Farmington is a town in Hartford County in the Farmington Valley area of central Connecticut in the United States. The population was 25,340 at the 2010 census, it sits 10 miles west of Hartford at the hub of major I-84 interchanges, 20 miles south of Bradley International Airport and 2-hours by car from NYC and Boston. It is home to the world headquarters of several large corporations including United Technologies, Otis Elevator Company, Carvel; the northwest section of Farmington has a Unionville suburban neighborhood. Farmington was inhabited by the Tunxis Indian tribe. In 1640, a community of English immigrants was established by residents of Hartford, making Farmington the oldest inland settlement west of the Connecticut River and the twelfth oldest community in the state. Settlers found the area ideal because of its rich soil, location along the floodplain of the Farmington River, valley geography; the town and river were given their present names in 1645, considered the incorporation year of the town.
The town's boundaries were enlarged several times, making it the largest in the Connecticut Colony. The town was named "Farmington" on account of its location within a farming district. Farmington has been called the "mother of towns" because its vast area was divided to produce nine other central Connecticut communities; the borough of Unionville, in Farmington's northwest corner, was once home to many factories harnessing the water power of the Farmington River. Farmington is steeped in New England history. Main Street, in the historic village section, is lined with colonial estates, some of which date back to the 17th century. During the Revolutionary War, George Washington passed through Farmington on several occasions and referred to the town as "the village of pretty houses." In addition, French troops under General Rochambeau encamped in Farmington en route to Westchester County to offer crucial support to General Washington's army. The majority of Farmington residents were active in aiding escaped slaves.
Several homes in the town were "safe houses" on the Underground Railroad. The town became known as "Grand Central Station" among escaped slaves and their "guides". Farmington played an important role in the famous Amistad trial. In 1841, 38 Mende Africans and Cinqué, the leader of the revolt on the Amistad slave ship, were housed and educated in Farmington after the U. S. government refused to provide for their return to Africa following the trial. The Mende were educated in English and Christianity while funds were raised by residents for their return to Africa; the Farmington Canal, connecting New Haven with Northampton, passed through the Farmington River on its eastern bank and was in operation between 1828 and 1848. The canal's right of way and towpath were used for a railroad, portions of which were active up to the 1990s. Part of the canal and railroad line has now been converted to a multi-use trail. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 28.8 square miles, of which 28.0 square miles is land and 0.77 square miles, or 2.65%, is water.
After its founding, Farmington gave up territory to form Southington, Avon and parts of Berlin and Bloomfield. Farmington presently borders the towns of Avon, Newington, West Hartford, Plainville, the cities of New Britain and Bristol. Farmington is wooded, but there are meadows and hills in the east and southeast. There are numerous ponds and lakes; the Farmington River runs through the town from the northwest from Burlington, enters Unionville takes a sharp turn near Farmington Center and flows north towards Avon. The Metacomet Ridge, a 100-mile range of low traprock mountain ridges, occupies the east side of Farmington as Pinnacle Rock, Rattlesnake Mountain, Farmington Mountain, Talcott Mountain; the ridge is traversed by the 51-mile-long Metacomet Trail, a hiking trail, contains several rock walls and chimneys suitable for technical climbing in places such as Pinnacle Rock and the Green Wall. These climbing areas, as well as several other rock climbing locations in central Connecticut, are documented in the 1995 book Hooked on Traprock.
As of the census of 2010, there were 25,340 people, 9,496 households, 6,333 families residing in the town. The population density was 879.9 people per square mile. There were 11,072 housing units at an average density of 351.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 85.92% White, 2.21% African American, 0.04% Native American, 9.59% Asian, 0.49% from other races, 2.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.98% of the population. There were 10,522 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.7% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.7% were non-families. 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.00. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.0% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, 15.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years.
For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.3 males. The mean income for a household in town is $133,160, the mean income for a family is $159,834). Males had a median income of $80,182 versus $61,098 for females; the per capita income for the town was $54,754. About 3.1% of families and 5.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over
Hartford is the capital city of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960; the city is nicknamed the "Insurance Capital of the World", as it hosts many insurance company headquarters and is the region's major industry. It is the core city in the Greater Hartford area of Connecticut. Census estimates since the 2010 United States Census have indicated that Hartford is the fourth-largest city in Connecticut, behind the coastal cities of Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford. Hartford is among the oldest cities in the United States, it is home to the nation's oldest public art museum, the oldest publicly funded park, the oldest continuously published newspaper, the second-oldest secondary school. It is home to the Mark Twain House, where the author wrote his most famous works and raised his family, among other significant sites. Mark Twain wrote in 1868, "Of all the beautiful towns it has been my fortune to see this is the chief." Hartford was the richest city in the United States for several decades following the American Civil War.
