Tyrone is a borough in Blair County, Pennsylvania,15 miles northeast of Altoona, on the Little Juniata River. Tyrone was of commercial importance in the twentieth century. It was an outlet for the Clearfield coal fields, and it was noted for the manufacture of paper products, there were planing mills, and chemical and candy factories. In 1900,5,847 people lived here, in 1910,7,176, the population was 5,477 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Altoona, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area and it was named for County Tyrone in Ireland. Located along the lines of the Norfolk Southern and Nittany and Bald Eagle railroads, and US-220, PA-453. In those days four railroads and three main highways converged there, the Tyrone Borough Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1993. On June 2,1998, an F1 tornado moved southeast along Pennsylvania Route 453 northwest of Tyrone, significant tree damage was noted in several locations along a 4-mile path, beginning about 5 miles northwest of Tyrone.
No significant damage was reported in Tyrone, although eyewitnesses reported seeing clouds rotating as they crossed the city and this tornado was part of the 1998 Eastern Tornado Outbreak. Tyrone is located at 40°40′29″N 78°14′29″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of it land. Tyrone is situated in the Bald Eagle Valley at the base of Bald Eagle Mountain along Bald Eagle Creek at the Little Juniata River water gap. As of the census of 2010, there were 5,477 people,2,275 households, the population density was 2,711.4 people per square mile. There were 2,472 housing units at a density of 1,223.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 97. 3% White,0. 7% Black or African American,0. 3% Native American,0. 3% Asian,0. 2% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 0% of the population. 33. 0% of all households were made up of individuals, the average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the borough, the population was out, with 22. 6% under the age of 18,8. 2% from 18 to 24,25. 6% from 25 to 44,25. 3% from 45 to 64. The median age was 40 years, for every 100 females, there were 88.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males, the median income for a household in the borough was $34,850, and the median income for a family was $43,851
State College, Pennsylvania
State College is a home rule municipality in Centre County in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. It is the largest designated borough in Pennsylvania, in the 2010 census, the borough population was 42,034 with approximately 105,000 living in the borough plus the surrounding townships often referred to locally as the Centre Region. Many of these Centre Region communities carry a State College, State College is a college town, dominated economically and demographically by the presence of the University Park campus of the Pennsylvania State University. Though Happy Valley is another often-used term to refer to the State College area, the term includes the borough and the townships of College, Patton. In 2013, State College was ranked as the third-safest metropolitan area in the United States by the CQ Press, in 2016, State College was ranked the 8th best college town in the nation by Best College Reviews. State College evolved from a village to a town in order to serve the needs of the Pennsylvania State College, State College was incorporated as a borough on August 29,1896, and has grown with the college, which was renamed The Pennsylvania State University in 1953.
The university has a post office address of University Park, when Penn State changed its name from College to University in 1953, its president, Milton S. Eisenhower, sought to persuade the town to change its name as well. A referendum failed to yield a majority for any of the choices for a new name, after this, Penn State requested a new name for its on-campus post office in the HUB-Robeson Center from the U. S. The post office, which has moved across an alley to the McAllister Building, is the official home of ZIP code 16802. State College is situated at an elevation of approximately 1,200 feet above sea level, according to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 4.5 square miles, all of it land. It is surrounded by large tracts of farmland, and an expanse of mountains, State College has a humid continental climate. Temperatures average 27.2 °F in January and 72.1 °F in July, annual precipitation averages 39.8 inches, with 45.9 inches of annual snowfall on average.
