Ursula Vernon is an American freelance writer and illustrator. She is best known for her Hugo Award-winning graphic novel Digger and for the children's books series Hamster Princess and Dragonbreath. Vernon is the creator of The Biting Pear of Salamanca, a digital work of art which became an internet meme in the form of the LOL WUT pear. Under the name T. Kingfisher, she is the author of several books for older audiences. Ursula Vernon grew up in Oregon and Arizona and studied anthropology at Macalester College in Saint Paul, Minnesota where she first took art classes. In recent years she has become known for writing and illustrating a number of children's books, her first being published in 2008. Prior to this she was more well known for her webcomics and as a freelance artist for her works containing anthropomorphic animals. Vernon attends conventions to exhibit and sell her work and has been a guest of honor at Midwest FurFest 2004 and 2009, the Artist Guest of Honor at Further Confusion 2010.
Vernon was the Author Guest of Honor for Mythcon 45 and a Guest of Honor at Eurofurence 20, both in August 2014. In 2017, she was the Author Guest of Honor at Arisia'17. Ursula Vernon is the author and illustrator of the Dragonbreath and Hamster Princess children's book series, published by Dial Books: Dragonbreath Dragonbreath: Attack of the Ninja Frogs Dragonbreath: Curse of the Were-Weiner Dragonbreath: Lair of the Bat Monster Dragonbreath: No Such Thing as Ghosts Dragonbreath: Revenge of the Horned Bunnies Dragonbreath: When Fairies Go Bad Dragonbreath: Nightmare of the Iguana Dragonbreath: The Case of the Toxic Mutants Dragonbreath: Knight-napped! Dragonbreath: The Frozen Menace Hamster Princess: Harriet the Invincible Hamster Princess: Of Mice and Magic Hamster Princess: Ratpunzel Hamster Princess: Giant Trouble Hamster Princess: Whiskerella Hamster Princess: Little Red Rodent Hood Nurk: The Strange Surprising Adventures Of A Brave Shrew was published by Harcourt in 2008 and released as an audiobook in 2009.
It was Vernon's first published children's book. Castle Hangnail Dial Books Black Dogs Part 1: The House of Diamond Sofawolf Press Black Dogs Part 2: The Mountain of Iron Sofawolf Press Nine Goblins as T. Kingfisher Red Wombat Tea Company The Seventh Bride as T. Kingfisher 47North Bryony & Roses as T. Kingfisher Red Wombat Tea Company The Raven & The Reindeer as T. Kingfisher Red Wombat Tea Company Summer in Orcus as T. Kingfisher Red Wombat Tea Company The Halcyon Fairy Book as T. Kingfisher NESFA Press Clockwork Boys as T. Kingfisher Red Wombat Tea Company The Wonder Engine: Clocktaur War Book 2 as T. Kingfisher Red Wombat Tea Company Swordheart as T. Kingfisher ISBN 978-1-61450-463-4 The Twisted Ones as T. Kingfisher, from Simon & Schuster. Vernon is the author of the Eisner Hugo Award-winning webcomic Digger. A fantasy story featuring an anthropomorphic wombat, it is available in six paperback books published between 2005 and 2011: Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3, Vol. 4, Vol. 5, Vol. 6 and as Digger: The Complete Omnibus Edition published in 2013.
She is the writer and illustrator of the webcomic Irrational Fears and the short stories Little Creature and Little Creature and the Redcap, all available online at Webcomics Nation. Before becoming a published children's book author Vernon was a freelance artist and illustrator and she still produces new works of art, her work includes the creation of digital art as well as the use of more traditional mediums such as watercolour and acrylics, with much of her more recent work being mixed media. Most of her art work is available as prints and Vernon has taken commercial commissions such as book covers and game art; the game Black Sheep designed by Reiner Knizia and published by Fantasy Flight Games uses art by Vernon on its playing cards. Her art work titled The Biting Pear of Salamanca became an internet meme in the form of the LOL WUT pear and has been made into a resin figurine due to its popularity, she has designed labels for a series of tea and soap products. Vernon's cover for Best in Show won the 2003 Ursa Major Award for Best Anthropomorphic Published Illustration.
