Height above average terrain
Height above average terrain, or effective height above average terrain, is a measure of how high an antenna site is above the surrounding landscape. HAAT is used extensively in FM radio and television, as it is more important than effective radiated power in determining the range of broadcasts. For international coordination, it is measured in meters by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States, as Canada and Mexico have extensive border zones where stations can be received on either side of the international boundaries. Stations that want to increase above a certain HAAT must reduce their power accordingly, based on the maximum distance their station class is allowed to cover; the FCC procedure to calculate HAAT is: from the proposed or actual antenna site, either 12 or 16 radials were drawn, points at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 miles radius along each radial were used. The entire radial graph could be rotated to achieve the best effect for the station; the altitude of the antenna site, minus the average altitude of all the specified points, is the HAAT.
This can create some unusual cases in mountainous regions—it is possible to have a negative number for HAAT. The FCC has divided the Contiguous United States into three zones for the determination of spacing between FM and TV stations using the same frequencies. FM and TV stations are assigned maximum ERP and HAAT values, depending on their assigned zones, to prevent co-channel interference; the FCC regulations for ERP and HAAT are listed under Title 47, Part 73 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Maximum HAAT: 150 metres Maximum ERP: 50 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 241 km Maximum HAAT: 600 metres Maximum ERP: 100 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 290 km. In all zones, maximum ERP for analog TV transmitters is. In addition, Zone I-A consists of all of California south of 40° north latitude, Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. Zones I and I-A have the most "grandfathered" overpowered stations, which are allowed the same extended coverage areas that they had before the zones were established.
One of the most powerful of these stations is WBCT in Grand Rapids, which operates at 320,000 watts and 238 meters HAAT. Zone III consists of all of Florida and the areas of Alabama, Louisiana and Texas within 241.4 kilometers of the Gulf of Mexico. Zone II is all the rest of the Continental United States and Hawaii. Above mean sea level Above ground level Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission List of broadcast station classes United States Federal Communications Commission 47 CFR Part 73 Index FCC: Mass Media Calculated Contours FCC: HAAT Calculator "Superpower" Grandfathered FM stations
WTEL is a Philadelphia radio station with an all-sports format. Owned and operated by the Beasley Broadcast Group, the WTEL studios are located at 555 City Avenue in Bala Cynwyd and its transmitters are located in the Crescent Park section of Bellmawr, New Jersey. WTEL broadcasts in the HD Radio format on 610 AM; the station was known for its influence on the Philadelphia sports fanbase. Its prominent hosts included Angelo Cataldi, who arranged for a group of Eagles fans to attend the 1999 NFL Draft in New York City and demand the Eagles select University of Texas at Austin running back Ricky Williams with their #2 pick, Howard Eskin, whose achievements included the Terrell Owens "funeral", a short-lived hunger strike in support of trading Philadelphia 76ers superstar Allen Iverson; the station was known for hosting the annual eating contest, the Wing Bowl. WIP was owned by CBS Radio, at that time was considered to be a sister station to another CBS Radio station, WFAN, in New York City. Both stations serve New Jersey in addition to their licensed cities.
WIP was the flagship radio station for the Philadelphia Eagles and Philadelphia Phillies. When both teams were playing at the same time, WPHT and/or WYSP carried one of the games. WIP was the flagship radio station for the Eagles until 1992, when Eagles broadcasts moved to WYSP, which at the time had a classic rock format and aired Howard Stern's syndicated morning show. On February 20, 2008, the station announced that broadcasts of Eagles games would return to WIP, plus remain on WYSP, with each radio station broadcasting different feeds to make it easier for local fans to watch television coverage of Eagles games but to lower the volume on their TV and listen to the game on the radio; the advent of digital television signals was putting television and radio signals too far out of sync. The station carried Philadelphia Phillies games on Friday nights during the 2005 season, allowing WPHT to pick up some scheduled programming on Friday nights. In 2008, WIP broadcast the Phillies' March 31 season opener against Washington along with WPHT.