Today, it is one of the poorest cities in the nation, with 3 out of every 10 families living below the poverty threshold. In sharp contrast, the Greater Hartford metropolitan area is ranked 32nd of 318 metropolitan areas in total economic production and 8th out of 280 metropolitan statistical areas in per capita income. Hartford coordinates certain Hartford-Springfield regional development matters through the Knowledge Corridor economic partnership. Various tribes lived around Hartford, all part of the Algonquin people; these included the Podunks east of the Connecticut River. The first Europeans known to have explored the area were the Dutch under Adriaen Block, who sailed up the Connecticut in 1614. Dutch fur traders from New Amsterdam returned in 1623 with a mission to establish a trading post and fortify the area for the Dutch West India Company; the original site was located on the south bank of the Park River in the present-day Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhood. This fort was called Fort Hoop or the "House of Hope."
In 1633, Jacob Van Curler formally bought the land around Fort Hoop from the Pequot chief for a small sum. It was home to a couple families and a few dozen soldiers; the fort was abandoned by 1654. The Dutch outpost and the tiny contingent of Dutch soldiers who were stationed there did little to check the English migration, the Dutch soon realized that they were vastly outnumbered; the House of Hope remained an outpost, but it was swallowed up by waves of English settlers. In 1650, Peter Stuyvesant met with English representatives to negotiate a permanent boundary between the Dutch and English colonies; the English began to arrive in 1636, settling upstream from Fort Hoop near the present-day Downtown and Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhoods. Puritan pastors Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone, along with Governor John Haynes, led 100 settlers with 130 head of cattle in a trek from Newtown in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and started their settlement just north of the Dutch fort; the settlement was called Newtown, but it was changed to Hartford in 1637 in honor of Stone's hometown of Hertford, England.
The etymology of Hartford is the ford where harts cross, or "deer crossing." The Seal of the City of Hartford features a male deer. The fledgling colony along the Connecticut River was outside of the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts Bay Colony's charter and had to determine how it was to be governed. Therefore, Hooker delivered a sermon that inspired the writing of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, a document ratified January 14, 1639 which invested the people with the authority to govern, rather than ceding such authority to a higher power. Historians suggest that Hooker's conception of self-rule embodied in the Fundamental Orders inspired the Connecticut Constitution, the U. S. Constitution. Today, one of Connecticut's nicknames is the "Constitution State."The original settlement area contained the site of the Charter Oak, an old white oak tree in which colonists hid Connecticut's Royal Charter of 1662 to protect it from confiscation by an English governor-general. The state adopted the oak tree as the emblem on the Connecticut state quarter.
The Charter Oak Monument is located at the corner of Charter Oak Place, a historic street, Charter Oak Avenue. Throughout the 19th century, Hartford's residential population, economic productivity, cultural influence, concentration of political power continued to grow; the advance of the Industrial Revolution in Hartford in the mid-1800s made this city by late century one of the wealthiest per capita in United States. On December 15, 1814, delegates from the five New England states gathered at the Hartford Convention to discuss New England's possible secession from the United States. During the early 19th century, the Hartford area was a center of abolitionist activity, the most famous abolitionist family was the Beechers; the Reverend Lyman Beecher was an important Congregational minister known for his anti-slavery sermons. His daughter Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin.
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, applied to the antenna; when excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons; the term transmitter is limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes. Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes, such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment, are not called transmitters though they have similar circuits; the term is popularly used more to refer to a broadcast transmitter, a transmitter used in broadcasting, as in FM radio transmitter or television transmitter.
This usage includes both the transmitter proper, the antenna, the building it is housed in. A transmitter can be a separate piece of electronic equipment, or an electrical circuit within another electronic device. A transmitter and a receiver combined in one unit is called a transceiver; the term transmitter is abbreviated "XMTR" or "TX" in technical documents. The purpose of most transmitters is radio communication of information over a distance; the information is provided to the transmitter in the form of an electronic signal, such as an audio signal from a microphone, a video signal from a video camera, or in wireless networking devices, a digital signal from a computer. The transmitter combines the information signal to be carried with the radio frequency signal which generates the radio waves, called the carrier signal; this process is called modulation. The information can be added to the carrier in several different ways, in different types of transmitters. In an amplitude modulation transmitter, the information is added to the radio signal by varying its amplitude.