With a period of dating back to 1893, the lowest temperature recorded was −20 °F on February 10,1899. According to the 2010 census, there are 42,034 people,12,610 households, the population density was 9,258.6 people per square mile. There were 13,007 housing units at a density of 2,865.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 83. 2% White,3. 8% Black or African American,0. 2% Native American,9. 8% Asian,1. 0% Other,3. 9% of the population were of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. 22,681 or 54. 0% of borough residents are males and 19,353 or 46. 0% are females,33. 6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5. 1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the family size was 2.71
WAPY is a classic hits station in State College, Pennsylvania operating at 103.1 MHz on the FM band with a power of 370 watts. The then-WRSC-FM moved its programming from 1390 AM to 103.1 FM on Monday. The news/talk format moved back to 1390 AM on May 20,2015 as 103.1 flipped to classic hits as Happy 103. WAPY aired a show, The WRSC Morning Show, starring Centre Region-area radio veteran Kevin Nelson. WAPY aired NASCAR programming as well during the week from MRN Radio, andy Flick, currently a coordinating producer at CNN Radio, worked at WAPY during and after his time at Penn State University. John Lorinc, an anchor/editor for CNN Radio worked at sister station WQWK at the same time, other WAPY alums include Pat Kain and Jennifer Goodwin. Official Website Query the FCCs FM station database for WAPY Radio-Locator information on WAPY Query Nielsen Audios FM station database for WAPY
NOAA Weather Radio
NOAA Weather Radio broadcasts National Weather Service warnings, forecasts, weather observations and other hazard information 24 hours a day. It broadcasts alerts of non-weather emergencies such as security, environmental. Known as The Voice of NOAAs National Weather Service, NOAA Weather Radio is provided as a service by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The radio service continuously transmits weather and marine forecasts and other related information, in addition, NWR works in cooperation with the FCCs Emergency Alert System, providing comprehensive severe weather alerts and civil emergency information. For example, a receiver that only tunes in standard FM or AM broadcast stations will not suffice, the seven FM channels, reserved by the U. S. In the wake of the Palm Sunday Tornado Outbreak of 1965, starting in 1966, the Environmental Science Services Administration started a nationwide program known as ESSA VHF Weather Radio Network. In the early 1970s, this would be changed to NOAA Weather Radio, the original frequency was 162.550 MHz, with 163.275 MHz recommended as a backup.
However, this frequency was dropped due to issues with other federal agencies, and 162.400 MHz was added in 1970. Honolulu NWR station KBA99 transmitted on 169.075 MHz for twelve years until it was moved to 162.550 in 1975, many basic weather band receivers manufactured and sold from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s were configured to only receive the three main weather channels. However, for much of period, four additional intermediate channels existed to accommodate anticipated expansion. Over the years, a proliferation of stations meant to ensure near-complete geographical coverage, in addition, more mainstream consumer electronics, such as clock radios, portable multi-band receivers and two-way radios, now feature the ability to receive NWR channels. Many of the devices incorporate alerting capabilities. There are two different channel numbering systems used by various radio manufacturers. The first is the sequence that the radio frequencies were allocated to the service, 1=162.550, 2=162.400, 3=162.475, 4=162.425, 5=162.450, 6=162.500.
The second is in simple increasing radio frequency sequence, 1=162.400, 2=162.425, 3=162.450, 4=162.475, 5=162.500, 6=162.525, 7=162.550. The NWS suggests that users determine which frequency is intended for their location so that they are assured of receiving correct. Government time, and are operated by Department of Commerces National Institute of Standards, according to NOAA, reliable signal reception typically extends in about a 40-mile radius from a full-power transmitter, assuming level terrain. However, signal blockages can occur, especially in mountainous areas, as of 2016, there are over a thousand NWR transmitters across the United States, covering 95% of the population
WRXV in State College, Pennsylvania is a Christian contemporary music formatted radio station owned by Invisible Allies Ministries. It serves the State College and Altoona markets and it is branded as Central PAs own Rev FM. WRXV is the station of the Pennsylvania Christian contemporary network RevFM. Official website Query the FCCs FM station database for WRXV Radio-Locator information on WRXV Query Nielsen Audios FM station database for WRXV
Altoona is a city in south central Pennsylvania Blair County, United States. It is the city of the Altoona Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 46,320 at the time of the 2010 Census and this includes the adjacent boroughs of Hollidaysburg and Duncansville, adjacent townships of Logan, Blair, Frankstown and Tyrone, as well as nearby boroughs of Bellwood and Newry. Having grown around the industry, the city is currently working to recover from industrial decline. The city is home to the Altoona Curve baseball team of the Double A Eastern League and it houses the 75-plus-year-old Altoona Symphony Orchestra, under the direction of Teresa Cheung. As a major town, Altoona was founded by the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1849 as the site for a shop. Altoona was incorporated as a borough on February 6,1854, and as a city under legislation approved on April 3,1867, one explanation of the citys name is that the word Altoona is a derivative of the Latin word altus, meaning high. This explanation is contradicted by Pennsylvania Place Names, although Altoona, in Blair Country, is popularly known as the Mountain City, its name has no direct or indirect etymological relation to the Latin adjective altus, signifying elevated, lofty.
Two very different explanations of the origin of name are current. He was the oldest continuous resident of the city and he was much respected, and had long been one of the private pensioners of Andrew Carnegie. The etymological derivation of the name Altona is not known with certainty, the town grew rapidly in the late 19th century, its population approximately 2,000 in 1854,10,000 in 1870, and 20,000 in 1880. The demand for locomotives during the Civil War stimulated much of this growth, Altoona was the site of the first Interstate Commission meeting to create and design the Gettysburg National Cemetery following the devastating Battle of Gettysburg. The centrality and convenience of the rail transportation brought these two important gatherings to the city during the war. Horseshoe Curve, a section of track built by the PRR, has become a tourist attraction. The curve was used to trains to a sufficient elevation to cross the Allegheny Ridge to the west. The PRR built many of its own locomotives at the Works, some 7,873 in all, PRR had significant influence on the city, creating the citys fire departments and relocating the hospital to a site nearer to the shops gates.
Today, the department employs 65 personnel and is the largest career department between Harrisburg and Pittsburgh. PRR sponsored a city band and constructed Cricket Field, in 1853, the PRR built the Mechanics Library, the first industrial library in the nation which exists today as the Altoona Area Public Library
WKPS is a college radio station owned by Penn State University. The station runs on a full-time, multi-format schedule featuring a variety of programming. The LION90. 7fm transmits to an audience of over 125,000 from its studio in the Hetzel Union Building -Robeson Center. The station has a live webcast, which is capable of streaming live to hundreds of listeners and it retains its programmatic independence by remaining unaffiliated with any academic college. WPSC, Penn States original student station, emerged from the Senior Gift of the Class of 1912, initially an experimental shortwave installation, it represented “the first licensed club in the nation and possessed one of the first experimental licenses granted by the government. By 1921 WPSC was broadcasting on the AM dial at 500 watts and was one of the earliest college radio stations in the nation, due to a combination of the Great Depression and increasing costs of regulatory compliance, the station ceased operations in 1932. Today, the WPSC call letters are assigned to William Paterson University, in an effort to reestablish the tradition of student radio at Penn State, WDFM went on the air on December 6,1953 as a result of the Senior Gift of the Class of 1951.
Headquarters in 304 Sparks on the University Park campus, WDFM served its student audience for more than three decades and it changed its call letters to WPSU-FM in 1985. From the 1980s onward, student programming was cut back. Later in the decade, more NPR programming was added to the schedule, by 1992, WPSU had become a full-fledged NPR affiliate with very few student ties and very little student programming. Despite the fact that the new radio stations mission and goals were dissimlar to those of early WDFM, founded in the 1960s, WHR was the first of three stations at Penn State specific to University Park residence halls. WHR, which stood for West Halls Radio, rebroadcast the WDFM signal and produced, on the AM dial, there existed WEHR, a radio station in Penn States East Residence Halls. At one time, three of Penn States five residence areas possessed their own stations, WEHR was a typical freeform radio station, its playlist depended on the deejay. Founded in 1972, WEHR originally broadcast from 10 Geary Hall, the last broadcast schedule was posted on the stations website in 2005.
