Fargo, North Dakota
Fargo is a city in and the county seat of Cass County, North Dakota, United States. The most populous city in the state, it accounts for nearly 17% of the state population. According to the 2017 United States Census estimates, its population was 122,359, making it the 225th-most populous city in the United States. Fargo, along with its twin city of Moorhead, Minnesota, as well as the adjacent cities of West Fargo, North Dakota and Dilworth, form the core of the Fargo-Moorhead, ND-MN Metropolitan Statistical Area, which in 2017 contained a population of 241,356. Founded in 1871 on the Red River of the North floodplain, Fargo is a cultural, health care and industrial center for eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota; the city is home to North Dakota State University. Part of Sioux territory, the area, present-day Fargo was an early stopping point for steamboats traversing the Red River during the 1870s and 1880s; the city was named "Centralia," but was renamed "Fargo" after Northern Pacific Railway director and Wells Fargo Express Company founder William Fargo.
The area started to flourish after the arrival of the Northern Pacific Railroad and the city became known as the "Gateway to the West." During the 1880s, Fargo became the "divorce capital" of the Midwest because of lenient divorce laws. A major fire struck the city on June 7, 1893, destroying 31 blocks of downtown Fargo, but the city was rebuilt with new buildings made of brick, new streets, a water system. More than 246 new buildings were built within one year. There were several rumors concerning the cause of the fire; the North Dakota Agricultural College was founded in 1890 as North Dakota's land-grant university, becoming first accredited by the North Central Association in 1915. In 1960, NDAC became known as North Dakota State University. Early in the century, the automobile industry flourished, in 1905, Fargo was home to the Pence Automobile Company. On Labor Day in 1910, Theodore Roosevelt visited Fargo to lay the cornerstone of the college's new library. To a crowd of 30,000, Roosevelt spoke about his first visit to Fargo 27 years earlier, credited his experience homesteading in North Dakota for his eventual rise to the presidency.
Fargo-Moorhead boomed after World War II, the city grew despite a violent tornado in 1957 that destroyed a large part of the city's north end. Ted Fujita, famous for his Fujita tornado scale, analyzed pictures of the Fargo tornado, which helped him develop his ideas for "wall cloud" and "tail cloud." These were the first major scientific descriptive terms associated with tornadoes. The coming of two interstates revolutionized travel in the region and pushed growth of Fargo to the south and west of the city limits. In 1972, the West Acres Shopping Center, the largest shopping mall in North Dakota, was constructed near the intersection of the two Interstates; this mall would become the catalyst for retail growth in the area. Fargo has continued to expand but steadily. Since the mid-1980s, the bulk of new residential growth has occurred in the south and southwest areas of the city due to geographic constraints on the north side; the city's major retail districts on the southwest side have seen rapid development.
Downtown Fargo has been gentrified due in part to investments by the city and private developers in the Renaissance Zone. Most older neighborhoods, such as Horace Mann, have either avoided decline or been revitalized through housing rehabilitation promoted by planning agencies to strengthen the city's core. NDSU has grown into a major research university, forms a major component of the city's identity and economy. Most students live off-campus in the surrounding Roosevelt neighborhood; the university has established a presence downtown through both academic buildings and apartment housing. In addition, NDSU Bison Football has become a major sport following among many area residents. Since the late 1990s, the Fargo-Moorhead Metropolitan Statistical Area has had one of the lowest unemployment rates among MSAs in the United States. Coupled with Fargo's low crime rate and the decent supply of affordable housing in the community, this has prompted Money magazine to rank the city near the top of its annual list of America's most livable cities throughout the late 1990s and early 2000s.
Fargo is a core city of the Fargo-Moorhead metropolitan area, which includes Moorhead, West Fargo, Dilworth as well as outlying communities. Fargo sits on the western bank of the Red River of the North in a flat geographic region known as the Red River Valley; the Red River Valley resulted from the withdrawal of glacial Lake Agassiz, which drained away about 9,300 years ago. The lake sediments deposited from Lake Agassiz made the land around Fargo some of the richest in the world for agricultural uses. Fargo's largest challenge is the seasonal floods due to the rising water of the Red River, which flows from the United States into Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba, Canada; the Red flows northward, which means melting snow and river ice, as well as runoff from its tributaries create ice dams causing the river to overflow. Fargo's surrounding Red River Valley terrain is flat, leading to overland flooding. Since the devastating flood of 2009, both Fargo and Moorhead have taken great strides in flood protection, only a near record flood would cause concern today.
