera, Starlight Express, Sunset Boulevard and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat Stephen Schwartz's Pippin and Wicked Jonathan Larson's Rent Claude-Michel Schönberg's Les Misérables, Miss Saigon Jim Jacobs and Warren Casey's GreaseThough show tunes vary in style, they do tend to share common characteristics—they fit the context of a story being told in the original musical, they are useful in enhancing and heightening choice moments.
A common form of show tune is the "I Want" song, which composer Stephen Schwartz noted as being likely to have a lifespan outside the show that spawned it. Show tunes were a major venue for popular music before roll and television era. Although show tunes no longer have such a major role in popular music as they did in their heyday, they remain somewhat popular among niche audiences. Show tunes make up a disproportionate part of the songs in most variations of the Great American Songbook; the reverse phenomenon, when popular songs are used to form the basis of a stage musical, is known as a jukebox musical. Green, Stanley. Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1976 Show Tunes at allmusic.com