In a frequency modulation transmitter, it is added by varying the radio signal's frequency slightly. Many other types of modulation are used; the radio signal from the transmitter is applied to the antenna, which radiates the energy as radio waves. The antenna may be enclosed inside the case or attached to the outside of the transmitter, as in portable devices such as cell phones, walkie-talkies, garage door openers. In more powerful transmitters, the antenna may be located on top of a building or on a separate tower, connected to the transmitter by a feed line, a transmission line. Electromagnetic waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration. Radio waves, electromagnetic waves of radio frequency, are generated by time-varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing through a metal conductor called an antenna which are changing their velocity or direction and thus accelerating. An alternating current flowing back and forth in an antenna will create an oscillating magnetic field around the conductor.
The alternating voltage will charge the ends of the conductor alternately positive and negative, creating an oscillating electric field around the conductor. If the frequency of the oscillations is high enough, in the radio frequency range above about 20 kHz, the oscillating coupled electric and magnetic fields will radiate away from the antenna into space as an electromagnetic wave, a radio wave. A radio transmitter is an electronic circuit which transforms electric power from a power source into a radio frequency alternating current to apply to the antenna, the antenna radiates the energy from this current as radio waves; the transmitter impresses information such as an audio or video signal onto the radio frequency current to be carried by the radio waves. When they strike the antenna of a radio receiver, the waves excite similar radio frequency currents in it; the radio receiver extracts the information from the received waves. A practical radio transmitter consists of these parts: A power supply circuit to transform the input electrical power to the higher voltages needed to produce the required power output.
An electronic oscillator circuit to generate the radio frequency signal. This generates a sine wave of constant amplitude called the carrier wave, because it serves to "carry" the information through space. In most modern transmitters, this is a crystal oscillator in which the frequency is controlled by the vibrations of a quartz crystal; the frequency of the carrier wave is considered the frequency of the transmitter. A modulator circuit to add the information to be transmitted to the carrier wave produced by the oscillator; this is done by varying some aspect of the carrier wave. The information is provided to the transmitter either in the form of an audio signal, which represents sound, a video signal which represents moving images, or for data in the form of a binary digital signal which represents a sequence of bits, a bitstream. Different types of transmitters use different modulation methods to transmit information: In an AM transmitter the amplitude of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to the modulation signal.
In an FM transmitter the frequency of the carrier is varied by the modulation signal. In an FSK transmitter, which transmits digital data, the frequency of the carrier is shifted between two frequencies which represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1. Many oth
Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both; the signal types can be digital audio. The earliest radio stations did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated; the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an "oscillation valve"; the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the reverse direction because the plate was not heated and thus not capable of thermionic emission of electrons. Known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and as a radio wave detector; this improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cat's whisker.
However, what was still required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4, 1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25, 1906, Lee De Forest patented his three-element Audion, it wasn't put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was becoming viable. However, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. While many early experimenters attempted to create systems similar to radiotelephone devices by which only two parties were meant to communicate, there were others who intended to transmit to larger audiences. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year.. In The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6, 1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station.
In 1916, Frank Conrad, an electrical engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania garage with the call letters 8XK. The station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2, 1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America; the commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license. The first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself: the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election; the Montreal station that became CFCF began broadcast programming on May 20, 1920, the Detroit station that became WWJ began program broadcasts beginning on August 20, 1920, although neither held a license at the time. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconi's New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920, where she sang two arias and her famous trill.
She was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922; the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923. Radio Argentina began scheduled transmissions from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires on August 27, 1920, making its own priority claim; the station got its license on November 19, 1923. The delay was due to the lack of official Argentine licensing procedures before that date; this station continued regular broadcasting of entertainment and cultural fare for several decades. Radio in education soon followed and colleges across the U. S. began adding radio broadcasting courses to their curricula. Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts introduced one of the first broadcasting majors in 1932 when the college teamed up with WLOE in Boston to have students broadcast programs.
Broadcasting service is – according to Article 1.38 of the International Telecommunication Union´s Radio Regulations – defined as «A radiocommunication service in which the transmission are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmission.» Definitions identical to those contained in the Annexes to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union are marked "" or "" respectively. A radio broadcasting station is associated with wireless transmission, though in practice broadcasting transmission take place using both wires and radio waves; the point of this is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can receive the broadcast. In line to ITU Radio Regulations each broadcasting station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. Broadcasting by radio takes several forms; these include FM stations. There are several subtypes, namely commercial broadcasting, non-commercial educational public broadcasting and non-profit varieties as well as community radio, student-run campus radio stations, and
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity; the use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations, there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram. In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose; this pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation. These were not globally unique, so a one-letter company identifier was added. By 1912, the need to identify stations operated by multiple companies in multiple nations required an international standard. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities.