Its location makes the city vulnerable to flooding during seasons with above average precipitation. The Red River's "minor" flood stage in Fargo begins at a level of 18 feet, with "major" flooding categorized at 30 feet and above. Many major downtown roadways and access to Moorhead are closed off at this level. Record snowfalls late in 19
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity; the use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations, there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram. In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose; this pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation. These were not globally unique, so a one-letter company identifier was added. By 1912, the need to identify stations operated by multiple companies in multiple nations required an international standard. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities.
In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned call signs beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were assigned call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters. Ships equipped with Morse code radiotelegraphy, or life boat radio sets, Aviation ground stations, broadcast stations were given four letter call signs. Maritime coast stations on high frequency were assigned three letter call signs; as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels with radiotelephony only were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US still wishing to have a radio license are under FCC class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped."
Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47-foot motor lifeboats; the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Aviation mobile stations equipped with radiotelegraphy were assigned five letter call signs.. Land Stations in Aviation were assigned four letter call signs; these call signs were phased out in the 1960s when flight radio officers were no longer required on international flights. USSR kept FRO's for the Moscow-Havana run until around 2000. All signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation and whether or not the caller is in an aircraft or at a ground facility.
In most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircraft's registration number. In this case, the call sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, followed by a unique identifier made up of letters and numbers. For example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would omit saying November, instead use the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the specific model. At times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters; this is true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions or at towered airports after establishing two-way communication with the tower controller. For example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base.
In most countries, the aircraft call sign or "tail number"/"tail letters" are linked to the international radio call sign allocation table and follow a convention that aircraft radio stations receive call signs consisting of five letters. For example, all British civil aircraft have a five-letter call sign beginning with the letter G. Canadian aircraft have a call sign beginning with C–F or C–G, such as C–FABC. Wing In Ground-effect vehicles in Canada are eligible to receive C–Hxxx call signs, ultralight aircraft receive C-Ixxx call signs. In days gone by American aircraft used five letter call signs, such as KH–ABC, but they were replaced prior to World War II by the current American system of civilian aircraft call signs. Radio call signs used for communication in manned spaceflight is not formalized or regulated to the same degree as for aircraft; the three nations curren
The Augusta Chronicle
The Augusta Chronicle is the daily newspaper of Augusta, is one of the oldest newspapers in the United States still in publication. The paper is known for its coverage of the Masters Tournament, played in Augusta; the Chronicle had a daily circulation of 55,444 and a Sunday circulation of 71,057 according to a March 2012 report by the Audit Bureau of Circulations. The paper was founded as the weekly Augusta Gazette in 1785. In 1786, the paper was renamed The Georgia State Gazette. From 1789 to 1804, the paper was known as Gazette of the State. Patrick Walsh a U. S. Senator, joined the editorial staff in 1866 and became owner in 1873. In 1945, former bookkeeper William Morris, Jr. bought controlling interest in the paper. This was the beginning of Morris Communications, headquartered in Augusta with the Chronicle as flagship. In addition to a daily online edition, the entire archives back to its founding have been made searchable on the Internet. On 9 August 2017, it was announced that The Augusta Chronicle, along with Morris Communications' entire newspaper division and various periodicals, would be sold to GateHouse Media for $120 million in a deal expected to close on October 2.
Stephen Wade and Billy Morris will retain their roles as publisher respectively. The Morris family will keep ownership of The Augusta Chronicle building and property in downtown Augusta; the sale ended 232 years of local ownership, the last 72 of, under the Morris family. Media in Augusta, Georgia List of newspapers in Georgia Morris subsidiary profile of The Augusta Chronicle Earl L. Bell and Kenneth C. Crabbe, The Augusta Chronicle: Indomitable Voice of Dixie, 1785-1960; the Augusta Chronicle official site The Augusta Chronicle official mobile site "Augusta Chronicle", New Georgia Encyclopedia, Georgia Humanities Council https://www.facebook.com/TheAugustaChronicle https://twitter.com/AUG_Chronicle https://www.instagram.com/aug_chronicle/ http://www.auditbureau.org/
WROC-TV, virtual channel 8, is a CBS-affiliated television station licensed to Rochester, New York, United States. Owned by the Nexstar Media Group, WROC-TV has studios on Humboldt Street in downtown Rochester, its transmitter is located on Pinnacle Hill in Brighton, New York. WROC-TV is Rochester's oldest television station, signing on June 11, 1949, as WHAM-TV, an NBC affiliate on channel 6, it was owned by Stromberg-Carlson, a telephone equipment manufacturer, along with WHAM radio. The station was affiliated with the now-defunct DuMont Television Network. WHAM-TV moved to channel 5 on July 24, 1954, as part of a revision of upstate New York's VHF allotments resulting from the Federal Communications Commission's Sixth Report and Order of 1952. However, WHAM-TV on channel 5 dealt with interference issues from CBLT, a CBC Television station from Toronto, after that station moved from its original channel 9 allocation to channel 6 in 1956. CBLT was replaced on channel 9 by CFTO-TV in 1960, that channel relocation would play an indirect role in the station's second frequency shift, eight years later.
