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WTVG, virtual and VHF digital channel 13, is a dual ABC/CW-affiliated television station licensed to Toledo, United States, serving northwest Ohio and southeast Michigan. The station is owned by Gray Television. WTVG's studios are located on Dorr Street in Toledo, its transmitter is located on Stadium Road in Oregon, Ohio; the station signed on the air on July 21, 1948 as WSPD-TV, owned by Storer Broadcasting along with WSPD radio. The studios were located at 136 Huron Street in downtown Toledo, it was Toledo's first television station, the first television station in the Storer Broadcasting chain. The station carried programming from all four television networks: ABC, NBC, CBS and DuMont. However, it was a primary NBC affiliate, owing to its radio sisters' long affiliation with NBC radio. DuMont shut down in 1955. In 1958, however, CBS moved its affiliation to newly signed-on WTOL-TV, owing to its long affiliation with WTOL radio. WSPD kept its NBC affiliations. WTOL picked up NBC programming not carried by WSPD-TV, in 1965, became a co-affiliate of NBC with WSPD-TV.

In 1961, WSPD radio moved to new studios in downtown Toledo, where they remain, WSPD-TV's studio building was remodeled within a year. WSPD-TV became an exclusive NBC affiliate in 1970 when Overmyer Broadcasting owner of then-independent WDHO-TV, persuaded ABC to move its affiliation there. By WSPD-TV had become the first station in northwest Ohio to broadcast in color. Storer owned WJBK-AM-FM-TV in Detroit and WJW-AM-FM-TV in Cleveland. Both WJBK-TV and WJW-TV were longstanding CBS affiliates. WSPD-TV provided city-grade coverage to most of Detroit's suburbs, while its grade B signal could be seen in Detroit and Cleveland; the Federal Communications Commission grandfathered this situation under its "one-to-a-market" rule in the 1970s. Storer sold off WSPD-FM, WJW-FM, WJBK-AM-FM in the early 1970s, WJW-AM in 1977, WSPD-AM in 1979, but kept channel 13, as a result of an FCC rule in place that stated that TV and radio stations in the same market, but with differing owners having to have different callsigns, became WTVG on October 1 of that year.

By the studio building on Huron Street had been outgrown and WTVG moved into its current studio building in southwest Toledo on Dorr Street. As with most Storer stations, the studio's facade has a Georgian mansion design, complete with columns; the Storer stations were taken over by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. in 1985. As a result, WTVG lost its grandfathered protection and was not sold to Gillett Communications along with the other Storer stations in 1987. Instead, it was sold to a local employee/investor group called Toledo Television, Inc. Toledo Television, in turn was bought out by SJL Broadcast Management in 1991. In 1994, New World Communications, the owner of most of WTVG's former sister stations, signed an affiliation deal with the Fox Broadcasting Company, resulting in most of New World's stations switching affiliation to Fox, but some stayed with NBC. Among the stations due to switch were WJBK, Detroit's longtime CBS affiliate, Cleveland's longtime CBS affiliate WJW-TV. To avoid being consigned to UHF in what was the ninth-largest market and 15th largest market, CBS wooed Detroit's longtime ABC affiliate, WXYZ-TV, WEWS, Cleveland's longtime ABC affiliate.

The E. W. Scripps Company, owner of WXYZ and WEWS told ABC that unless it agreed to affiliate with their stations in Phoenix and Baltimore, it would switch WXYZ to CBS. Scripps threatened to switch WEWS to CBS; as a contingency, ABC approached SJL about buying WJRT-TV in Flint, Michigan. As mentioned above, WTVG provides grade B coverage of Detroit itself and city-grade coverage to most of Detroit's suburbs, as well as Grade B coverage to the Sandusky and Norwalk areas in Ohio; the deal, valued at $120 million, closed on August 29, 1995. However, WTVG's affiliation contract didn't run out until October, so ABC had to run WTVG as an NBC affiliate for two months while NBC looked for a new affiliate in the area. On October 28, 1995, WTVG rejoined ABC, sending the NBC affiliation to WNWO-TV; as it turned out, ABC agreed to the affiliation deal with Scripps as well, WXYZ and WEWS retained their ABC affiliations. ABC chose not to trade its newly acquired stations for former O&O WXYZ-TV because of ABC's ownership of WJR-AM and two other FM stations in Detroit.