In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned call signs beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were assigned call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters. Ships equipped with Morse code radiotelegraphy, or life boat radio sets, Aviation ground stations, broadcast stations were given four letter call signs. Maritime coast stations on high frequency were assigned three letter call signs; as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels with radiotelephony only were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US still wishing to have a radio license are under FCC class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped."
Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47-foot motor lifeboats; the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Aviation mobile stations equipped with radiotelegraphy were assigned five letter call signs.. Land Stations in Aviation were assigned four letter call signs; these call signs were phased out in the 1960s when flight radio officers were no longer required on international flights. USSR kept FRO's for the Moscow-Havana run until around 2000. All signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation and whether or not the caller is in an aircraft or at a ground facility.
In most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircraft's registration number. In this case, the call sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, followed by a unique identifier made up of letters and numbers. For example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would omit saying November, instead use the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the specific model. At times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters; this is true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions or at towered airports after establishing two-way communication with the tower controller. For example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base.
In most countries, the aircraft call sign or "tail number"/"tail letters" are linked to the international radio call sign allocation table and follow a convention that aircraft radio stations receive call signs consisting of five letters. For example, all British civil aircraft have a five-letter call sign beginning with the letter G. Canadian aircraft have a call sign beginning with C–F or C–G, such as C–FABC. Wing In Ground-effect vehicles in Canada are eligible to receive C–Hxxx call signs, ultralight aircraft receive C-Ixxx call signs. In days gone by American aircraft used five letter call signs, such as KH–ABC, but they were replaced prior to World War II by the current American system of civilian aircraft call signs. Radio call signs used for communication in manned spaceflight is not formalized or regulated to the same degree as for aircraft; the three nations curren
Height above average terrain
Height above average terrain, or effective height above average terrain, is a measure of how high an antenna site is above the surrounding landscape. HAAT is used extensively in FM radio and television, as it is more important than effective radiated power in determining the range of broadcasts. For international coordination, it is measured in meters by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States, as Canada and Mexico have extensive border zones where stations can be received on either side of the international boundaries. Stations that want to increase above a certain HAAT must reduce their power accordingly, based on the maximum distance their station class is allowed to cover; the FCC procedure to calculate HAAT is: from the proposed or actual antenna site, either 12 or 16 radials were drawn, points at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 miles radius along each radial were used. The entire radial graph could be rotated to achieve the best effect for the station; the altitude of the antenna site, minus the average altitude of all the specified points, is the HAAT.
This can create some unusual cases in mountainous regions—it is possible to have a negative number for HAAT. The FCC has divided the Contiguous United States into three zones for the determination of spacing between FM and TV stations using the same frequencies. FM and TV stations are assigned maximum ERP and HAAT values, depending on their assigned zones, to prevent co-channel interference; the FCC regulations for ERP and HAAT are listed under Title 47, Part 73 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Maximum HAAT: 150 metres Maximum ERP: 50 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 241 km Maximum HAAT: 600 metres Maximum ERP: 100 kilowatts Minimum co-channel separation: 290 km. In all zones, maximum ERP for analog TV transmitters is. In addition, Zone I-A consists of all of California south of 40° north latitude, Puerto Rico and the U. S. Virgin Islands. Zones I and I-A have the most "grandfathered" overpowered stations, which are allowed the same extended coverage areas that they had before the zones were established.
One of the most powerful of these stations is WBCT in Grand Rapids, which operates at 320,000 watts and 238 meters HAAT. Zone III consists of all of Florida and the areas of Alabama, Louisiana and Texas within 241.4 kilometers of the Gulf of Mexico. Zone II is all the rest of the Continental United States and Hawaii. Above mean sea level Above ground level Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission List of broadcast station classes United States Federal Communications Commission 47 CFR Part 73 Index FCC: Mass Media Calculated Contours FCC: HAAT Calculator "Superpower" Grandfathered FM stations
WZMX, better known as "Hot 93.7" is an urban-leaning Rhythmic Contemporary station licensed to Hartford, Connecticut, in the United States. The Entercom-owned outlet broadcasts at 93.7 megahertz. The station's current slogan is "Hartford's #1 for Hip-Hop and R&B", its transmitter is located in Meriden, it has studios are located on Executive Drive in Farmington, Connecticut. The 93.7 frequency first signed on in the late 1960s as WLVH, the first Spanish-language radio station in the state of Connecticut. Though the station had a loyal audience, the concept of a Spanish-language FM station in an area with a small Hispanic population was seen as being ahead of its time. With FM prices rising, WLVH bought 1550 kHz, in 1991, sold 93.7 to American Radio Systems, with WLVH moving to AM. With ARS's takeover came the change to a stunt with the local NOAA Weather Radio signal for a week before the launch of the new format: hot adult contemporary, as WZMX, chosen for the station's "Mix 93.7" format by Program Director Herb Crowe and midday personality Ron O.
