YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Ralf Souquet is a German professional pool player. His nickname is "The Kaiser". Since 1981, he has won more than 500 tournament titles, including 41 German Championship titles and 34 European Pool Championships titles, he began playing billiards at the age of six in his parents' pub, practicing up to five hours per day. He won his first German Championship title at the age of fourteen in the juniors division. In 1985, Souquet co-won his first European Championship team title with the National Team, in 1986 won his first individual title at the European Championship. In 1997, he received the Silberne Lorbeerblatt, the highest official distinction awarded to sportspeople by Germany, presented to him by German President Roman Herzog. In 1996, Souquet won the WPA World Nine-ball Championship where he triumphed over Tom Storm of Sweden, he reached the finals of the same event in 2001 and 2006, only to be bested by Mika Immonen and Ronato Alcano. Souquet won the US Open Nine-ball Championship in 2002 by defeating Alex Pagulayan who would win the event in the next three years.
In 2008, Souquet won his second world title at the WPA World Eight-ball Championship with a victory over Ronato Alcano. WPA World Eight-ball Championship World Pool Masters World Cup of Pool WPA World Nine-ball Championship US Open Nine-ball Championship International Challenge of Champions US Open 14.1 Championship BCA Open Nine-ball Championship All-Japan Pool Championship Derby City Nine-ball Classic Ralf Souquet official website An industry profile of Souquet Article on his 2006 World Pool Masters victory Article on his 2006 World Pool Championship loss
Eight-ball is a pool game popular in much of the world, the subject of international professional and amateur competition. Played on a pool table with six pockets, the game is so universally known in some countries that beginners are unaware of other pool games and believe the word "pool" itself refers to eight-ball; the game has numerous variations regional. Standard eight-ball is the second most competitive professional pool game, after nine-ball, for the last several decades ahead of straight pool. Eight-ball is played with cue sticks and sixteen balls: a cue ball, fifteen object balls consisting of seven striped balls, seven solid-colored balls and the black 8 ball. After the balls are scattered with a break shot, the players are assigned either the group of solid balls or the stripes once a ball from a particular group is pocketed; the ultimate object of the game is to pocket the eight ball in a called pocket, which can only be done after all of the balls from a player's assigned group have been cleared from the table.
The game of eight-ball is derived from an earlier game invented around 1900 in the United States and popularized under the name "B. B. C. Co. Pool" by the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company; this forerunner game was played with seven yellow and seven red balls, a black ball, the cue ball. Today, numbered stripes and solids are preferred in most of the world, though the British-style offshoot, uses the traditional colors; the game had simple rules compared to today and was not added to an official rule book until 1940. American-style eight-ball rules are played around the world by professionals, in many amateur leagues; the rules for eight-ball may be the most contested of any billiard game. There are several competing sets of "official" rules; the non-profit World Pool-Billiard Association – with national affiliates around the world, some of which long pre-date the WPA, such as the Billiard Congress of America – promulgates standardized rules as Pool Billiards – The Rules of Play for amateur and professional play.
Meanwhile, many amateur leagues – such as the American Poolplayers Association / Canadian Poolplayers Association, the Valley National Eight-ball Association and the BCA Pool League – use their own rulesets. Millions of individuals play informally, using informal house rules which vary not only from area to area but from venue to venue; the regulation size of the table's playing surface is 9 by 4.5 ft, though exact dimensions may vary by manufacturer. Some leagues and tournaments using the World Standardized Rules may allow smaller sizes, down to 7 by 3.5 ft. Early 20th-century 10 by 5 ft models are also still used. WPA professional competition employs regulation tables, while the amateur league championships of various leagues, including ACS, BCAPL, VNEA, APA, use the seven-foot tables in order to fit more of them into the hosting venue. There are seven solid-colored balls numbered 1 through 7, seven striped balls numbered 9 through 15, an 8 ball, a cue ball; the balls are colored as follows: 1 and 9: yellow 2 and 10: blue 3 and 11: red 4 and 12: dark blue 1 5 and 13: orange 6 and 14: green 7 and 15: maroon 1 8: black Cue: white1Special sets designed to be more discernible on television substitute a rather light tan shade for the darker brown of the 7 and 15 balls, pink for the dark purple of the 4 and 12.