In 1996, Capital Cities/ABC was acquired by Disney. WTVG was the smallest station in the country, an O&O of any major network, not counting semi-satellites; because of its status as an O&O, WTVG aired the Veterans Day airing of the film Saving Private Ryan in 2004, while many affiliates preempted it out of fears of being fined by the FCC for indecency in the wake of the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show controversy. In fact and Sinclair Broadcast Group decided to preempt the film on all of its ABC affiliates. Among the then-seven ABC affiliates in or serving Ohio at the time, this left WTVG and WYTV in Youngstown as the only ABC stations in Ohio to air the film, it was determined that the movie showing was not a violation of FCC

Policy of Truth

"Policy of Truth" is a song by English electronic band Depeche Mode, released in May 1990 as the third single from their seventh studio album Violator. Although the song was less successful than the first two singles before, it is the only Depeche Mode single to chart higher on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart than on the UK Singles Chart, as well as peaking at number two on the Billboard Dance Club Songs chart, it became the band's second chart-topper on the Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart. François Kevorkian mixed a new single version for the release, extending it while lowering the tempo, making Dave Gahan's vocals more prominent, he mixed the Beat Box Mix and the Pavlov's Dub. The Trancentral Mix is by The KLF, a popular Acid House band at that time and one of only 3 occasions they did remix work for other artists; the "Capitol Mix" uses the sample "I want to tell you my side of the case" from the Checkers speech by Richard Nixon. A version of "Kaleid" was used as intro music for Depeche Mode's World Violation Tour in 1990.

The music video for "Policy of Truth" is directed by Anton Corbijn and appears on the VHS collection Strange Too. 7", Cassette: Mute / Bong19, CBong19 "Policy of Truth" "Kaleid" 12": Mute / 12Bong19 "Policy of Truth " "Policy of Truth " "Kaleid " 12": Mute / L12Bong19 "Policy of Truth " "Kaleid " "Policy of Truth " CD: Mute / CDBong19 "Policy of Truth " "Policy of Truth " "Kaleid " CD: Mute / LCDBong19 "Policy Of Truth" "Kaleid" "Policy Of Truth" "Policy Of Truth" "Kaleid CD: Mute / CDBong19X "Policy of Truth" "Kaleid" "Policy of Truth " "Policy of Truth " "Kaleid " "Policy of Truth " "Kaleid " "Policy of Truth " This CD is the 2004 re-release CD: Sire/Reprise / 9 21534-2 "Policy of Truth" "Policy of Truth " "Policy of Truth " "Kaleid " "Policy of Truth ""Pavlov's Dub" is mislabeled on the Sire/Reprise version's cover art as the "Trancentral Mix"Released 22 May 1990 All songs written by Martin L. Gore David Gahan – lead vocals and backing vocals, sampler Martin Goreguitar, sampler, backing vocals Alan Wildersynthesizers, drum machine, backing vocals Andrew Fletcher – synthesizers, sampler List of Billboard Mainstream Rock number-one songs of the 1990s Single information from the official Depeche Mode web site Allmusic review Video on YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Eagle Riders

Eagle Riders is an American animated television adaptation of the Japanese anime series Gatchaman II and Gatchaman Fighter, which have been combined together. It was produced by Saban Entertainment. All 65 episodes aired in Australia on Network Ten from August 14, 1997, to December 4, 1997. In the United States, 13 episodes had aired in first-run syndication during the fall of 1996 and 1997. Earth is under siege from the alien menace known only by the name Cybercon and its legion of android forces, the Vorak; the Global Security Council convenes to address this problem, calls upon Dr. Thaddeus Keane for assistance, they remember the aid they had received from the Eagle Riders, in years past. Keane assures them that the Eagle Riders are still together, still strong, armed with brand new weapons. Saban first trademarked the show's name in 1995, recorded their dub afterwards. In a 2006 interview, one of the writers, Marc Handler, stated that Eagle Riders was "not a good rendition", that the scripts lacked continuity with each other.

Several episodes were credited as being written by R. D. Smithee, a pseudonym similar to the Alan Smithee pseudonym, used when writers and directors are too ashamed to have their names credited in projects they have worked on. Both series were edited when it came to the adaptation process, with controversial elements removed, as well as the entire soundtrack being replaced; as with previous English adaptations of Gatchaman, character names and terms were changed in the localization. One notable example of the changes made to the series is the removal of Mallanox's origin and transformation, which happened in the premiere episode of the original Gatchaman II; the character was changed from female to male, though her correct gender and origin were reinstated in dub episodes. Another change, made to segue the two series together, involved the finale of Gatchaman II and the first episode of Gatchaman Fighter being merged, as well as the death of Gel Sadra being cut. Instead, Mallanox is said to have been transformed into a new form, named Happy Boy.