Stromberg-Carlson merged with General Dynamics in 1955. General Dynamics was not interested in owning broadcast outlets, put the WHAM-TV outlets on the market. In 1956, WHAM-TV was sold to Transcontinent Broadcasting, which owned WGR radio and WGR-TV in Buffalo; the new owners changed the call letters to the current WROC-TV. In 1961, Transcontinent sold the station to Veterans Broadcasting Company, which subsequently sold its half of what is today WHEC-TV to the Gannett Company based in Rochester. Under Veterans' ownership, WROC-TV moved to channel 8 on September 8, 1962, as part of another channel allocation change, this one being a switch involving Rochester and Syracuse; the FCC moved WROC-TV's former channel 5 east to Syracuse, it was taken by Meredith Corporation-owned WHEN-TV, on channel 8. The move allowed a new station on channel 9 to enter the Syracuse market. Veterans Broadcasting merged with Rust Craft Broadcasting in 1964. Rust Craft was sold to Ziff Davis in 1979. Ziff Davis sold WROC-TV and sister stations in Saginaw, Augusta and Steubenville, Ohio to Television Station Partners LP in 1983.
Television Station Partners sold WROC-TV, along with the WEYI-TV and WTOV-TV, to Smith Broadcasting in 1996. Nexstar purchased WROC-TV in 1999. Under the stewardship of Television Station Partners, WROC-TV made another switch: On July 1, 1989, after 40 years with NBC, channel 8 swapped network affiliations with WHEC-TV and became a CBS station; this move was the result of the station's poor performance and constant preemptions of NBC network programming. For many years, WROC-TV was one of three Rochester area stations offered on cable in the Ottawa–Gatineau and Eastern Ontario regions; the Rochester area stations were replaced with Detroit stations when the microwave relay system that provided these signals was discontinued. Until January 2009, WROC-TV was available in many Central Ontario communities such as Belleville and Lindsay. On July 9, 2012, WROC-TV replaced Louisville's WLKY on Time Warner Cable systems in that station's region, when WLKY's owners, Hearst Television, pulled its stations off Time Warner Cable's systems in a retransmission dispute.
However, Nexstar complained that Time Warner Cable has used their signals outside their markets without permission, while Time Warner Cable was within its rights to use their signals as replacements until a deal with Hearst is reached. WROC-TV, for its part, made the best of its predicament, naming the administrator of a Facebook group of tongue-in-cheek Louisvillean WROC-TV fans its fan of the week and making a handful of other shout-outs to its emerging Louisville fanbase; the substitution of WROC-TV in place of WLKY lasted until July 19, 2012, when a deal was reached between Hearst and Time Warner. The station's digital signal is multiplexed: On June 15, 2016, Nexstar announced that it has entered into an affiliation agreement with Katz Broadcasting for the Escape, Laff and Bounce TV networks, bringing one or more of the four networks to 81 stations owned and/or operated by Nexstar, including WROC-TV; as a result, WROC-TV added two additional subchannels carrying Escape and Laff on August 20, 2016.
WROC-TV discontinued regular programming on its analog signal, over VHF channel 8, at 11:35 p.m. on June 12, 2009, the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate. The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 45. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former VHF analog channel 8. Syndicated programming on WROC-TV includes: Wheel of Fortune, Jeopardy!, Inside Edition, The Dr. Oz Show. All are distributed by CBS Television Distribution. In August 1957, WROC-TV began airing the area's first 11 o'clock broadcast called Eleventh Hour News. Regular sports segments were added to the show on April 7, 1958. WROC-TV enjoyed ratings dominance with popular anchorman Tom weatherman Bob Mills. Anne Keefe, another well-known talent who split time between WROC radio and TV, contributed to the station's s
KVLY-TV is an NBC-affiliated television station licensed to Fargo, North Dakota, United States, serving eastern North Dakota and northwestern Minnesota. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 44 from a transmitter tower near Blanchard; the station can be seen on cable channel 11 in most areas of the market. There is a high definition signal offered on Midco digital channel 611 and Cable One digital channel 1011. Owned by Gray Television, KVLY is a sister station to Horace-licensed low-powered CBS affiliate KXJB-LD, channel 30, the two outlets share studios on 21st Avenue South in Fargo. In addition to its main studio in Fargo, KVLY operates a news bureau and sales office in the US Bank building in downtown Grand Forks. KVLY is considered a part of the NBC North Dakota state network of NBC affiliates, although it airs separate newscasts and syndicated programming from flagship and sister station KFYR-TV in Bismarck; the station is most notable for its broadcast tower, the fourth-tallest above-ground structure in the world at 2,063 feet.