To start the game, the object balls are placed in a triangular rack. The base of the rack is parallel to the end rail and positioned so the apex ball of the rack is located on the foot spot; the balls in the rack are ideally placed. The order of the balls should be random, with the exceptions of the 8 ball, which must be placed in the center of the rack, the two back corner balls, one of which must be a stripe and the other a solid; the cue ball is placed anywhere the breaker desires behind the head string. One person is chosen by some predetermined method to shoot first, using the cue ball to break the object-ball rack apart. In most leagues it is the breaker's opponent who racks the balls, but in some, players break their own racks. If the breaker fails to make a successful break—usually defined as at least four balls hitting cushions or an object ball being pocketed—then the opponent can opt either to play from the current position or to call for a re-rack and either re-break or have the original breaker repeat the break.
If the 8 ball is pocketed on the break the breaker can choose either to re-spot the 8 ball and play from the current position or to re-rack and re-break. (For regional amateur
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Efren Manalang Reyes, nicknamed the Magician and Bata, is a Filipino professional pool player. A winner of over 70 international titles, Reyes was the first player to win world championships in two different disciplines in pool. Among his numerous titles Reyes is a four-time World Eight-ball Champion, the 1999 WPA World Nine-ball Champion, a three-time US Open winner, a two-time World Pool League winner and a 14-time Derby City Classic winner – including an unprecedented five Master of the Table crowns. By defeating Earl Strickland in the inaugural Color of Money event in 1996, Reyes took home the largest single event purse in pool history. Many analysts and current and former players consider Reyes to be the greatest pool player of all time. Reyes was born in Mexico, Pampanga in the Philippines in 1954, he moved to Manila with his family at the age of 5. In Manila, he worked as a billiards attendant at his uncle's billiards hall, where he started learning the various cue sports; because he was not tall enough to reach the pool table, he played while standing on Coca-Cola cases that he moved around.
At night, while he was dreaming of playing pool, the pool table was his bed. Reyes is referred to as Bata, Tagalog for'Kid', because there was another older pool player named Efren when he was young. To distinguish between the two, he was referred to as Efren Bata, he was called "Efrey" by his colleagues. Gambling from a young age, Reyes played three cushion billiards in the 1970s. After establishing himself as a winner, he was discovered by promoters; this gave him the opportunity to compete in big-time tournaments. In 1978, Reyes represented Team Philippines in the RP-Japan Pocket Billiards Tournament, alongside Jose Parica, Rodolfo Luat, Jorge Dacer, Manuel Flores. In 1983, Reyes took on Pepito Dacer in the finals of the Philippine Professional Pocket Billiards Championships, played in rotation; the finals was played in race-to-39, the players played 11 racks on a weekly basis. On the seventh week of play, Reyes defeated Dacer 39-32. During the 1980s, when Reyes was considered a top-class player in his homeland but not yet internationally recognized, he went to the U.
S. to hustle. Popular legend claims. Reyes began winning a number of tournaments in the U. S. Europe and parts of Asia. Thus, he started to gain recognition worldwide. At the start of his career, he used aliases to hide his identity. By the mid-1990s, he had become one of the elite players of the Philippines, alongside Jose Parica and Francisco Bustamante. Reyes' fame began when he won the US Open Nine Ball Championship in 1994 by defeating Nick Varner in the finals, he was the first non-American to win the event. Two years Efren Reyes and Earl Strickland were chosen to face each other in an event called the Color of Money, named after the movie; the event was a three-day race-to-120 challenge match of 9-ball. It was held in Hong Kong, with a winner-take-all prize of US$100,000. Reyes won the match 120-117; the match demonstrated Reyes will to win, overcoming a 17 game deficit on the last day on the final 3 hours of the match. This was the largest single-winning purse in a pool event. Although Strickland was the first to win the WPA World Nine-ball Championship, Reyes, in 1999, became the first to win while it was broadcast on television.
This tournament was not recognized at the time by the WPA, but Reyes was retrospectively acknowledged as the winner of one of two world championships held in 1999. Nick Varner won the "official" world title; the two tournaments were merged for the following year, with both men listed as the champion for 1999. At the time, the Matchroom Sport-organised event in Cardiff, was called the World Professional Pool Championship. In 2001, Reyes won the International Billiard Tournament; the event was held in Tokyo, with over 700 players and a total purse of ¥100M. Reyes earned the ¥ 20M first prize. At the time, this was the biggest first prize in a pool tournament. In 2002 he won the $50K winner-take-all International Challenge of Champions, defeating Mika Immonen in a deciding rack after both players split sets. Near the end of 2004, Reyes beat Marlon Manalo to become the first-ever WPA World Eight Ball Champion. With the win, he became the first player in WPA history to win world championships in two different disciplines.
In December 2005, Reyes won the IPT King of the Hill 8-Ball Shootout. Reyes won a record-breaking $200K for first place by beating fellow Hall of Fame member Mike "the Mouth" Sigel two sets to none. In 2006, Reyes and Francisco Bustamante represented their country as Team Philippines in the inaugural World Cup of Pool, they defeated Earl Strickland and Rodney Morris, to capture the title. That same year, Reyes won the IPT World Open Eight-ball Championship over Rodney Morris 8-6, he earned $500K, the largest prize money tournament in the history of pocket billiards. Due to IPT's financial problems, he has not been able to claim much of this money as of 2007. In 2009, the Filipino tandem of Efren Reyes and Francisco Bustamante beat the German pair of Ralf Souquet and Thorsten Hohmann by a grueling 11-9 score to take their second championship title. This, together with the semifinal finish of the other Filipino team of Ronato Alcano and Dennis Orcollo, was the best performance by a host nation in the tournament's history.
In 2010, Reyes clinched his fifth title in the 12th annual Derby City Classic as the overall champion, making him the most successf
Dennis Orcollo, sometimes called Dennis Orcullo, is a Filipino professional pool player, nicknamed "Surigao" and "RoboCop". He has been called "the Philippines' Money-game King". Orcollo is the second of four brothers, his father was killed in a boating accident caused by a windstorm. He started practicing pool at 8 years of age through his grandfather's table; because of financial problems, he gave up school at third grade, focused on his sport. Orcollo began competing outside the Philippines in 2002; that year, he competed in the WPA World Nine-ball Championship. In 2006, Orcollo began his campaign in the U. S.. There, he won a number of tournaments, including the Reno Open, the Hard Times Nine-ball Tournament and two bar table events; because his compatriots had entered a less prestigious event in Asia, Orcollo was the only player from the Philippines to compete in the inaugural World Straight Pool Championship. In 2006, Orcollo won the last edition of the World Pool League tournament against Niels Feijen.
In 2007, Orcollo reached the finals of the WPA World Eight-ball Championship, only to be bested by countryman Ronato Alcano. He would again reached the finals of the same event in 2011 but to win, this time against Niels Feijen. In 2016, Orcollo defeated Shane Van Boening, 200-121 to win the U. S. Open Straight Pool Championship, a tournament that has not been held for sixteen years. 2016 U. S. Open Straight Pool Championship 2016 Derby City Classic Straight Pool Challenge 2015 US Open 8-Ball - 1st Place Champion 2014 Hard Times 10-Ball Open2014 US Open One-Pocket Championship2014 18th Jay Swanson Memorial 9-Ball Tournament2014 Derby City Classic Straight Pool Challenge2014 Derby City Classic Master of the Table2014 Derby City Classic 9-Ball Banks2013 World Cup of Pool 2013 US Open One-Pocket Championship2013 US Bar Table Championship 10-Ball2013 17th Jay Swanson Memorial 9-Ball Tournament2013 Derby City Classic 10-Ball Bigfoot Challenge2012 China Open 9-Ball Men's Division2012 Hard Times 10-Ball Open2012 US Open 10-Ball Championship2011 Predator International 10-Ball Championship2011 WPA World Eight-ball Championship2011 Derby City Classic 9-Ball2011 BSCP National 9-Ball Championships2010 Asian Games Nine-Ball Singles 2010 San Miguel Beer Octoberfest 9-Ball Open2010 World Pool Masters2009 Predator International 10-Ball Championship2008 Guinness Asian 9-Ball Tour 2008 Qatar World Open 9-Ball Tournament2007 BCA Open Nine-Ball Championship2007 Bill Staton Memorial2006 World Pool League2006 US Bar Table Championship 8-Ball2006 Reno Open, 9-Ball2006 Hard Times Billiards Summer Jamboree, 9-Ball2006-World Championship Bar Table 9-ball Feb.22-26 Oroville, Calif.1st place Orcollo bio from Billiards Digest
Ronato Alcano, is a Filipino professional pool player, nicknamed "Ronnie Calamba" and "the Volcano". He won both the 2007 WPA Eight-ball Championship. After graduating in elementary school, Alcano didn't proceed to high school due to financial problems, he opted to play pool for a living. Alcano's recognitions in the Philippines began with his performances at the 2000 Rising Stars Tournament. By the final, he was favored to win the title, yet in the final match, Alcano lost to Edgar Acaba by just a rack short, 13-12. Despite having a 12-7 advantage, Alcano missed while only three balls away. Acaba returned to the table and won the needed 6 racks in a row to win the match and the title. In 2002, Alcano began to make a name for himself, began competing in major events in the US, he won five tournaments in the Joss Tour and was awarded Rookie of the Year for 2002 by azbilliards.com. Alcano returned to the East, for the 2005 WPA Asian Nine-ball Tour, winning the Manila tournament, qualifying for the world championship.
Coming in as an underdog, Alcano upset German Ralf Souquet in the finals, 17 to 11 at the 2006 WPA Men's World Nine-ball Championship. ESPN commentator Gerry Forsyth said, "the only way to stop Alcano is to put a rattlesnake in his pocket ask him for a match" about Alcano's performance, he thus became the second Filipino to become World Champion in this event after Efren Reyes won the title in 1999. In the November 2006 tournament, Alcano had been on the brink of elimination in group play before taking advantage of a soft break, he won just 1 of 3 group scraped through as the 64th and final seed. Alcano defeated local favorite Reyes and defending champion Wu Chia-ching in the knockout stages, proceeding to the final. For winning the tournament, Alcano won US$100,000, the largest first prize won in the world nine-ball championship. In 2007, Alcano won the WPA World Eight-ball Championship by defeating his compatriot Dennis Orcollo in the final match 11-8. On 16 September 2007, Alcano finished second to Antonio Gabica in the Philippine Nine-ball Open.
In an attempt to defend his title at the 2007 World Nine-ball Championship, Alcano was bested in the last 64 by Daryl Peach of the United Kingdom who won the title. On 11 December 2007, Ronato Alcano won the Philippines' 31st gold medal in the 24th Southeast Asian Games Men’s 8-Ball Pool Singles at the Sima Thani Hotel Grand Ballroom. On 25 April 2008, Ronnie Alcano lost his title at the World 8-Ball Championships in Fujairah City, United Arab Emirates. Germany's Ralf Souquet won 13-9 final score. On 26 October 2008, Alcano lost to Mika Immonen in the $250,000 33rd US Open Nine-ball Championship, where 237 billiards players competed in Chesapeake, Virginia. Mika claimed the 13-7 victory against Alcano, who settled for $20,000. During his early days of competing in the Philippines, Alcano was nicknamed "Calamba", a reference to his hometown in the country, but when he started participating in US-based tournaments, some commentators mispronounced his last name as al-kay-no. Thus, the nickname "Volcano" was addressed.
2005 Asian Nine-ball Tour - Manila 2006 WPA World Nine-ball Championship 2007 WPA World Eight-ball Championship 2009 Galveston Classic Eight-ball 2010 Pattaya 9 Ball Invitational2010 Star Billiards Ten-ball Championships2012 Championship Cloth Pro Classic 9-Ball2012 Chuck Markulis Memorial 9-Ball-Division2012 Mezz Pro Am Tour- verified Article on his 2006 World Nine-ball Championship victory