Since that time, with limited resources and student interest, East Halls radio facility was said to house potentially the largest student archive of vinyl on-campus. From 1995 until 2005, Penn State had two radio stations. Founded in the year as WEHR, South Halls Radio was similarly inspired by WHR. Like its sister stations serving residence halls, it existed alongside WDFM, WHR, a small group, led by Jeff Ecker, asked the university to provide funding to begin a brand-new student-run radio station in the tradition of WDFM prior to its professionalization
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, it is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio, FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies, the term FM band describes the frequency band in a given country which is dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. Usually 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions, In the former Soviet republics, and some former Eastern Bloc countries, assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz. This band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is slowly being phased out in many countries, in those countries the 87. 5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used, the frequency of an FM broadcast station is usually an exact multiple of 100 kHz.
In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines, in some parts of Europe and Africa, only even multiples are used. In the UK odd or even are used, in Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in countries, including 1,10,30,74,500. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system and this can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise. These processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, the amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used, in the Americas and South Korea,75 µs is used. This applies to both mono and stereo transmissions, for stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing.
They cannot be pre-emphasized as much because it would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier, systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis, e. g. dbx in the BTSC TV sound system, or none at all. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing and these original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated
It was selected by the U. S. It is officially known as NRSC-5, with the latest version being NRSC-5-C, other digital radio systems include FMeXtra, Digital Audio Broadcasting, Digital Radio Mondiale, and Compatible AM-Digital. Although HD Radio broadcastings content is currently subscription-free, listeners must purchase new receivers in order to receive the portion of the signal. As of May 2009, there were stations in the world on the air with HD Radio technology than any other digital radio technology. More than 1,700 stations covering approximately 84% of the United States are broadcasting with this technology, according to iBiquitys website, the HD is simply a brand name and has no meaning. There is no connection with television, although like digital television the HD Radio specification provides enhanced capabilities over the analog format. Thus, there is no deadline by which consumers must buy an HD Radio receiver, in addition, there are many more analog AM/FM radio receivers than there were analog televisions, and many of these are car stereos or portable units that cannot be upgraded.
Digital information is transmitted using OFDM with a compression algorithm called HDC. The cost of converting a radio station can run between $100,000 and $200,000, if the primary digital signal is lost the HD Radio receiver will revert to the analog signal, thereby providing seamless operation between the newer and older transmission methods. The extra HD-2 and HD-3 streams are not simulcast on analog, alternatively the HD Radio signal can revert to a more-robust 20 kilobit per second stream, though the sound is reduced to AM-like quality. Datacasting is possible, with metadata providing song titles or artist information, by using spectral band replication the HDC+SBR codec is able to simulate the recreation of sounds up to 15,000 Hz, thus achieving moderate quality on the bandwidth-tight AM band. The HD Radio AM hybrid mode offers two options which can carry approximately 40 or 60 kbit/s of data, but most AM digital stations default to the more-robust 40 kbit/s mode which features redundancy.