Founded by Gimbels department store, the station first went on the air on March 17, 1922 as Philadelphia's first commercial radio station with the call sign WIP, which people mistakenly think stands for "Wireless In Philadelphia," "We're In Philadelphia" or "Watch Its Progress." In fact, WIP was a call sign randomly issued by the federal government. In the 1940s and 1950s, the station was an affiliate of the Mutual Broadcasting System. From the 1950s until the early 1960s, the station was owned by Metropolitan Broadcasting and had a rock and roll format. In the early 60s the parent company name was changed from Metropolitan to Metromedia, WIP adopted an MOR format. With this format, the station played pop hits of the 1960s, along with some 50s pop mixed in. Announcers during this time period included Joe McCauley, Ned Powers, Tom Brown, Chuck Daugherty. During this time WIP called themselves "The Big W" after a phrase in the 60s comedy, "It's A Mad, Mad, Mad World," and the slogan was justified.
WIP was number one in the market ratings for most of the 70s. In the late 60s they began including more soft-rock until the format evolved into an Adult Contemporary format which survived through the 70s and into the 80s; the music mix continued to include pop from the previous two decades. In addition, the station was full service in approach. After many years of ownership by Metromedia the station was purchased by Ed Snider's Spectacor Group, the longtime owner of the National Hockey League's Philadelphia Flyers, in 1988. Snider sold the station to CBS Radio in 1994. By the early 1970s, WIP evolved to an adult contemporary format, for a while, they were heavy on 1950s and 1960s rock and roll oldies. At the height of its popularity as a full service/adult contemporary station in the early to mid-1970s, WIP was the home to some of the most well-known air personalities in the city, including popular rush hour host Ken Garland late morning host Bill "Wee Willie" Webber, early afternoon host Tom Moran, late PM host, Dick Clayton, evening host Tom Lamaine, overnight host Nat Wright.
Weekend coverage included Alan Drew and Bill St. James. During this time, Metromedia's station in New York, WNEW, had similar programming and it was not uncommon for DJs to swap back and forth for subbing duties. WNEW's Julius LaRosa was a frequent guest. WIP's presentation, like other full-service stations, was dependent on its personalities to entertain the audience as much as the music itself. In addition to music, full-service music stations in that era were home to strong news operations, WIP had local newscasts every hour, seven days a week; the weekday morning news was so extensive that they had two anchors in years, introduced a 5 a.m. 30 minute newscast. One of WIP's news reporters, Jan Gorham, remained with the station after the switch to sports and continued to work there until retiring in 2009; the station hosted a popular radiothon for one weekend a year for several years, raising funds to fight leukemia. The events were staged on a large scale, in venues like hotel ballrooms, with local and national celebrities visiting the live broadcast.
WIP's best-known contest w
Arena Football League
The Arena Football League is a professional indoor American football league in the United States. It was founded in 1987 by Jim Foster, making it the third longest-running professional football league in North America, after the Canadian Football League and the National Football League; the AFL plays a proprietary code known as arena football, a form of indoor American football played on a 66-by-28 yard field, with rules encouraging offensive performance, resulting in a faster-paced and higher-scoring game. The sport was invented in the early 1980s and patented by Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the NFL. From 2000 to 2009, the AFL had its own developmental league, the af2; the AFL played 22 seasons from 1987 to 2008. That year both the AFL and af2 were dissolved and reorganized as a new corporation comprising teams from both leagues, the AFL returned in 2010; the league's average game attendance since returning in 2010 has been 9,500. The league has had a nationwide footprint, has been recognized as the most prominent professional indoor football league in North America, offering higher payment, more widespread media exposure, a longer history than competing leagues.
From a high of 19 teams in 2007, the league contracted to a low of four teams in 2018, all in the northeastern United States. Six teams are announced for the 2019 season. Jim Foster, a promotions manager with the National Football League, conceived of indoor football while watching an indoor soccer match at Madison Square Garden in 1981. While at the game, he wrote his idea on a 9 x 12 envelope, with sketches of the field and notes on gameplay, he presented the idea to a few friends at the NFL offices, where he received praise and encouragement for his concept. After solidifying the rules and a business plan, supplemented with sketches by a professional artist, Foster presented his idea to various television networks, he reached an agreement with NBC for a "test game". Plans for arena football were put on hold in 1982. Foster left the NFL to accept a position in the USFL, he became executive vice-president with the Chicago Blitz, where he returned to his concept of arena football. In 1983, he began organizing the test game in his spare time from his job with the Blitz.
