Sussex County, New Jersey
Sussex County is the northernmost county in the State of New Jersey. Its county seat is Newton, it is part of the New York Metropolitan Area and is part of the state's Skylands Region, a term promoted by the New Jersey Commerce, Economic Growth, & Tourism Commission to encourage tourism. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 141,682, making it the 17th-most populous of the state's 21 counties, a 5.1% decrease from the 149,265 enumerated in the 2010 United States Census, in turn an increase of 5,099 over the 144,166 persons enumerated in the 2000 Census. Based on 2010 Census data, Vernon Township was the county's largest in both population and area, with a population of 23,943 and covering an area of 70.59 square miles. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $55,497, the ninth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 220th of 3,113 counties in the United States; as of 2010 The Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 131st-highest per capita income of the 3,113 counties in the United States.
The county was named after historic County Sussex, England. Until the mid-20th century, most of Sussex County's economy was based on agriculture and the mining industry. With the decline of these industries in the 1960s, Sussex County was transformed into a bedroom community that absorbed population shifts from New Jersey's more populated areas. Recent studies estimate that 60% of Sussex County residents work outside of the county, many seeking or maintaining employment in New York City or New Jersey's more suburban and urban areas; the area of Sussex County and its surrounding region was occupied for 8,000-13,000 years by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples. The Munsee Indians inhabited the region at the time of European encounter; the Munsee were a loosely organized division of the Lenape, a Native American people called "Delaware Indians" after their historic territory along the Delaware River. The Lenape inhabited the mid-Atlantic coastal areas and inland along the Delaware rivers; the Munsee spoke a distinct dialect of the Lenape and inhabited a region bounded by the Hudson River, the head waters of the Delaware River and the Susquehanna River, south to the Lehigh River and Conewago Creek.
As a result of disruption following the French and Indian War the American Revolutionary War and Indian removals from the eastern United States, the main Lenape groups now live in Ontario in Canada, in Wisconsin and Oklahoma in the United States. As early as 1690, Dutch and French Huguenot colonists from towns along the Hudson River Valley in New York began permanently settling in the Upper Delaware Valley; the route these Dutch settlers had taken was the path of an old Indian trail and became the route of the Old Mine Road and stretches of present-date U. S. Route 209; these Dutch settlers penetrated the Minisink Valley and settled as far south as the Delaware Water Gap, by 1731 this valley had been incorporated as Walpack Precinct. Throughout the 18th century, immigrants from the Rheinland Palatinate in Germany and Switzerland fled religious wars and poverty to arrive in Philadelphia and New York City. Several German families began leaving Philadelphia to settle along river valleys in Northwestern New Jersey and Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valley in the 1720s, spreading north into Sussex County in the 1740s and 1750s as additional German emigrants arrived.
During this time, Scottish settlers from Elizabethtown and Perth Amboy, English settlers from these cities, Long Island and Massachusetts, came to New Jersey and moved up the tributaries of the Passaic and Raritan rivers, settling in the eastern sections of present-day Sussex and Warren counties. By the 1750s, residents of this area began to petition colonial authorities for a new county to be formed. By this time, four large townships had been created in this sparsely populated Northwestern region: Walpack Township, Greenwich Township, Hardwick Township and Newtown Township. On June 8, 1753, Sussex County was created from these four municipalities, part of Morris County when Morris stretched over all of northwestern New Jersey. Sussex County at this time encompassed present-day Sussex and Warren Counties and its boundaries were drawn by the New York-New Jersey border to the north, the Delaware River to the west, the Musconetcong River to the south and east. After several decades of debate over where to hold the sessions of the county's courts, the state legislature voted to divide Sussex County in two, using a line drawn from the juncture of the Flat Brook and Delaware River in a southeasterly direction to the Musconetcong River running through the Yellow Frame Presbyterian Church in present-day Fredon Township.