The final eight episodes of Gatchaman Fighter were never translated, due to the objectionable content involved. Instead, the 15th episode of Gatchaman Fighter served as the series finale. During its 1996–97 syndication run in the US, the show was being aired alongside the first season of Dragon Ball Z, another anime, adapted in conjunction with Saban Entertainment. At the time, the two programs attracted minor controversy. A 1997 report on violence in television by UCLA stated that "Eagle Riders and Dragon Ball Z both contain images of mean-spirited, glorified fighting. One episode of Eagle Riders shows a hero viciously throwing metal stars in the faces of different villains."Even after the syndication run had ended, the initial 13 episodes were still being aired on certain local stations as late as summer 1997, before the remaining 52 episodes saw a release in Australia from August 1997 to December 1997. They aired at 7.30am Mondays to Thursdays on the morning cartoon block Cheez TV. In Eagle Riders' run in America, only a select 13 of the 65 episodes were aired, with a few of them having been picked from in the series.

Eagle Riders was one of the first series broadcast on the UK's version of Fox Kids, although the entire series was never shown, stopping at episode 47. The episodes excluded from Gatchaman II in the adaptation include: 6, 16, 17, 28, 35. Episodes 3, 4, 8-11, 13, 14, 16–19, 21–24, 26, 27, 29, 34, 38–39, 41-48 of Gatchaman Fighter were untranslated, though footage from the finale made it into the opening sequence and as stock footage in one episode; when Eagle Riders began adapting Gatchaman Fighter, Saban cut and merged parts of episodes into single stories, along with merging the finale of Gatchaman II with the premiere of Fighter. ‡The original Japanese-language version of Gatchaman contains a small amount of words in English. Owned and distributed by: Saban Entertainment Executive Producer: Eric S. Rollman Producer & Story Editor: Rita M. Acosta Writer: R. D. Smithee, Marc Handler Voice Directors: Richard Epcar, Steve Kramer, Heidi Noelle Lenhart, Michael Sorich Production Assistant & ADR Coordinator: Gregory C. Ireland Executive in Charge of Sound Operations: Clive H. Mizumoto Sound Operations Manager: Xavier Garcia Sound Effects Editors: Keith Dickens, Martin Flores, Zoli Osaze, Ron Salaises, John Valentino Re-Recording Mixers: Michael Beirenger, Mark Ettel, R.

D. Floyd, Wayne T. O'Brien ADR Recordists: Carl Lange, Kevin Newson, David W. Barr Foley Artists: Susan Lewis, Kalea Morton, Taryn Simone Audio Assistants: Brian Densmore, Andrew Kines, Don Sexton Music by: Shuki Levy, Kussa Mahchi Executive in Charge of Music: Ron Kenan Music Supervisor: Lloyd Michael Cook II Music Editors: Barron Abramovitch, Bill Filipiak Music Engineer: Barron Abramovitch Second Engineers: James Dijulio, Frank Bailey-Meier Music Assistants: Jeremy Sweet, Tim Gosselin Offline Editor: Terry Marlin Video Traffic Coordinator: Jerry Buetnner Post Production Audio: Advantage Audio Sound Effects Editor: Robert Duran Dialogue Editor: Robbi Smith Music Editor: Marc S. Perlman Audio Transfer: J. Lampinen Re-Recording Mixers: Fil Brown, Ray Leonard, Mike Beiriger, Jim Hodson, Mellisa Gentry-Ellis Online Editors: Michael Hutchinson, Harvey Landy, John Bowen, David Crosthwait Telecine: Lee Ann Went, Greg Hamlin, Larry Field, Brent Eldridge Post Production Supervisor: John Bryant Post Pr

Stearman C2

The Stearman C2 was the second aircraft type designed by the Stearman Aircraft company. The aircraft first flew in 1927; the airframe of the C2 was identical to the model C1. Differences included an aileron control system that actuated the single set ailerons on the upper wings via torque tubes internal to the upper wings rather than from vertical push-pull rods connected to the lower wings. All further C-series Stearmans had this system. Various types of engines were installed on C2 aircraft; some were air cooled. Unlike the model C1 that had the radiator located in the nose cowl, Stearman C2 aircraft with liquid-cooled engines installed had the radiator located between the main gear legs; when the follow-on but similar model C3 became the first Stearman aircraft to receive a type certificate, some of the C2B aircraft were approved as C3B aircraft. The most popular version of the type was the C2B; the C2M was powered by a 200 hp Wright J4 radial engine and had modifications to meet the specifications of Varney Airlines.