She was nominated for the 2006 Eisner Awards in the category Talent Deserving of Wider Recognition for her work on Digger. Digger has won some Web Cartoonists' Choice Awards, has been nominated for others, in the Outstanding Black and White Art and Outstanding Anthropomorphic Comic categories. Digger won the Hugo Award for Best Graphic Story in 2012 and the Mythopoeic Fantasy Award for Adult Literature in 2013, she won the Nebula Award for Best Short Story and the WSFA Small Press Award for "Jackalope Wives" in 2015. Her story "
Horror is a genre of speculative fiction, intended to frighten, disgust, or startle its readers by inducing feelings of horror and terror. Literary historian J. A. Cuddon defined the horror story as "a piece of fiction in prose of variable length... which shocks, or frightens the reader, or induces a feeling of repulsion or loathing". It creates an frightening atmosphere. Horror is supernatural, though it can be non-supernatural; the central menace of a work of horror fiction can be interpreted as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society. The horror genre has ancient origins with roots in folklore and religious traditions, focusing on death, the afterlife, the demonic and the principle of the thing embodied in the person; these were manifested in stories of beings such as witches, vampires and ghosts. European horror fiction became established through works by Ancient Romans; the well-known 19th century novel about Frankenstein was influenced by the story of Hippolytus, where Asclepius revives him from death.
Euripides wrote plays based on Hippolytos Kalyptomenos and Hippolytus. Plutarch's "The Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans: Cimon describes the spirit of a murderer, who himself was murdered in a bathhouse in Chaeronea. Pliny the Younger tells the tale of Athenodorus Cananites. Athenodorus was cautious. While writing a book on philosophy, he was visited by a spectre bound in chains; the figure disappeared in the courtyard. The earliest recording of an official accusation of Satanism by the Church took place in Toulouse in AD 1022 against a couple of clerics. Werewolf stories were popular in medieval French literature. One of Marie de France's twelve lais is a werewolf story titled "Bisclavret"; the Countess Yolande commissioned a werewolf story titled "Guillaume de Palerme". Anonymous writers penned two werewolf stories, "Biclarel" and "Melion". Much horror fiction derives from the cruellest personages of the 15th century. Dracula can be traced to the Prince of Wallachia Vlad III whose alleged war crimes were published in German pamphlets.
A 1499 pamphlet published by Markus Ayrer is most notable for its woodcut imagery. The alleged serial killer spree of Giles de Rais have been seen as the inspiration for "Bluebeard"; the motif of the vampiress is most notably derived from the real life noblewoman and murderess, Elizabeth Bathory, helped usher in the emergence of horror fiction in the 18th century, such as through László Turóczi's 1729 book Tragica Historia. The 18th century saw the gradual development of the Gothic horror genre, it drew on the written and material heritage of the Late Middle Ages, finding its form with Horace Walpole's seminal and controversial 1764 novel The Castle of Otranto. In fact, the first edition was published disguised as an actual medieval romance from Italy and republished by a fictitious translator. Once revealed as modern, many found it anachronistic, reactionary, or in poor taste — but it proved popular. Otranto inspired Vathek by William Beckford, A Sicilian Romance, The Mysteries of Udolpho and The Italian by Ann Radcliffe and The Monk by Matthew Lewis.
A significant amount of horror fiction of this era was written by women and marketed towards a female audience, a typical scenario being a resourceful female menaced in a gloomy castle. The Gothic tradition blossomed into the genre modern readers call horror literature in the 19th century. Influential works and characters that continue resonating in fiction and film today saw their genesis in the Brothers Grimm's "Hänsel und Gretel", Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Washington Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Jane C. Loudon's "The Mummy!: Or a Tale of the Twenty-Second Century", Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Thomas Peckett Prest's Varney the Vampire, Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, the works of Edgar Allan Poe, the works of Sheridan Le Fanu, Robert Louis Stevenson's Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray, H. G. Wells' The Invisible Man, Bram Stoker's Dracula; each of these works created an enduring icon of horror seen in re-imaginings on the page and screen.
A proliferation of cheap periodicals around turn of the century led to a boom in horror writing. For example, Gaston Leroux serialized his Le Fantôme de l'Opéra before it was a novel in 1910. One writer who specialized in horror fiction for mainstream pulps such as All-Story Magazine was Tod Robbins, whose fiction deals with themes of madness and cruelty. Specialist publications emerged to give horror writers an outlet, prominent among them Weird Tales and Unknown Worlds. Influential horror writers of the early 20th century made inroads in these mediums; the venerated horror author H. P. Lovecraft, his enduring Cthulhu Mythos pioneered the genre of cosmic horror, M. R. James is credited with redefining the ghost story in that era; the serial murderer became a recurring theme. Yellow journalism and sensationalism of various murderers, such as Jack the Ripper, lesser so, Carl Panzram, Fritz Haarman, Albert Fish, all perpetuated this phenomenon; the trend continued in the postwar era renewed after the murders committed by Ed Gein.
In 1959, Robert Bloch, inspired by the murders, wrote Psycho. The crimes committed in 1969 by the Manson family influenced the slasher theme in horror fiction of the 1970s. In 1981, Thomas Harris wrote Red Dragon. In 1988, the sequel to tha
Periodical literature is a category of serial publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule. The most familiar example is the magazine published weekly, monthly, or quarterly. Newspapers published daily or weekly, are speaking, a separate category of serial. Other examples of periodicals are newsletters, literary magazines, academic journals, science magazines and comic books; these examples are published and referenced by volume and issue. Volume refers to the number of years the publication has been circulated, issue refers to how many times that periodical has been published during that year. For example, the April 2011 publication of a monthly magazine first published in 2002 would be listed as, "volume 10, issue 4". Roman numerals are sometimes used in reference to the volume number; when citing a work in a periodical, there are standardized formats such as The Chicago Manual of Style. In the latest edition of this style, a work with volume number 17 and issue number 3 may be written as follows: James M. Heilman, Andrew G. West.
"Wikipedia and Medicine: Quantifying Readership and the Significance of Natural Language." Journal of Medical Internet Research 17, no. 3. Doi:10.2196/jmir.4069. Periodicals are classified as either popular or scholarly. Popular periodicals are magazines. Scholarly journals are most found in libraries and databases. Examples are the Journal of Social Work. Trade magazines are examples of periodicals, they are written for an audience of professionals in the world. As of the early 1990s, there were over 6,000 academic, scientific and trade publications in the United States alone; these examples are related to the idea of an indefinitely continuing cycle of production and publication: magazines plan to continue publishing, not to stop after a predetermined number of editions. A novel, in contrast, might be published in monthly parts, a method revived after the success of The Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens; this approach is called part-publication when each part is from a whole work, or a serial, for example in comic books.
It flourished during the nineteenth century, for example with Abraham John Valpy's Delphin Classics, was not restricted to fiction. The International Standard Serial Number is to serial publications what the International Standard Book Number is to books: a standardized reference number. Postal services carry periodicals at a preferential rate. Partwork
A small press is a publisher with annual sales below a certain level. In the United States, this is set at $50 million, after returns and discounts. Small presses are defined as those that publish an average of fewer than 10 titles per year, though there are a few who manage to do more; the terms "small press", "indie publisher", "independent press" are used interchangeably, with "independent press" defined as publishers that are not part of large conglomerates or multinational corporations. Defined this way, these presses make up half of the market share of the book publishing industry. Many small presses rely on specialization in genre fiction, poetry, or limited-edition books or magazines, but there are thousands that focus on niche non-fiction markets. Small presses should not be confused with self-publishing presses. Self-publishing or subsidy presses require payment by authors, or a minimum purchase of copies. By comparison, small presses make their profits by selling books to consumers, rather than selling services to authors or selling a small number of copies to the author's friends.
Small presses should not be confused with printers. Small presses are publishers, which means that they engage in a book selection process, along with editing and distribution. Small presses enter into a contract with the author paying royalties for being allowed to sell the book. Publishers own the copies they have printed, but do not own the copyright to the book itself. In contrast, printers print a book, sometimes offer limited distribution if they are a POD printing press. Printers have a low selectivity, they will accept nearly anyone. They offer editing or marketing. Printers do not own the copies that are printed, they do not pay royalties. Book packagers combine aspects of small presses and printers, but they are technically neither small presses nor printers; the majority of small presses are independent or indie publishers, meaning that they are separate from the handful of major publishing house conglomerates, such as Random House or Hachette. Since the profit margins for small presses can be narrow, many are driven by other motives, including the desire to help disseminate literature with only a small market.