By 1985, the USFL had ceased football operations and he began devoting all his time to arena football, on April 27, 1986, his concept was realized when the test game was played. The test game was played in Illinois on April 27, 1986 at the Rockford MetroCentre. Sponsors were secured, players and coaches from local colleges were recruited to volunteer to play for the teams, the Chicago Politicians and Rockford Metros, with the guarantee of a tryout should the league take off. Interest was high enough following the initial test game that Foster decided to put on a second, "showcase" game; the second game was held on February 27, 1987 at the Rosemont Horizon in Chicago with a budget of $20,000, quadruple the $4,000 in the test game. Foster invited ESPN to send a film crew to the game. Following the successes of his trial-run games, Foster moved ahead with his idea for arena football, he founded the Arena Football League with four teams: the Pittsburgh Gladiators, Denver Dynamite, Washington Commandos, Chicago Bruisers.
Foster appointed legendary Darrel "Mouse" Davis, godfather of the "run and shoot" and modern pro offenses, as executive director of football operations. Davis hired the original coaches and was the architect of the league's original wide-open offensive playbooks; the first game in Arena Football League history was played on June 19, 1987, between the Gladiators and Commandos at Pittsburgh Civic Arena in front of 12,117 fans. The game was deliberately not televised so that it could be analyzed and any follies and failures would not be subject to national public scrutiny. Following the inaugural game and adjustments were made, the first season continued; the Dynamite and Bruisers played in the first-ever televised AFL game the next night, on June 20, 1987, at the Rosemont Horizon in suburban Chicago on ESPN with Bob Rathbun and Lee Corso calling the play-by-play. The broadcast showed a short clip of the Commandos-Gladiators game; each team played two against each other team. The top two teams and Pittsburgh competed in the first-ever AFL championship game, ArenaBowl I.
On September 30, 1987, Foster filed an application with the United States Patent and Trademark Office to patent his invented sport. The patent application covered the rules of the game detailing the goalposts and rebound netting and their impact on gameplay. Foster's application was granted on March 27, 1990; the patent expired in 2007. From its inception, the AFL operated in a state of semi-obscurity. From the 1987 season until the late 1990s, the most exposure the league would receive was on ESPN, which aired tape-delayed games well after midnight, edited to match the allotted time slot; the league received its first taste of wide exposure in 1998, when Arena Bowl XII was televised nationally as part of ABC's old Wide World of Sports. On Saturday, July 23, 1989, much of America learned of the AFL for an unintended reason, when the Pittsburgh Gladiators' head coach, Joe Haering, made football history by punching commissioner Jim Foster during a game with the Chicago Bruisers; the national media ran with the story, including a photo in USA To
Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer is a men's professional soccer league sanctioned by the United States Soccer Federation which represents the sport's highest level in the United States. The league comprises 24 teams—21 in the U. S. and 3 in Canada and constitutes one of the major professional sports leagues in both countries. The regular season runs from March with each team playing 34 games. Fourteen teams compete in the postseason MLS Cup Playoffs through October and November, culminating in the championship game, the MLS Cup. MLS teams play in domestic competitions against teams from other divisions in the U. S. Open in the Canadian Championship. MLS teams compete against continental rivals in the CONCACAF Champions League. Major League Soccer was founded in 1993 as part of the United States' successful bid to host the 1994 FIFA World Cup; the first season took place in 1996 with ten teams. MLS experienced financial and operational struggles in its first few years: the league lost millions of dollars, teams played in empty American football stadiums, two teams folded in 2002.
Since MLS has expanded to 24 teams, soccer-specific stadiums have proliferated around the league, average attendance exceeds that of the National Hockey League and National Basketball Association, the Designated Player Rule allows teams to sign star players such as David Beckham, MLS secured national TV contracts, the league is now profitable. Instead of operating as an association of independently owned teams, MLS is a single entity in which each team is owned by the league and individually operated by the league's investors; the investor-operators control their teams as owners control teams in other leagues, are referred to as the team's owners. The league has a fixed membership like most sports leagues in the United States and Canada, which makes it one of the world's few soccer leagues that does not use promotion and relegation, a practice, uncommon in the two countries. MLS headquarters is located in New York City. Major League Soccer's regular season runs from March to October. Teams are geographically divided into the Eastern and Western Conferences, playing 34 games in a balanced schedule.
For 2019, with 24 teams, each team plays two games against teams in its conference and one game against each team from the opposite conference. Midway through the season, teams break for the annual All-Star Game, an exhibition game between the league's finest players and a major club from a different league. At the end of the regular season, the team with the highest point total is awarded the Supporters' Shield and home-field advantage throughout the playoffs. Unlike most major soccer leagues around the world, but similar to other leagues in the Americas, the MLS regular season is followed by a postseason knockout tournament. Fourteen teams participate in the MLS Cup Playoffs in October, which concludes with the MLS Cup championship game in early November. Major League Soccer's spring-to-fall schedule results in scheduling conflicts with the FIFA calendar and with summertime international tournaments such as the World Cup and the Gold Cup, causing several players to miss some MLS matches. While MLS has looked into changing to a fall-to-spring format, there are no current plans to do so.
If the league were to change its schedule, a substantial winter break would still be necessary due to teams being located in harsh winter climates. It would have to compete with the popularity and media presence of the National Football League in the fall and winter as well as the National Basketball Association and National Hockey League, which both run on fall-to-spring schedules. MLS teams play in other international and domestic competitions; every year, five MLS teams — four from the U. S. and one from Canada — play in the CONCACAF Champions League against other clubs from the CONCACAF region. Two U. S.-based MLS teams qualify based on MLS regular-season results: the winner of the Western conference and the winner of the Eastern conference. The third U. S. team to qualify is the winner of the MLS Cup. A fourth U. S.-based MLS team can qualify via the U. S. Open Cup. If a team qualifies through multiple berths, or if any of the MLS berths are taken by a Canada-based MLS team, the berth is reallocated to the best U.
S.-based team in the Supporters' Shield table that has otherwise not qualified. Canadian MLS clubs play against other Canadian clubs in the Canadian Championship for the one CONCACAF Champions League spot allocated to Canada. No MLS club has won the Champions League since it began its current format in 2008, but MLS teams have reached the final three times: Real Salt Lake in 2011, Montreal Impact in 2015, Toronto FC in 2018. Since 2018, the previous year's MLS Cup champion plays in the Campeones Cup, a single game against the Campeón de Campeones from Liga MX, hosted by the MLS team in September; the inaugural edition saw Tigres UANL defeat Toronto FC 3–1 on September 19, 2018, at BMO Field in Toronto. MLS's 24 teams are divided between the Western Conferences; each club is allowed up to 28 players on its first team roster. All 28 players are eligible for selection to each 18-player game-day squad during the regular season and playoffs. MLS has expanded since the 2005 season; the league plans to expand to 27 teams with the addition of Inter Miami CF and Nashville SC in 2020 and Austin FC in 2021, with further plans to expand to 28 teams by 2022.
The league features numerous rivalry cups that are contested by two or more teams geographic rivals. Each trophy is awarded to the team with the better regular-season record in games involving the two teams
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies; the term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country, dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions: In the former Soviet republics, some former Eastern Bloc countries, the older 65.8–74 MHz band is used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz; this band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is being phased out in many countries.
In those countries the 87.5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used; the frequency of an FM broadcast station is an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe and Africa, only multiples are used. In the UK odd or are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. In most countries the maximum permitted frequency error is specified, the unmodulated carrier should be within 2000 Hz of the assigned frequency. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500, 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500 kHz frequency separation when closer frequency spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as interfering signals are more attenuated and so have less effect on neighboring frequencies.
Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation which conveys information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal; because transmitted FM signals use more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is used with the higher frequencies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, land mobile radio systems. The maximum frequency deviation of the carrier is specified and regulated by the licensing authorities in each country. For a stereo broadcast, the maximum permitted carrier deviation is invariably ±75 kHz, although a little higher is permitted in the United States when SCA systems are used. For a monophonic broadcast, again the most common permitted. However, some countries specify a lower value for monophonic broadcasts, such as ±50 kHz. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the baseband.
This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise; these processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In the Americas and South Korea, 75 µs is used; this applies to both stereo transmissions. For stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing; the use of pre-emphasis becomes a problem because of the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. Pre-emphasizing these high frequency sounds would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Modulation control devices are used to prevent this.
Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing, at his experimental 41 MHz station W2XDG located on the 85th floor of the Empire State Building in New York City; these FM multiplex transmissions started in November 1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing signal for the fax program and a telegraph “order” channel. These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network, were transmitted using the same system of subcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter link system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were replaced with much improved results.