HD Radio provides a digital mode, which lacks an analog signal for fallback. The pure digital mode transmissions will stay within the AM stations channel instead of spilling into the next to the station transmitting HD radio as the hybrid stations do. The AM version of HD Radio technology uses the 20 kHz channel, when operating in pure digital mode, the AM HD Radio signal fits inside a standard 20 kHz channel or an extended 30 kHz channel, at the discretion of the station manager. As AM radio stations are spaced at 9 kHz or 10 kHz intervals, some nighttime listeners have expressed concern this design harms reception of adjacent channels with one formal complaint filed regarding the matter, WYSL owner Bob Savage against WBZ in Boston. The HD Radio provides several digital modes with up to 300 kbit/s bitrate. Like AM, pure digital FM provides a fallback condition where it reverts to a more robust 25 kbit/s signal, FM stations have the option to subdivide their datastream into sub-channels of varying audio quality
The hertz is the unit of frequency in the International System of Units and is defined as one cycle per second. It is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, the first person to provide proof of the existence of electromagnetic waves. Hertz are commonly expressed in SI multiples kilohertz, gigahertz, kilo means thousand, mega meaning million, giga meaning billion and tera for trillion. Some of the units most common uses are in the description of waves and musical tones, particularly those used in radio-. It is used to describe the speeds at which computers, the hertz is equivalent to cycles per second, i. e. 1/second or s −1. In English, hertz is used as the plural form, as an SI unit, Hz can be prefixed, commonly used multiples are kHz, MHz, GHz and THz. One hertz simply means one cycle per second,100 Hz means one hundred cycles per second, and so on. The unit may be applied to any periodic event—for example, a clock might be said to tick at 1 Hz, the rate of aperiodic or stochastic events occur is expressed in reciprocal second or inverse second in general or, the specific case of radioactive decay, becquerels.
Whereas 1 Hz is 1 cycle per second,1 Bq is 1 aperiodic radionuclide event per second, the conversion between a frequency f measured in hertz and an angular velocity ω measured in radians per second is ω =2 π f and f = ω2 π. This SI unit is named after Heinrich Hertz, as with every International System of Units unit named for a person, the first letter of its symbol is upper case. Note that degree Celsius conforms to this rule because the d is lowercase. — Based on The International System of Units, the hertz is named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz, who made important scientific contributions to the study of electromagnetism. The name was established by the International Electrotechnical Commission in 1930, the term cycles per second was largely replaced by hertz by the 1970s. One hobby magazine, Electronics Illustrated, declared their intention to stick with the traditional kc. Mc. etc. units, sound is a traveling longitudinal wave which is an oscillation of pressure. Humans perceive frequency of waves as pitch.
Each musical note corresponds to a frequency which can be measured in hertz. An infants ear is able to perceive frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz, the range of ultrasound and other physical vibrations such as molecular and atomic vibrations extends from a few femtoHz into the terahertz range and beyond. Electromagnetic radiation is described by its frequency—the number of oscillations of the perpendicular electric and magnetic fields per second—expressed in hertz. Radio frequency radiation is measured in kilohertz, megahertz, or gigahertz
For the station that was once WFGE, please see WFGS in Kentucky. WFGE is a Country formatted broadcast radio station licensed to State College, Pennsylvania, WFGE is owned and operated by Forever Broadcasting. WFGE boasts one of the strongest signals in Central Pennsylvania, founded by Allegheny Mountain Network President Cary H. Simpson, WGMR first signed on the air on August 15,1961 as the FM sister station to WTRN Tyrone. Though licensed to Tyrone, WGMR has primarily served State College, through the years, WGMR has changed formats a couple times, from country to alternative and Top 40 at the turn of the 21st century. The station switched formats and became a Top 40 radio station using the handle The All New Revolution 101, the station broadcast at 101.3 FM in Altoona, but no longer does due to the Altoona area already having a Froggy station, Froggy 98. This station, was owned by the Allegheny Mountain Network. Prior to the sale of the station the station invited back some of the old personalities for one last show, on the last day before the sale was final the station turned back the clock for a couple of hours and played Alternative music under the Revolution branding.
Starting July 7,2008, WGMR began broadcasting a country station owned by Forever Broadcasting branded Froggy 101, shortly after, WGMR switched its call sign to WFGE. WFGE is now a radio station that serves the entire State College area. The WFGE call sign was used by a station in Murray. The old WFGE is now called WFGS, although the branding did not change, as of October 25,2010, The station is now known as Big Froggy 101 to avoid confusion with WGGY101.3 FM from Scranton. Big Froggy 101 Online Query the FCCs FM station database for WFGE Radio-Locator information on WFGE Query Nielsen Audios FM station database for WFGE