Many presses are associated with crowdfunding efforts that help connect authors with readers. Small presses tend to fill the niches, they can focus on narrow specializations and niche genres. They can make up for commercial clout by creating a reputation for academic knowledge, vigorously pursuing prestigious literature prizes and spending more effort nurturing the careers of new authors. At its most minimal, small press production consists of chapbooks; this role can now be taken on by desktop Web sites. This still leaves a continuum of small press publishing: from specialist periodicals, short runs or print-to-order of low-demand books, to fine art books and limited editions of collectors' items printed to high standards. Small presses became distinguishable from jobbing printers at some time towards the end of the nineteenth century; the roots lie with the Arts and Crafts Movement the Kelmscott Press. The use of small letterpress machines by amateur printers increased proportionately to the mechanization of commercial printing.
The advance of practical lithography made small press publication much easier. A recent burgeoning of small presses has been caused by the introduction of digital printing print on demand technology. Combined with Internet based marketing, digital typesetting, design tools with the rise of eBooks, the new printing technologies have lowered the economic barriers to entry, allowing many new niches to be served, many new publishers to enter the industry. There is now a distinction made between small presses and micro-presses. A micro-press can be defined as a publisher that produces chapbooks and other small books on a small scale, it can be defined in terms of revenue. Micro-presses are run as a hobby or part-time job because of their low profits, they may not produce enough profit to support their owners. In Canada, these are considered Small Press publishers but the standard Small Press book run is accepted at 300 copies of a Chapbook and 500 or more copies of a Spine Bound book. In doing this, Small Press publishers are eligible for Grants from the Ontario Arts Council and the Canada Council.
Brewer, Robert. 2007 Writer's Market. Cincinnati, Ohio: Writer's Digest Books. ISBN 1-58297-427-6. Herman, Jeff. Jeff Herman's Guide To Book Publishers, Editors & Literary Agents, 2007: Who they are! What they want! How to win them over!: 17th Edition. Stockbridge, Massachusetts: Three Dog Press. ISBN 0-9772682-1-7
Paradox: The Magazine of Historical and Speculative Fiction was a literary magazine featuring original short historical fiction in all of its forms up to novella length. This includes mainstream historical fiction as well as other genre fiction with historical themes. For example, works of alternate history, historical whodunnits, historical fantasy, period horror, time travel, Arthurian legend and retold myth appear in its pages; the magazine features original historical poetry, reviews of historical novels and films, interviews with notable historical novelists. Paradox was published quarterly, from April 2003 through January 2004, it was switched to a semiannual release schedule. Although Paradox is a print magazine, the editor experimented with publishing a bonus online issue in January 2004. On May 12, 2009, with the release of the thirteenth issue, the editor announced that Paradox would be ceasing publication as a print magazine. One distinctive aesthetic feature of the magazine is its use of historical artwork.
In addition to using newly commissioned art for a story's accompanying illustration, stories are illustrated by being matched with appropriate paintings or photographs by artists past. Vintage photographic portraits and U. S. Civil War and World War I photographs have been so employed in Paradox as have paintings by such artists as Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, George Bellows, William Bouguereau, Chǒng Sǒn, Gustave Doré, Rudolf Ernst, M. C. Escher, Jean-Léon Gérôme, John William Godward, Francisco Goya, David Roberts, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, J. M. W. Turner, Vincent van Gogh, George Frederick Watts, Wu Guxiang, among many others. Two stories published in 2006 in Paradox were among the seven short-form finalists for the 2006 Sidewise Award for Alternate History—"O, Pioneer" by Maya Kaathryn Bohnhoff and "The Meteor of the War" by Andrew Tisbert. One story published in 2008 was recommended for a Nebula Award: "Tucker Teaches the Clockies to Copulate" by David Erik Nelson."The Wizard of Macatawa" by Tom Doyle, published in Paradox issue 11, was the winner of the 2008 WSFA Small Press Award.