The first FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from Major Armstrong's experimental station KE2XCC at Alpine, New Jersey occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-cha
A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be distributed live or on demand. Webcasting is "broadcasting" over the Internet; the largest "webcasters" include existing radio and TV stations, who "simulcast" their output through online TV or online radio streaming, as well as a multitude of Internet only "stations". Webcasting consists of providing non-interactive linear streams or events. Rights and licensing bodies offer specific "webcasting licenses" to those wishing to carry out Internet broadcasting using copyrighted material. Webcasting is used extensively in the commercial sector for investor relations presentations, in e-learning, for related communications activities. However, webcasting does not bear much, if any, relationship to web conferencing, designed for many-to-many interaction; the ability to webcast using cheap/accessible technology has allowed independent media to flourish.
There are many notable independent shows that broadcast online. Produced by average citizens in their homes they cover many interests and topics. Webcasts relating to computers and news are popular and many new shows are added regularly. Webcasting differs from podcasting in that webcasting refers to live streaming while podcasting refers to media files placed on the Internet. Webcasting is the distribution of media files through the internet; the earliest graphically-oriented web broadcasts were not streaming video, but were in fact still frames which were photographed with a web camera every few minutes while they were being broadcast live over the Internet. One of the earliest instances of sequential live image broadcasting was in 1991 when a camera was set up next to the Trojan Room in the computer laboratory of the University of Cambridge, it provided a live picture every few minutes of the office coffee pot to all desktop computers on that office's network. A couple of years its broadcasts went to the Internet, became known as the Trojan Room Coffee Pot webcam, gained international notoriety as a feature of the fledgling World Wide Web.
In 1996 an American college student and conceptual artist, Jenny Ringley, set up a web camera similar to the Trojan Room Coffee Pot's webcam in her dorm room. That webcam photographed her every few minutes while it broadcast those images live over the Internet upon a site called JenniCam. Ringley wanted to portray all aspects of her lifestyle and the camera captured her doing everything – brushing her teeth, doing her laundry, having sex with her boyfriend, her website generated millions of hits upon the Internet, became a pay site in 1998, spawned hundreds of female imitators who would use streaming video to create a new billion dollar industry called camming, brand themselves as camgirls or webcam models. One of the earliest webcast equivalent of an online concert and one of the earliest examples of webcasting itself was by Apple Computer's Webcasting Group in partnership with the entrepreneurs Michael Dorf and Andrew Rasiej. Together with David B. Pakman from Apple, they launched the Macintosh New York Music Festival from July 17–22, 1995.
This event audio webcast concerts from more than 15 clubs in New York City. Apple webcast a concert by Metallica on June 10, 1996 live from Slim's in San Francisco. In 1995, Benford E. Standley produced one of the first audio/video webcasts in history. On October 31, 1996, UK rock band Caduseus broadcast their one-hour concert from 11 pm to 12 midnight at Celtica in Machynlleth, Wales, UK – the first live streamed audio and simultaneous live streamed video multicast – around the globe to more than twenty direct "mirrors" in more than twenty countries. In September 1997, Nebraska Public Television started webcasting Big Red Wrap Up from Lincoln, Nebraska which combined highlights from every Cornhusker football game, coverage of the coaches' weekly press conferences, analysis with Nebraska sportswriters, appearances by special guests and questions and answers with viewers. On August 13, 1998, it is believed the first webcast wedding took place, between Alan K'necht and Carrie Silverman in Toronto Canada.
On October 22, 1998, the first Billy Graham Crusade was broadcast live to a worldwide audience from the Raymond James Stadium in Tampa Florida courtesy of Dale Ficken and the WebcastCenter in Pennsylvania. The live signal was broadcast via satellite to PA encoded and streamed via the BGEA website; the first teleconferenced/webcast wedding to date is believed to have occurred on December 31, 1998. Dale Ficken and Lorrie Scarangella wed on this date as they stood in a church in Pennsylvania, were married by Jerry Falwell while he sat in his office in Lynchburg, Virginia. All major broadcasters now have a webcast of their output, from the BBC to CNN to Al Jazeera to UNTV in television to Radio China, Vatican Radio, United Nations Radio and the World Service in radio. On November 4, 1994, Stef van der Ziel distributed the first live video images over the web from the Simplon venue in Groningen. On November 7, 1994, WXYC, the college radio station of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill became the first radio station in the world to broadcast its signal over the internet.
Translated versions including Subtitling are now possible using SMIL Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language. A wedcast of a wedding. Allows family and friends of the couple to watch the wedding in real time on the Internet, it is sometimes used for weddings in exotic locations, such as Cancun and the Riviera Maya, Hawaii or the Caribbean, for which it is expensive or difficul