On November 20, 1824, Warren County was created from the southern territory of the Sussex County. Throughout the 18th, 19th, 20th centuries, Sussex County's economy was centered around agriculture and the mining of iron and zinc ores. Early settlers established farms whose operations were chiefly focused towards subsistence agriculture; because of geological constraints, Sussex County's agricultural production was centered around dairy farming. Several farms had orchards—typically apples and peaches—and surplus fruit and grains were distilled or brewed into alcoholic beverages; this was the economic model until the mid-19th century when advances in food preservation and the intr
Pike County, Pennsylvania
Pike County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 57,369, its county seat is Milford. Pike County is included in NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2006, Pike County was the fastest-growing county in the state of Pennsylvania. Pike County was named for General Zebulon Pike, it was organized on March 1814 from part of Wayne County, Pennsylvania. Some English settlement in the area had started during the colonial years; the longtime original inhabitants were the Lenape Native Americans, known by the English colonists as the Delaware Indians because their territory was along the Delaware River, as well as the coastal mid-Atlantic area. In 1694, Governor Benjamin Fletcher of the colony of New York sent Captain Arent Schuyler to investigate claims that the French were recruiting Indian allies for use against the English. In 1696, governor Fletcher authorized purchases of Indian land near the New York border by a number of citizens of Ulster County.
Nicholas Depui was the first to settle in the area, in 1725. Thomas Quick moved to the area that would become Milford in 1733. Andrew Dingman settled on the Delaware River at the future site of Dingmans Ferry in 1735; the early settlers traded with them. As settlement increased and their land practices encroached on Lenape uses, land disputes arose; the colonists' infamous Walking Purchase of 1737 swindled the Lenape out of more than half of present-day Pike County. As the Lenape realized what had happened, violent conflicts arose between the colonists. Early in the nineteenth century, coal was discovered nearby in the area that would become Carbondale; this became significant as the British restricted export of British coal to the United States after the War of 1812, creating a fuel shortage in expanding New York City. To get the coal to New York, developers proposed a gravity railroad from Carbondale to Honesdale, along with a canal from Honesdale to the Hudson River at Kingston; the state of New York approved the canal proposal in 1823.
Work on the 108-mile Delaware and Hudson Canal began in 1825 and was completed in 1828. The canal system, which terminated at the Hudson River near present-day Kingston, proved profitable, but the barges had to cross the Delaware via a rope ferry across a "slackwater dam," which created bottlenecks in the canal traffic and added to the cost of transportation. John Roebling proposed continuing the canal over the river as part of an aqueduct. Built in 1848, his innovative design required only three piers, where five would ordinarily have been required. Three other suspension aqueducts were subsequently built for the canal. Roebling's Delaware Aqueduct is still standing the oldest suspension bridge in America. For fifty-one years, coal flowed to New York City via the canal, but the development of railroads, which were faster and operated when the canals were frozen, brought the end of the canal era. The New York and Erie Railroad supplanted the canal and in 1898 the water route was abandoned. From 1904 to 1926, Grey Towers in the borough of Milford, Pennsylvania was the site of summer field study sessions for the Master's program of the Yale School of Forestry, together with the Forester's Hall, a commercial building, adapted and expanded for this purpose.
In 1926, the Pennsylvania Power and Light Company built a hydroelectric plant on Wallenpaupack creek at the former village of Wilsonville. The town now lies under Lake Wallenpaupack, created by a dam. A crew of 2,700 men worked for two years to complete the dam for the project at a cost of $1,026,000; this required the acquisition of nearly a hundred properties, a number of farms and homes were razed or moved. In addition, 17 miles of roads and telephone lines were relocated, a cemetery was moved to make way for the project; the rural area of the county made it attractive as a country destination. Several camps were developed in the area of Milford, the county seat, it has several hundred late 19th and early 20th-century buildings that contribute to a National Historic District listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Yale ran summer field studies for its Master's program in forestry there from 1904 to 1926. Since the late 20th century, Pike County has been the fastest-growing county in Pennsylvania.
The area has low state and county taxes, affordable housing. Interstate 80 and Interstate 84 provide rapid commutes to New York City's northern suburbs. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 567 square miles, of which 545 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water; the terrain rises from the river valley in the east to the rolling foothills of the Poconos in the west. The highest point is one of two unnamed hills in Greene Township that top out at 2,110 feet above sea level; the lowest elevation is 340 feet, at the confluence of the Bushkill and the Delaware rivers. Sullivan County, New York Orange County, New York Sussex County, New Jersey Monroe County Wayne County Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Middle Delaware National Scenic River Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Delaware State Forest (p
Mount Beacon Incline Railway
The 3 ft narrow gauge Mount Beacon Incline Railway was a popular tourist attraction in Beacon, New York, United States, the neighboring Town of Fishkill. It operated for much of the 20th century, providing sweeping views of the Hudson Valley, efforts continue to restore it today; the Otis Elevator Company and Mohawk Construction opened the railway on Memorial Day, 1902. Sixty thousand fares were sold in its first year. Riders were day visitors from New York who came up the Hudson River by steamboat to Newburgh and took a ferry to Beacon. After a trolley trip to the base station on Wolcott Avenue, the railway would take them up to the 1,540-foot northern summit via an average gradient of 65% and a maximum gradient of 74%, the steepest in existence while the railroad operated. Once on the mountain, tourists could visit the Beaconcrest Hotel, the Casino, or enjoy the natural setting while taking in 75-mile panoramic views of the valley and surrounding areas. Once it opened in 1922, Beacon Reservoir, the city's main water source became a popular place to visit.