The KVLY tower was at one time the tallest structure in the world and it is the tallest structure in the Western Hemisphere. The KRDK-TV tower is located just six miles from the KVLY tower; the station signed on the air on October 11, 1959, as an ABC affiliate. It was owned by North Dakota Broadcasting. In 1963, the call letters were changed to KEND-TV. On August 13, 1963, channel 11 moved to its current tower near Blanchard. In 1964, the call letters were changed to as KTHI-TV. Fuqua sold the station to Morgan Murphy Media in 1968. On August 22, 1983, KTHI became an NBC affiliate, swapping affiliations with longtime NBC outlet WDAY-TV; the current call sign, adopted on May 2, 1995, represents the station's slogan, "The Valley's Choice for Local News," as it serves the communities along the Red River of the North and its tributaries. From 1968 until the mid-1980s, channel 11 was carried by cable systems across Manitoba and northwestern Ontario, including the Winnipeg area; when KTHI switched affiliation to NBC, it was replaced by ABC affiliate WDAZ-TV in Grand Forks, until Canadian cable companies were granted permission to replace most of the North Dakota stations with network affiliates from Detroit.
In September 2005, ten years after changing its call sign from KTHI, KVLY became the first major network affiliate in Fargo to broadcast in high-definition. In May 2006, KVLY made its logo bolder to reflect the change to HDTV. KVLY is the second-most-watched television station in the Red River Valley, behind WDAY/WDAZ, which are owned by Forum Communications Company. Meyer Broadcasting of Bismarck, North Dakota, owner of KFYR-TV in Bismarck and its network of satellites in western North Dakota, bought the station in 1995, it sold its television stations to Sunrise Television in 1997. In 2002, Sunrise sold its North Dakota stations to the Wicks Group of New York City. Hoak Media bought all of Wicks' television stations, including KVLY, in January 2007. In 2003, KVLY began operating CBS affiliate KXJB-TV under a local marketing agreement, the two stations began sharing facilities. In April 2007, KVLY-TV and KXJB-TV began simulcasting weekend newscasts, in November 2007, the stations began simulcasting news during weekdays rebranded as Valley News Live.
In January 2010, KVLY added classic movie network This TV to subchannel 11.2. It was replaced by classic television network MeTV on January 1, 2013. On November 20, 2013, Hoak announced the sale of most of its stations, including KVLY-TV, to Gray Television. Sister station KXJB-TV was to be sold by Parker Broadcasting to Excalibur Broadcasting and would have continued to be operated by KVLY under an LMA; the sale was completed on June 13, but upon the closing of the sale, in the wake of the new FCC rules restricting LMAs, Excalibur abandoned its plans to acquire the station. Gray would continue to provide certain services to KXJB in the interim, moved its CBS programming to a multicast subchannel of KVLY. If a buyer was not found for KXJB, the station would cease broadcasting in the interim. KXJB would be spun off to minority interests, which under this arrangement would allow the station to continue operating on the conditions that it operated independently and not make any partnerships or sharing arrangements with other broadcasters.
On November 12, 2014, CBS affiliate KXJB-TV's programming began being simulcast on KVLY's second digital subchannel, displacing MeTV to the third subchannel, as KXJB was sold to Major Market Broadcasting. KXJB signed off at midnight on December 2014, as its programming moved to KVLY's subchannel. KVLY-DT2 began simulcasting in full 1080i HD on KXJB-LD 30.1 in September 2016, along with translators K28MA-D 28.1 in Argusville and K30LR-D 30.1 in Grand Forks. CBS programming remains on KVLY-DT2 in downconverted 720p to provide full-market access to CBS in HD. KXJB-TV would return to the air as KRDK-TV in January 2015, carrying various networks on its subchannels; the station's digital signal is multiplexed: In January 2010, KVLY-TV began broadcasting the This TV network on subchannel 11.2. On January 1, 2013, This TV programming was replaced on digital channel 11.2 with its former sister network MeTV. In addition to the main MeTV programming, KVLY used the subchannel for live events, to repeat
Augusta Augusta–Richmond County, is a consolidated city-county on the central eastern border of the U. S. state of Georgia. The city lies across the Savannah River from South Carolina at the head of its navigable portion. Georgia's second-largest city after Atlanta, Augusta is located in the Piedmont section of the state. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Augusta–Richmond County had a 2017 estimated population of 197,166, not counting the unconsolidated cities of Blythe and Hephzibah, it is the 122nd largest city in the United States. The process of consolidation between the City of Augusta and Richmond County began with a 1995 referendum in the two jurisdictions; the merger was completed on July 1, 1996. Augusta is the principal city of the Augusta metropolitan area, situated in both Georgia and South Carolina on both sides of the Savannah River. In 2017 it had an estimated population of 600,151, making it the second-largest metro area in the state, it is the 93rd largest metropolitan area in the United States.