Christopher M. Cevasco, editor/publisher, 2003 to present Paradox has published fiction and poetry by both new authors and established professionals. Noted contributors have included: Cherith Baldry Maya Kaathryn Bohnhoff Marie Brennan Brenda Clough Jeff Crook Paul Finch Charles Coleman Finlay Eugie Foster Sarah Hoyt Sarah Monette Richard Mueller Darrell Schweitzer Brian Stableford Adam Stemple Sonya Taaffe Steve Rasnic Tem James Van Pelt Carrie Vaughn Jack Whyte Jane Yolen Interviews with historical novelists and writers, conducted by the editor of Paradox, are featured in the magazine. Noted authors interviewed have included: Piers Anthony Kevin Baker Bernard Cornwell Karen Essex Lois Tilton Connie Willis Registered as ISSN 1548-0593 with the United States Library of Congress
Science fiction convention
Science fiction conventions are gatherings of fans of the speculative fiction genre, science fiction. Science fiction conventions had focused on literature, but the purview of many extends to such other avenues of expression as films, comics and games; the format can vary but will tend to have a few similar features such as a guest of honour, discussion panels and large special events such as opening/closing ceremonies and some form of party or entertainment. Science fiction conventions started off in the UK and US but have now spread further and several countries have their own individual conventions as well as playing host to rotating international conventions; the precise time and place of the first science fiction convention is a matter of some dispute. Sometime in 1936, a group of British fans made plans to have an organized gathering, with a planned program of events in a public venue in early 1937. However, on October 22, 1936, a group of six or seven fans from New York City, including David Kyle and Frederik Pohl, traveled by train to Philadelphia, PA, for several hours they visited a similar number of local fans at the house of Milton A. Rothman.
They subsequently declared that event to be the first "science fiction convention." This small get-together set the stage for a follow-up event held in New York, in February, 1937, where "30 or 40" fans gathered at Bohemian Hall in Astoria, Queens. Attendees at this event included James Blish, Charles D. Hornig, Julius Schwartz, Willis Conover; this event came to be known as the "Second Eastern" and set the stage for the successful Third Eastern held in Philadelphia on October 30, 1937 and the subsequent Fourth Eastern held on May 29, 1938, which attracted over 100 attendees to a meeting hall in Newark, NJ and designated itself as "The First National Science Fiction Convention." It was at this event that a committee was named to arrange the first World Science Fiction Convention in New York in 1939. The "First National", which included the participation of a number of well-known New York editors and professionals from outside fan circles, was a milestone in the evolution of science-fiction conventions as a place for science-fiction professionals, as well as fans, to meet their colleagues in person.
On January 3, 1937, the British fans held their long-planned event at the Theosophical Hall in Leeds. Around twenty fans, including Eric Frank Russell and Arthur C. Clarke, attended. To this day, many fan historians those in the United Kingdom, contend that the Philadelphia meeting was a convention in name only, whereas other fan historians point out that many similar gatherings since have been called "conventions" without eliciting any disagreement. By 1939, American fans had organized sufficiently to hold, in conjunction with the 1939 World's Fair, the first "World Science Fiction Convention," in New York City. Subsequent conventions were held in Chicago in 1940 and Denver in 1941. Like many cultural events, it was suspended during World War II. Conventions resumed in 1946 with the hosting of the World Science Fiction Convention in Los Angeles, California; the first Worldcon held outside the United States was Torcon I in Toronto in 1948. Since the first conventions in the late 1930s, such as the first Worldcon, hundreds of local and regional science fiction conventions have sprung up around the world either as one-time or annual events.
At these conventions, fans of science fiction come together with the professional writers and filmmakers in the genre to discuss its many aspects. Some cities have a number of science-fiction conventions, as well as a number of special interest conventions for anime, media, or other related groups; some conventions move from city to city, serving region, or special interest. Nearly every weekend of the year now has at least one convention somewhere and some conventions are held on holiday weekends where four or more days can be devoted to events. Worldcon, or more formally The World Science Fiction Convention, is a science fiction convention, held each year since 1939, it is the annual convention of the World Science Fiction Society, an unincorporated body whose members are defined as "all people who have paid membership dues to the Committee of the current Worldcon". These members of WSFS vote both to select the site of the Worldcon two years in advance and to select the winners of the Hugo Awards, which are presented at the convention.