In 1978 the railway ceased operations due to financial problems. In 1982 the railway was added to the National Register of Historic Places. A fire attributed to vandalism destroyed many of its buildings the next year; the route still is visible from much of the city. The Mount Beacon Incline Railway Restoration Society is working to rebuild the railroad and restore service. List of funicular railways Mount Beacon Incline Railway Restoration Society Images of vintage postcards that illustrate how the railway looked in the early 1900s
Poughkeepsie, New York
Poughkeepsie the City of Poughkeepsie, is a city in the state of New York, United States, the county seat of Dutchess County. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 32,736. Poughkeepsie is in the Hudson Valley midway between New York City and Albany, is part of the New York metropolitan area; the name derives from a word in the Wappinger language U-puku-ipi-sing, meaning "the reed-covered lodge by the little-water place", referring to a spring or stream feeding into the Hudson River south of the present downtown area. Poughkeepsie is known as "The Queen City of the Hudson", it was settled in the 17th century by the Dutch and became New York's second capital shortly after the American Revolution. It was chartered as a city in 1854. Major bridges in the city include the Walkway over the Hudson, a former railroad bridge, which re-opened as a public walkway on October 3, 2009. S. Route 44 over the Hudson; the city of Poughkeepsie lies in New York's 18th congressional district. The site of Poughkeepsie was purchased from the Indians in 1686 by Robert Sanders, an Englishman, Myndert Harmense Van Den Bogaerdt, a New Netherland-born Dutchman.
The first settlers were the families of Hendrick Jans van Oosterom. The settlement grew and the Reformed Church of Poughkeepsie was established by 1720; the community was set off from the town of Poughkeepsie when it became an incorporated village on 27 March 1799. The city of Poughkeepsie was chartered on 28 March 1854. Outside of municipal designations, the city and town of Poughkeepsie are viewed as a single place and are referred to collectively as "Poughkeepsie", with a combined population of 75,000. Spared from battle during the American Revolution, Poughkeepsie became the second capital of New York. In 1788, the Ratification Convention for New York State, which included Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, George Clinton, assembled at the courthouse on Market Street and ratified the United States Constitution. With its ratification, New York entered the new union as the eleventh of the original thirteen colonies to join together as the United States of America. In 1799, a new seal was created for Poughkeepsie.
Early on, Poughkeepsie was a major center for whale rendering, during the 19th century, the industry flourished through shipping, paper mills, several breweries along the Hudson River, including some owned by Matthew Vassar, founder of Vassar College. Due to the area's natural beauty and proximity to New York City, families such as the Astors and Vanderbilts built palatial weekend homes nearby; the Vanderbilt mansion, located several miles up the Hudson from Poughkeepsie in the town of Hyde Park, is registered as a National Historic Site. The city is home to the oldest continuously operating entertainment venue in the state, the Bardavon 1869 Opera House; the city is located on the western edge of Dutchess County, bordered by Lloyd across the Hudson River to the west and by the town of Poughkeepsie on the north and south. There are two crossings of the Hudson River in Poughkeepsie: the Mid-Hudson Bridge for motor vehicles and pedestrians, the pedestrian "Walkway over the Hudson". According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 5.7 square miles.