Augusta was established in 1736 and is named for Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, the bride of Frederick, Prince of Wales and the mother of the British monarch George III. During the American Civil War, Augusta housed the principal Confederate powder works. Augusta's warm climate made it a major resort town of the Eastern United States in the early and mid-20th century. Internationally, Augusta is best known for hosting The Masters golf tournament each spring; the Masters brings over 200,000 visitors from across the world to the Augusta National Golf Club. Membership at Augusta National is considered to be the most exclusive in the sport of golf across the world. Augusta lies two hours east of downtown Atlanta by car via I-20; the city is home to Fort Gordon, a major U. S. Army base. In 2016, it was announced that the new National Cyber Security Headquarters would be based in Augusta, bringing as many as 10,000 cyber security specialists to the Fort Gordon area; the area along the river was long inhabited by varying cultures of indigenous peoples, who relied on the river for fish and transportation.
The site of Augusta was used by Native Americans as a place to cross the Savannah River, because of its location on the fall line. In 1735, two years after James Oglethorpe founded Savannah, he sent a detachment of troops to explore the upper Savannah River, he gave them an order to build a fort at the head of the navigable part of the river. The expedition was led by Noble Jones, who created a settlement as a first line of defense for coastal areas against potential Spanish or French invasion from the interior. Oglethorpe named the town in honor of Princess Augusta, the mother of King George III and the wife of Frederick, Prince of Wales. Oglethorpe visited Augusta in September 1739 on his return to Savannah from a perilous visit to Coweta Town, near present-day Phenix City, Alabama. There, he had met with a convention of 7,000 Native American warriors and concluded a peace treaty with them in their territories in northern and western Georgia. Augusta was the second state capital of Georgia from 1785 until 1795.
Augusta developed as a market town as the Black Belt in the Piedmont was developed for cotton cultivation. Invention of the cotton gin made processing of short-staple cotton profitable, this type of cotton was well-suited to the upland areas. Cotton plantations were worked by slave labor, with hundreds of thousands of slaves shipped from the Upper South to the Deep South in the domestic slave trade. Many of the slaves were brought from the Lowcountry, where their Gullah culture had developed on the large Sea Island cotton and rice plantations; the city experienced the Augusta Fire of 1916, which damaged 25 blocks of the town and many buildings of historical significance. As a major city in the area, Augusta was a center of activities after. In the mid-20th century, it was a site of civil rights demonstrations. In 1970 Charles Oatman, a mentally disabled teenager, was killed by his cellmates in an Augusta jail. A protest against his death broke out in a riot involving 500 people, after six black men were killed by police, each found to have been shot in the back.
The noted singer and entertainer James Brown was called in to help quell lingering tensions, which he succeeded in doing. Augusta is located on the Georgia/South Carolina border, about 150 miles east of Atlanta and 70 miles west of Columbia; the city is located at 33°28′12″N 81°58′30″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Augusta–Richmond County balance has a total area of 306.5 square miles, of which 302.1 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water. Augusta is located about halfway up the Savannah River on the fall line, which creates a number of small falls on the river; the city marks the end of a navigable waterway for the river and the entry to the Georgia Piedmont area. The Clarks Hill Dam is built on the fall line near Augusta. Farther downstream, near the border of Columbia County, is the Stevens Creek Dam, which generates hydroelectric power. Farther downstream is the Augusta Diversion Dam, which marks the beginning of the Augusta Canal and channels Savannah River waters into the canal.
As with the rest of the state, Augusta has a humid subtropical climate, with short, mild winters hot, humid summers, a wide diurnal temperature variation throughout much of the year, despite its low elevation and moisture. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 45.4 °F in January to 81.6 °F in July.
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i