This included having the front cockpit replaced by a covered mail pit. In total, 33 model C2 aircraft were manufactured with the first three built in the original Stearman plant in Venice, California. Variants produced were: C2 and C2A 90 hp liquid-cooled Curtiss OX-5 engine C2B 220 hp Wright J5 air-cooled radial engine. Left and right side throttle installed as standard. C2C C2 model with a 180 hp Wright/Martin Hispano Suiza liquid-cooled V-8 engine C2H 280 hp Menasco-Salmson air-cooled radial engine and counter-clockwise rotating propeller. Custom-built aircraft with experimental "speed wings" C2K 128 hp Siemens-Halske SH-12 air-cooled radial engine C2M 200 hp 9-cylinder Wright J4 air-cooled radial engine. Front cockpit replaced by a covered mail pit. Reinforced windshield to prevent cargo loading damage

Soviet–Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956

The Soviet Union did not sign the Treaty of Peace with Japan in 1951. On October 19, 1956, Japan and the Soviet Union signed a Joint Declaration providing for the end of the state of war, for restoration of diplomatic relations between USSR and Japan; the two parties agreed to continue negotiations for a peace treaty. In addition, the Soviet Union pledged to support Japan for the UN membership and waive all World War II reparations claims; the joint declaration was accompanied by a trade protocol that granted reciprocal most-favored-nation treatment and provided for the development of trade. Japan derived few apparent gains from the normalization of diplomatic relations; the second half of the 1950s saw an increase in cultural exchanges. The Joint Declaration provided, in its article 9, for continuation of negotiations for the conclusion of a peace treaty after the restoration of diplomatic relations between the countries and further stipulated, that "in this connexion, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, desiring to meet the wishes of Japan and taking into consideration the interests of the Japanese State, agrees to transfer to Japan the Habomai Islands and the island of Shikoton, the actual transfer of these islands to Japan to take place after the conclusion of a Peace Treaty between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Japan".

At the time, the United States threatened to keep Okinawa if Japan gave away the other islands, preventing the negotiation of the promised treaty. Moreover, while the clause was based upon agreement between the two nations, each came to interpret it differently; the Soviet Union maintained, that the territorial problem had become a closed book, that territorial demarcation won't be discussed beyond the promised transfer of two islands. When the Japanese side tried to include a passage ‘including territorial issue’ in a sentence regarding continuation of the negotiations, the Soviet side refused, explicitly stating that it did so to avoid interpretation which suggests other "territorial questions" beyond Shikotan-Habomai issue; the Japanese agreed to drop expression, yet different interpretation arrived anyway: when final agreement had been reached on the terms of the Joint Declaration, the Japanese delegation decided to interpret it as including discussion of the territorial problem in the future peace negotiations, interpreting the declaration jointly with ‘Hatoyama-Bulganin letters’ and ‘Matsumoto-Gromyko letters’.

Exchanged before the final negotiations on the declaration,they intended to confirm the conditions for under the so-called ‘Adenauer Formula’, in which diplomatic relations were to be restored without signing a peace treaty and the territorial problem was to be shelved for future negotiation. The formula did not pass, however: in spite of preliminary agreement with the Soviets to shelve the territorial issue, Japan raised it at the negotiations and managed to get aforementioned territorial clause in the declaration, yet "interpreted in such a manner as to preserve the plenipotentiaries’ face at home": "Habomais and Shikotan were promised in the Joint Declaration, the question of Kunashiri and Etorofu was to be settled during negotiations for a peace treaty"; the disagreement between "two-island transfer" stipulated in the 1956 declaration and Japan's persistent demand of "four-island return" became the cornerstone for continuation of the Kuril Islands dispute in Soviet and post-Soviet years.

On November 14, 2004, the head of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Sergei Lavrov said on the NTV interview that the Russian Federation, the successor state of the Soviet Union, recognized the Declaration of 1956, was ready to have territorial talks with Japan on that basis, followed by President Vladimir Putin on the next day. Yet, the dispute persists, no peace treaty has yet been signed, the islands remain under Russian administration. Japan–Soviet Union relations Text of the declaration, from the UN website South Kuriles/Northern Territories: A Stumbling-block in Russia–Japan Relations

Beirut City Hall

Beirut City Hall known as the Municipality of Beirut, is a landmark building built in downtown Beirut, Lebanon in 1924, has become an architectural landmark in the downtown area of Beirut Central District. It combines various architectural styles; the building is located on Rue Weygand in the city center. The building is in the Venetian and Arabesque architectural styles, a mix that expresses the regional identity of the area; the building was restored after the Lebanese Civil War and it houses the office of the Governor of Beirut and the municipal council. It is open for official registration of documents. Youssef Aftimus won the design competition for Beirut's City Hall in 1923, he served as the minister of public works in the 1926-1927 government led by Auguste Basha Adib. The Municipality was built in 1924-25 by the Lebanese architect Youssef Aftimos. Damaged and abandoned during the Lebanese Civil War, it was restored by the year 2000. Located in the Petit Serail on Martyrs’ Square, