Toledo is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, United States. Toledo is at the western end of Lake Erie bordering the state of Michigan; the city was founded in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River, incorporated as part of Monroe County, Michigan Territory. It was re-founded after conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio. After the 1845 completion of the Miami and Erie Canal, Toledo grew quickly; the first of many glass manufacturers arrived in the 1880s earning Toledo its nickname: "The Glass City." It has since become a city with an art community, auto assembly businesses, education and local sports teams. The population of Toledo as of the 2010 Census was 287,208, making it the 71st-largest city in the United States, it is the fourth-most-populous city in the U. S. state of Ohio, after Columbus and Cincinnati. The Toledo metropolitan area had a 2010 population of 651,429, was the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cleveland, Cincinnati and Akron.
Various cultures of indigenous peoples lived along the rivers and lakefront of what is now northwestern Ohio for thousands of years. When the city of Toledo was preparing to pave its streets, it surveyed "two prehistoric semicircular earthworks for stockades." One was at the intersection of Oliver streets on the south bank of Swan Creek. Such earthworks were typical of mound-building peoples; this region was part of a larger area controlled by the historic tribes of the Wyandot and the people of the Council of Three Fires. The first European to visit the area was Étienne Brûlé, a French-Canadian guide and explorer, in 1615; the French established trading posts in the area by 1680 to take advantage of the lucrative fur trade. The Odawa moved from Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula at the invitation of the French, who established a trading post at Fort Detroit, about 60 miles to the north, they settled an area extending into northwest Ohio. By the early 18th century, the Odawa occupied areas along most of the Maumee River to its mouth.
They served as middlemen between the French and tribes further to the north. The Wyandot occupied central Ohio, the Shawnee and Lenape occupied the southern areas; the area was not settled by European-Americans until 1795 and later. After the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War, the regional tribes allied in the Western Confederacy, fighting a series of battles in what became known as the Northwest Indian War in an effort to repulse American settlers from the country west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River, they were defeated in 1794 at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. This loose affiliation of tribes included the Council of Three Fires. By a treaty in 1795, they ceded large areas of territory in Ohio to the United States, opening lands for European-American settlement. According to Charles E. Slocum, the American military built Fort Industry at the mouth of Swan Creek about 1805, but as a temporary stockade. No official reports support the 19th-century tradition of its earlier history there.
The United States continued to work to extinguish land claims of Native Americans. In the Treaty of Detroit, the above four tribes ceded a large land area to the United States of what became southeastern Michigan and northwestern Ohio, to the mouth of the Maumee River. Reserves for the Odawa were set aside in northwestern Ohio for a limited period of time; the Native Americans signed the treaty at Detroit, Michigan, on November 17, 1807, with William Hull, governor of the Michigan Territory and superintendent of Indian affairs, as the sole representative of the U. S. More European-American settlers entered the area over the next few years, but many fled during the War of 1812, when British forces raided the area with their Indian allies. Resettlement began around 1818 after a Cincinnati syndicate purchased a 974-acre tract at the mouth of Swan Creek and named it Port Lawrence, developing it as the modern downtown area of Toledo. To the north of that, another syndicate founded the town of Vistula, the historic north end.
These two towns bordered each other across Cherry Street. This is why present-day streets on the street's northeast side run at a different angle from those southwest of it. In 1824, the Ohio state legislature authorized the construction of the Miami and Erie Canal and in 1833, its Wabash and Erie Canal extension; the canal's purpose was to connect the city of Cincinnati to Lake Erie for water transportation to eastern markets, including to New York City via the Erie Canal and Hudson River. At that time no highways had been built in the state, it was difficult for goods produced locally to reach the larger markets east of the Appalachian Mountains. During the canal's planning phase, many small towns along the northern shores of Maumee River competed to be the ending terminus of the canal, knowing it would give them a profitable status; the towns of Port Lawrence and Vistula merged in 1833 to better compete against the upriver towns of Waterville and Maumee. The inhabitants of this joined settlement chose the name Toledo, "but the reason for this choice is buried in a welter of legends.
One recounts that Washington Irving, traveling in Spain at the time, suggested the name to his brother, a local resident. Others award the honor to Two Stickney, son of the major
The Sean Hannity Show
The Sean Hannity Show is a talk radio show hosted by Sean Hannity on Cumulus Media Networks and Premiere Radio Networks. The program is broadcast live every weekday, 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. ET; the show is produced in the New York City studios of radio station WOR or sometimes transmitted via ISDN from Hannity's home in Centre Island, New York. The show is syndicated by Cumulus Media Networks on terrestrial radio affiliates across the United States and the Sirius XM Patriot channel found on both XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio Monday through Friday from 3-6 p.m.. The primary focus of the program is the politics of the day, with regular interviews of liberal commentators, such as Leslie Marshall and Bob Beckel, as well as noted conservatives; the Sean Hannity Show is the second most-listened to commercial radio show with millions of listeners, behind only The Rush Limbaugh Show. Syndication began through the ABC Radio Networks on September 10, 2001, one day before the September 11 attacks.
The program is carried on WSB in Atlanta, Georgia, WBAP in Dallas, Texas, KSL Newsradio in Salt Lake City, Utah, KABC in Los Angeles, California, WMAL in Washington, D. C. KFYI in Phoenix, Arizona, WOKV in Jacksonville, Florida, WJR in Detroit, WCBM in Baltimore, Maryland and WKRC in Cincinnati, among others; the show is carried in most markets by a Citadel Broadcasting radio station. Hannity's first version of his radio show was in the late 1980s as a volunteer broadcaster for the University of California, Santa Barbara's radio station, KCSB-FM, he was dismissed from the station in 1989 following a controversial interview about AIDS in which he insulted a lesbian caller. Hannity would bring his program to WVNN in Athens and NewsRadio WGST in Atlanta, Georgia. Hannity is the second highest rated talk program, only behind The Rush Limbaugh Show, which leads into Hannity on many stations; the show is carried on 530 stations. He is a two-time consecutive winner of Radio & Records National Talk Show Host of The Year Award in 2003 and 2004, as well as the National Association of Broadcasters' 2003, 2004 and 2005 Marconi awards for Talk Show Host of the Year, the Talkers Magazine 2003 Freedom of Speech Award.
In 2004, Hannity signed a US$25 million, five-year contract extension with ABC Radio to continue the show through 2009. In July 2008, it was announced that Hannity's show would be co-managed by Citadel's ABC Radio Networks and Premiere Radio Networks, a division of Clear Channel Communications. Premiere Radio would handle advertising sales and distribution to all non-Citadel owned stations, including Clear Channel-owned stations. Hannity had agreements with 80 Clear Channel stations in a separate agreement; the two networks would cooperate for special circumstances. The show features a mixture of monologues, conversations with callers, interviews with those in the news. Hannity's frequent political targets include terrorism, illegal immigration, weapon of mass destruction in Iraq, the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, he characterizes American liberalism as a movement more in line with democratic socialism than classical liberalism. The show features "man on the street" interviews, where New York pedestrians are stopped and questioned about politics.
Hannity will sometimes debate the answers with participants. The show features the occasional inclusion of behind the scenes staff, including producers Elisha, Lynda, "Sweet Baby" James, animal-rights proponent "Flipper". "Gregster" is the engineer who plays the audio clips. The show used to close daily with the segment "Trash the Lines" where calls were taken unscreened, with callers given five seconds to say whatever they wanted; the segment, which had its roots in a late-night show Hannity hosted earlier in his career, has been used less since the summer of 2006. Following the election victory of Democrat Barack Obama, Hannity has hyperbolically referred to his show as "conservatism in exile," "the conservative resistance," "the conservative underground." Each hour of The Sean Hannity Show used to open with the following musical pieces, in order: 1. The introduction spliced with the second singing of the refrain of "Independence Day" performed by Martina McBride. 2. Carmina Burana, over which announcer Scott Shannon traditionally proclaimed, "From coast to coast, from border to border, from sea to shining sea, Sean Hannity is on!"
The quote spilled over into the opening riff of "Eye of the Tiger" by Survivor. However, neither Carmina Burana nor Shannon's traditional voiceover is now in use; the show has changed its opening voiceover to reflect current events. 3. The instrumental opening to "The Way It Is" performed by Bruce Hornsby and the Range, over which Hannity begins speaking; this has not been used in recent broadcasts. On the third hour, "Eye of the Tiger" by Survivor would replace both Carmina Burana and "The Way It Is", with Shannon announcing, "Overlooking Madison Square Garden, deep in the heart of midtown Manhattan, the last beacon of truth in a troubled time! This is The Sean Hannity Show and the world-famous Final Hour Free-for-All!" Sometimes during election years, an additional announcement was made after Carmina Burana, proclaiming the edition to be "a special edition of The Sean Hannity Show: The Battle for America," featuring a countdown until Election Day. On Election
Perrysburg Township, Wood County, Ohio
Perrysburg Township is one of the nineteen townships of Wood County, United States. The 2010 census found 12,512 people in the township. Perrysburg Township is located in northern Wood County, surrounding the crossroads of I-75 and the Ohio Turnpike, ten miles south of the City of Toledo, Ohio. At one time Perrysburg Township was Ohio's largest township, with 49 square miles. Perrysburg Township borders the following townships and municipalities: Rossford - north Northwood - northeast Lake Township - east Troy Township - southeast Webster Township - south Middleton Township - southwest Perrysburg - northwest Established on May 8, 1823, it is the oldest township in Wood County, it is the only Perrysburg Township statewide. Perrysburg Township was named after the City of Perrysburg, which in turn was named for Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, who fought in the War of 1812 and won a decisive victory at the Battle of Lake Erie; the township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1.
Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. Current elected officials of Perrysburg Township: Gary Britten, Trustee: Term ends December 2017 Shirley Haar, Fiscal Officer: Term ends April 2016 Joseph Schaller, Trustee: Term ends December 2019 Robert Mack, Trustee: Term ends December 2017Board of trustees meetings, which are open to the public, are held on the 1st and 3rd Wednesdays at 6:00 p.m. and the 2nd Wednesday at 2:00 p.m. each month at the Town Hall. Perrysburg Township offices are composed of the following: Administration, Emergency Medical Services, Police, Road Maintenance, Zoning. There are four school districts whose boundaries include parts of Perrysburg Township: Eastwood Local Schools Lake Local Schools Perrysburg Exempted Village Schools Rossford Exempted Village SchoolsPerrysburg Township is home to Penta Career Center, a vocational high school, serving five counties and sixteen school districts.
A full-time Islamic school is located on the grounds of the Greater Toledo Islamic Center in Perrysburg Township. Owens Community College Perrysburg Township is home to: Ampoint Industrial Park Cedar Business Park FCA US LLC Toledo Machining Plant FedEx Distribution Center First Solar Inc. Walgreens Distribution Center Township website County website
In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it. Repeaters are used to extend transmissions so that the signal can cover longer distances or be received on the other side of an obstruction; some types of repeaters broadcast an identical signal, but alter its method of transmission, for example, on another frequency or baud rate. There are several different types of repeaters. A broadcast relay station is a repeater used in broadcast television; when an information-bearing signal passes through a communication channel, it is progressively degraded due to loss of power. For example, when a telephone call passes through a wire telephone line, some of the power in the electric current which represents the audio signal is dissipated as heat in the resistance of the copper wire; the longer the wire is, the more power is lost, the smaller the amplitude of the signal at the far end. So with a long enough wire the call will not be audible at the other end.
The farther from a radio station a receiver is, the weaker the radio signal, the poorer the reception. A repeater is an electronic device in a communication channel that increases the power of a signal and retransmits it, allowing it to travel further. Since it amplifies the signal, it requires a source of electric power; the term "repeater" originated with telegraphy in the 19th century, referred to an electromechanical device used to regenerate telegraph signals. Use of the term has continued in data communications. In computer networking, because repeaters work with the actual physical signal, do not attempt to interpret the data being transmitted, they operate on the physical layer, the first layer of the OSI model; this is used to increase the range of telephone signals in a telephone line. Land line repeaterThey are most used in trunklines that carry long distance calls. In an analog telephone line consisting of a pair of wires, it consists of an amplifier circuit made of transistors which use power from a DC current source to increase the power of the alternating current audio signal on the line.
Since the telephone is a duplex communication system, the wire pair carries two audio signals, one going in each direction. So telephone repeaters have to be bilateral, amplifying the signal in both directions without causing feedback, which complicates their design considerably. Telephone repeaters were the first type of repeater and were some of the first applications of amplification; the development of telephone repeaters between 1900 and 1915 made long distance phone service possible. Now, most telecommunications cables are fiber optic cables. Before the invention of electronic amplifiers, mechanically coupled carbon microphones were used as amplifiers in telephone repeaters. After the turn of the 20th century it was found that negative resistance mercury lamps could amplify, they were used; the invention of audion tube repeaters around 1916 made transcontinental telephony practical. In the 1930s vacuum tube repeaters using hybrid coils became commonplace, allowing the use of thinner wires.
In the 1950s negative impedance gain devices were more popular, a transistorized version called the E6 repeater was the final major type used in the Bell System before the low cost of digital transmission made all voiceband repeaters obsolete. Frequency frogging repeaters were commonplace in frequency-division multiplexing systems from the middle to late 20th century. Submarine cable repeaterThis is a type of telephone repeater used in underwater submarine telecommunications cables; this is used to increase the range of signals in a fiber optic cable. Digital information travels through a fiber optic cable in the form of short pulses of light; the light is made up of particles called photons, which can be scattered in the fiber. An optical communications repeater consists of a phototransistor which converts the light pulses to an electrical signal, an amplifier to increase the power of the signal, an electronic filter which reshapes the pulses, a laser which converts the electrical signal to light again and sends it out the other fiber.
However, optical amplifiers are being developed for repeaters to amplify the light itself without the need of converting it to an electric signal first. This is used to extend the range of coverage of a radio signal; the history of radio relay repeaters began in 1898 from the publication by Johann Mattausch in Austrian Journal Zeitschrift für Electrotechnik. But his proposal "Translator" was not suitable for use; the first relay system with radio repeaters, which functioned, was that invented in 1899 by Emile Guarini-Foresio. A radio repeater consists of a radio receiver connected to a radio transmitter; the received signal is amplified and retransmitted on another frequency, to provide coverage beyond the obstruction. Usage of a duplexer can allow the repeater to use one antenna for both receive and transmit at the same time. Broadcast relay station, rebroadcastor or translator: This is a repeater used to extend the coverage of a radio or television broadcasting station, it consists of a secondary television transmitter.
The signal from the main transmitter comes over leased telephone lines or by microwave relay. Microwave relay: This is a specialized point-to-point telecommunications link, consisting of a microwave receiver that receives information over a beam of microwaves from an
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
AM stereo is a term given to a series of mutually incompatible techniques for radio broadcasting stereo audio in the AM band in a manner, compatible with standard AM receivers. There are two main classes of systems: independent sideband systems, promoted principally by American broadcast engineer Leonard R. Kahn. Adopted by many commercial AM broadcasters in the mid to late 1980s, AM stereo broadcasting soon began to decline due to a lack of receivers, a growing exodus of music broadcasters to FM, concentration of ownership of the few remaining stations in the hands of large corporations and the removal of music from AM stations in favour of news/talk or sports broadcasting. By 2001, most of the former AM stereo broadcasters were no longer stereo or had left the AM band entirely. Early experiments with stereo AM radio involved two separate stations broadcasting the left and right audio channels; this system was not practical, as it required the listener to use two separate receivers. Synchronization was problematic resulting in "ping-pong" effects between the two channels.
Reception was likely to be different between the two stations, many listeners used mismatching models of receivers. After the early experiments with two stations, a number of systems were invented to broadcast a stereo signal in a way, compatible with standard AM receivers. FM stereo was first implemented in 1961. In the United States, FM overtook AM as the dominant broadcast radio band in the late 1970s and early 1980s. 1924: WPAJ broadcast in stereo from New Haven, using two transmitters: one on 1120 kHz and the other on 1320 kHz. However stereo separation was poor. In the 1950s, several AM stereo systems were proposed but the FCC did not propose any standard as AM was still dominant over FM at the time. 1960: AM stereo first demonstrated on XETRA-AM, Mexico, using the Kahn independent sideband system. 1963: WHAZ runs a stereo program on eight AM stations, four on each channel. 1980: After five years of testing the five systems, the United States Federal Communications Commission selected the Magnavox system as the official AM stereo standard.
The FCC's research is accused of being flawed and incomplete. 1982: After a series of lawsuits and accusations, the FCC decides to let the marketplace decide and revokes the Magnavox certification as the AM stereo standard for political reasons. Belar had dropped out of the AM stereo race due to receiver distortion problems, leaving Motorola C-QUAM, Harris Corporation and the Kahn/Hazeltine independent sideband system. 1984: General Motors, Chrysler, a number of import automakers begin installing C-QUAM AM stereo receivers in automobiles, beginning with the 1985 model year. Harris Corporation abandons its AM stereo system and puts its support behind C-QUAM. 1985: AM stereo broadcasting begins in Australia, with the C-QUAM standard. 1988: Canada and Mexico adopt C-QUAM as their standard for AM stereo. 1992: Japan adopts C-QUAM as its standard for AM stereo. 1993: The FCC makes C-QUAM the AM stereo standard for stations in the U. S. and grants "stereo preference" for radio stations requesting to move to the AM expanded band, although such stations have never been required to transmit in stereo.
1993: The AMAX certification program begins. This was to set an official manufacturing standard for high-quality AM radio receivers, with a wider audio bandwidth for higher fidelity reception of strong signals, optionally C-QUAM AM stereo. Despite the availability of AMAX receivers from companies like Sony, General Electric, AMAX-certified car radios from the domestic and Japanese automakers, most electronics manufacturers did not wish to implement the more costly AMAX tuner design in their radios, so most AM radios today remain in mono with limited fidelity. 2006 to present: AM stereo gains new life through the support for C-QUAM decoding in most receivers designed for HD Radio. These new digital radios receive AM stereo signals, although the AM transmitters are now limited to 10 kHz audio bandwidth and the HD receivers flip Left and Right channels in decoding C-QUAM stereo; the Magnavox PMX, Harris Corporation V-CPM, Motorola C-QUAM were all based around modulating the phase and amplitude of the carrier, placing the stereo information in the phase modulated portion, while the standard mono information is in the amplitude modulation.
The systems all did this in similar ways. The original Harris Corporation system was changed to match the Motorola C-QUAM pilot tone for indicating the station was in stereo, thus making it compatible with all C-QUAM receivers; this system, known as V-CPM for Variable Angle Compatible Phase Multiplex, was developed by Harris Corporation, a major manufacturer of radio/TV transmitters. It incorporated a left minus right component, frequency modulated by about 1 kHz. Harris is the successor to the pioneer Gates radio line, which has changed its name in 2014 to Gates-Air; the Harris system changed their pilot tone to be compatible with C-QUAM, after C-QUAM became the more popular and the FCC approved standard. CKLW in Windsor, Canada was among the first stations to broadcast in Harris AM stereo; the Harris system is currentl