5.1 square miles of it is land, 0.23 square miles of it is water. It is in southeastern New York State. Academy Street Historic District Balding Avenue Historic District Dwight-Hooker Avenue Historic District Garfield Place Historic District Mill Street-North Clover Street Historic District Mount Carmel District Union Street Historic District Poughkeepsie has a humid continental climate with hot summers and cold winters, it receives 44.12 inches of precipitation per year, much of, delivered in the late spring and early summer. Due to its inland location, Poughkeepsie can be cold during the winter, with temperatures dropping below zero a few times per year. Poughkeepsie can be hit by powerful nor'easters, but it receives less snow or rain from these storms compared to locations towards the south and east; as of the census of 2010, there were 32,736 people. The population density was 5,806.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 13,153 housing units at an average density of 2,556.6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 52.8% White, 35.7% Black or African American, 10.6% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 1.6% Asian, 0.4% Native American, 5.3% from other races, 4.1% from two or more races. There were 12,014 households, out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.8% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.4% were non-families. 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.15. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 19.0% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.0 males. The median household income in the city was $29,389, the median income for a family wa
WFME is a non-commercial educational, religious-formatted radio station licensed to New York City. The station broadcasts the Family Radio - East satellite feed from its transmitter located in Maspeth, Queens. WFME began operations as W2XR, an experimental television station, owned by inventor John V. L. Hogan, operating at 2100 kHz, which went on the air on March 26, 1929. Hogan was a radio engineer who owned many patents, wanted a permit for an experimental station. To avoid interference, the frequency granted in 1934 by the Federal Radio Commission was above the normal broadcasting range, which at that time ended at 1500 kilocycles. Hogan's permit was one of four construction permits. W2XR was licensed as an "experimental broadcast station" on June 29, 1934, but Hogan was a connoisseur of music, he drew on his own record collection to provide the sound for his experiments, which lasted for an hour in the evening. W2XR began to broadcast Classical music recordings on 1550 kHz, his television broadcasts came to naught, but Hogan began to hear from unknown individuals who encouraged him to continue broadcasting music.
In 1936, Hogan and Elliott Sanger formed the Interstate Broadcasting Company, with the intention of turning W2XR into a commercial station at a time when there were about twenty-five radio stations in New York. The transmitter, which used a homemade antenna mounted on a wooden pole, was located in a garage in Long Island City, near the Queensborough Bridge, its 250 watts provided just enough power to reach midtown Manhattan and parts of Queens. On December 3, 1936, W2XR became WQXR, the cursive form of the letter "Q" mimics the number "2". An FM service, W2XQR, was added in 1939; the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement of 1941 formally extended the AM band to 1600 kHz, ending the "high-fidelity" service but keeping all four original stations near their existing dial positions. WQXR was slated to move to 1600 as a five-kilowatt class III-A regional station, but was able to persuade the FCC to make it a class I-B station on 1560 kHz instead; the New York Post approached the company in the early 1940s about purchasing the stations.
Sanger said publicly that he would have preferred to sell to The New York Times, in early 1944, the Times agreed to pay just over $1 million for ownership of Interstate Broadcasting Company. A transfer application was filed with the FCC on March 1, 1944, including a financial statement showing that the stations had made over $22,000 in profits the previous year, on revenues of $411,000, it broadcast classical music full-time. WQXR was the first AM station in New York to experiment with broadcasting in stereo, beginning in 1952. During some of its live concerts, it used two microphones positioned six feet apart; the microphone on the right led to its AM feed, the one on the left to its FM feed, so a listener could position two radios six feet apart, one tuned to 1560 and the other to 96.3, listen in stereo. In 1964, there was controversy. Advertising hard liquor was considered a violation of the voluntary NAB standards. In 1965, the FCC began requiring owned AM and FM stations in large markets to broadcast separate programming for at least part of the day.
WQXR-FM concentrated on longer classical works, while WQXR aired lighter Classical music and talk programs produced in conjunction with The New York Times. While this plan gave Classical music fans in the New York area two options, it increased expenses for the stations. In 1971, the Times put WQXR-AM-FM up for sale. Many offers were received for the FM station, but none of the bids for 1560 AM were satisfactory to management; when the FCC agreed to waive rules prohibiting stations from simulcasting if they were broadcasting classical music, the Times took the WQXR stations off the market. Simulcasting was allowed, for example, for WGMS and WGMS-FM in Washington. On December 2, 1992, the AM side broke away from the simulcast for good, changing to an American popular standards format, inaugurated by a live studio performance by Tony Bennett; the change came a few months after WNEW, New York's heritage popular standards station, announced an impending sale to Bloomberg L. P. and a format switch to business information with the new call letters WBBR.