The "Mix" format promised listeners a mix of different varieties of music with little talk or DJ chatter, a directive reflected in the slogan "Four songs in a row - No talk". Other DJs included WTIC-FM alums and husband/wife team Jonathan Monk and Diana Kelly in mornings, Production Coordinator Ron O in middays, Neil Jackson in afternoons, Ted Dalaku in evenings, Danny Wright in overnights. In spite of being a "new" station for the majority of the market's listeners, the "Mix" format began well, but it started to flounder; the purchase of rival WTIC-FM by ARS in 1994 and its subsequent conversion to a hot AC format led ARS to flip the younger WZMX to an all-70s hits format in the middle of that year. To boost the station's listenership, WZMX hired popular morning drive host Sebastian away from WCCC-FM in February 1995, engaged well-known announcer Chuck Riley to be the station's voiceover talent. After a downturn in 1996, the station added 1960s and 1980s music and reimaged itself as "Classic Hits 93-7".
The "Classic Hits" period produced a lot of creative programming, such as "Saturday specials" which followed a theme, ran countdowns that at times featured hundreds of songs, was the Connecticut home of New England Patriots football games and an overflow home of Hartford Whalers hockey games. By 1998, "Classic Hits" had run its course, rumors of a format change circulated. After CBS Radio took over the ARS stations that spring, WZMX's format evolved into a broad-based, classic-leaning, rock format as "The Point"; this format never had any sort of success, on May 6, 1999, at 10 a.m. WZMX flipped to a "Jammin' Oldies"-style format as "Dancin' Oldies Z93.7". The first song on "Z" was "Celebration" by the Gang; as with other stations in that format, the format had early success, but soon dropped in the ratings, was still the lowest-rated station in the Hartford market. On March 16, 2001, at 5 p.m. WZMX flipped to an urban-leaning rhythmic format as "Hot 93.7", based on that of sister station WPGC-FM in Washington, D.
C.. The last song on "Z" was "Last Dance" by Donna Summer, while the first song on "Hot" was "Stutter" by Joe; the first station playing such a format on FM in the Hartford, New Haven and Springfield markets, WZMX would soon become a regular Top 5 station and has been the #1 station in the market. Coincidentally, that same format had been proposed as a replacement twice before, but was rejected for fear that it would not work in the Hartford market; the success of "Hot 93.7" led to the launch of rival WPHH in 2003, which had a limited effect on WZMX's success. WPHH was the sister station of Mainstream Top 40-formatted WKSS, whose once-dominant hold on Hartford's Top 40 scene would take a major beating in the wake of WZMX's arrival, which in turn may have served as one of the reason behind WPHH's debut. WZMX has competition with WKSS and WPHH's sister station in New Haven, Top 40-formatted WKCI, which has seen its listener base erode after Hot 93.7's debut. In August 2006, R&R moved WZMX from the Rhythmic Airplay panel to the Urban Contemporary Airplay panel, but in May 2007, placed the station back on the Rhythmic panel due to a shift in its direction which now favors a more broader Rhythmic playlist.
This format redirection was done to protect from excessive competition with then-Urban formatted WPHH, thus giving the market two Hip Hop/R&B stations with different formats at the time. But with the shift, WZMX continued to lead the competition in the Hartford Arbitrons. On October 25, 2007, WPHH flipped formats to Alternative, thus leaving WZMX as the area's only outlet for Hip-Hop and R&B; the station competes with an urban adult contemporary-formatted station, WYBC-FM, from New Haven. On February 2, 2017, CBS Radio announced; the merger was approved on November 9, 2017, was consummated on the 17th. WZMX-HD1 Rhythmic Contemporary WZMX-HD2 Classic hip-hop Hot 93.7 website Query the FCC's FM station database for WZMX Radio-Locator information on WZMX Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WZMX