The rules for venue selection are deliberately drafted to ensure the convention occurs in a different city each year. Fantasy is considered alongside science fiction at conventions. Conventions that are nominally science-fiction conventions such as Worldcon, are fantasy conventions in all but name. World Fantasy Convention was begun in 1975, has since been held on an annual basis; the World Fantasy Convention, however, is less oriented toward the fan community, is a professional gathering. Many of those who attend "World Fantasy" attend Worldcon. However, this convention is more focused on authors and publishing, with a much higher proportion of authors in attendance.
As a physical object, a book is a stack of rectangular pages oriented with one edge tied, sewn, or otherwise fixed together and bound to the flexible spine of a protective cover of heavier inflexible material. The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex. In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll. A single sheet in a codex is a leaf, each side of a leaf is a page; as an intellectual object, a book is prototypically a composition of such great length that it takes a considerable investment of time to compose and a still considerable, though not so extensive, investment of time to read. This sense of book has an unrestricted sense. In the restricted sense, a book is a self-sufficient section or part of a longer composition, a usage that reflects the fact that, in antiquity, long works had to be written on several scrolls, each scroll had to be identified by the book it contained.
So, for instance, each part of Aristotle's Physics is called a book, as of course the Bible encompasses many different books. In the unrestricted sense, a book is the compositional whole of which such sections, whether called books or chapters or parts, are parts; the intellectual content in a physical book need not be a composition, nor be called a book. Books can consist only of drawings, engravings, or photographs, or such things as crossword puzzles or cut-out dolls. In a physical book the pages can be left blank or can feature an abstract set of lines as support for on-going entries, i.e. an account book, an appointment book, a log book, an autograph book, a notebook, a diary or day book, or a sketch book. Some physical books are made with pages thick and sturdy enough to support other physical objects, like a scrapbook or photograph album. Books may be distributed in electronic form as other formats. Although in ordinary academic parlance a monograph is understood to be a specialist academic work, rather than a reference work on a single scholarly subject, in library and information science monograph denotes more broadly any non-serial publication complete in one volume or a finite number of volumes, in contrast to serial publications like a magazine, journal, or newspaper.
An avid reader or collector of books or a book lover is a bibliophile or colloquially, "bookworm". A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookstore. Books are sold elsewhere. Books can be borrowed from libraries. Google has estimated that as of 2010 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, the sale of printed books has decreased because of the use of e-books, though sales of e-books declined in the first half of 2015; the word book comes from Old English "bōc", which in turn comes from the Germanic root "*bōk-", cognate to "beech". In Slavic languages "буква" is cognate with "beech". In Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word "букварь" or "буквар" refers to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing, it is thus conjectured. The Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense meant "block of wood"; when writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, tree bark, metal sheets, bones, were used for writing.
A tablet is a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. Clay tablets were flattened and dry pieces of clay that could be carried, impressed with a stylus, they were used as a writing medium for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age. Wax tablets were pieces of wood covered in a thick enough coating of wax to record the impressions of a stylus, they were the normal writing material in schools, in accounting, for taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted, reformed into a blank; the custom of binding several wax tablets together is a possible precursor of modern bound books. The etymology of the word codex suggests that it may have developed from wooden wax tablets. Scrolls can be made from papyrus, a thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool until it is flattened. Papyrus was used for writing in Ancient Egypt as early as the First Dynasty, although the first evidence is from the account books of King Nefertiti Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty.
Papyrus sheets were glued together to form a scroll. Tree bark such as lime and other materials were used. According to Herodotus, the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the 10th or 9th century BC; the Greek word for papyrus as writing material and book come from the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported to Greece. From Greek we derive the word tome, which meant a slice or piece and from there began to denote "a roll of papyrus". Tomus was used by the Latins with the same meaning as volumen. Whether made from papyrus, parchment, or paper, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Chinese and Macedonian culture