The format change at 1560 to standards happened 10 days before WNEW's transition. To reflect the heritage of both outlets, WQXR changed its call sign to WQEW; the station focused on a broad range of pop standards–the format's foundation artists including Frank Sinatra, Nat "King" Cole, Ella Fitzgerald, Dean Martin and Perry Como, but artists from the big band era. Light rock'n'roll material such as the Turtles was occasionally heard. Although successful, the station's advertising revenues were not spectacular, older audience demographics were deemed undes
Albany, New York
Albany is the capital of the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Albany is located on the west bank of the Hudson River 10 miles south of its confluence with the Mohawk River and 135 miles north of New York City. Albany is known for its rich history, culture and institutions of higher education. Albany constitutes the economic and cultural core of the Capital District of New York State, which comprises the Albany–Schenectady–Troy, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area, including the nearby cities and suburbs of Troy and Saratoga Springs. With a 2013 Census-estimated population of 1.1 million the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state. As of the 2010 census, the population of Albany was 97,856; the area that became Albany was settled by Dutch colonists who in 1614, built Fort Nassau for fur trading and, in 1624, built Fort Orange. In 1664, the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland.
The city was chartered in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York in 1797 following formation of the United States. Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, is the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade and transportation; the city lies toward the north end of the navigable Hudson River, was the original eastern terminus of the Erie Canal connecting to the Great Lakes, was home to some of the earliest railroad systems in the world. In the 1920s, a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in Albany. In the latter part of the 20th century, Albany experienced a decline in its population due to urban sprawl and suburbanization. In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector. Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States.
The Hudson River area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Mohican, who called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw, meaning "the fireplace of the Mohican nation." Based to the west along the Mohawk River, the Iroquoian-speaking Mohawk referred to it as Sche-negh-ta-da, or "through the pine woods," referring to the path they took there. The Mohawk were one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee, became strong trading partners with the Dutch and English, it is the Albany area was visited by European fur traders as early as 1540, but the extent and duration of those visits has not been determined. Permanent European claims began when Englishman Henry Hudson, exploring for the Dutch East India Company on the Half Moon, reached the area in 1609, claiming it for the United Netherlands. In 1614, Hendrick Christiaensen built Fort Nassau, a fur-trading post and the first documented European structure in present-day Albany. Commencement of the fur trade provoked hostility from the French colony in Canada and among the natives, all of whom vied to control the trade.
In 1618, a flood ruined the fort on Castle Island. Both forts were named in honor of the Dutch royal House of Orange-Nassau. Fort Orange and the surrounding area were incorporated as the village of Beverwijck in 1652. In these early decades of trade, the Dutch and Mohawk developed relations that reflected differences among their three cultures; when New Netherland was captured by the English in 1664, the name was changed from Beverwijck to Albany in honor of the Duke of Albany. Duke of Albany was a Scottish title given since 1398 to a younger son of the King of Scots; the name is derived from Alba, the Gaelic name for Scotland. The Dutch regained Albany in August 1673 and renamed the city Willemstadt. On November 1, 1683, the Province of New York was split into counties, with Albany County being the largest. At that time the county included all of present New York State north of Dutchess and Ulster Counties in addition to present-day Bennington County, theoretically stretching west to the Pacific Ocean.
Albany was formally chartered as a municipality by provincial Governor Thomas Dongan on July 22, 1686. The Dongan Charter was identical in content to the charter awarded to the city of New York three months earlier. Dongan created Albany as a strip of land 16 miles long. Over the years Albany would lose much of the land to the annex land to the north and south. At this point, Albany had a population of about 500 people. In 1754, representatives of seven British North American colonies met in the Stadt Huys, Albany's city hall, for the Albany Congress. Although it was never adopted by Parliament, it was an important precursor to the United States Constitution; the same year, the fourth in a series of wars dating back to 1689, began.
Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk blues. Country music consists of ballads and dance tunes with simple forms, folk lyrics, harmonies accompanied by string instruments such as banjos and acoustic guitars, steel guitars, fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, second most popular in the morning commute; the term country music is used today to describe many subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.
Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America brought the music and instruments of Europe along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon." The U. S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage; the first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music The Carter Family.
Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. During the second generation, radio became a popular source of entertainment, "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, as far west as California; the most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who appeared in Hollywood westerns, his mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie".
The third generation started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, dobro or steel guitar became popular among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma, it became known as honky tonk, had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, honky tonk was played by most country bands. Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre. Beginning in the mid-1950s, reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.
The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Fourth generation music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a se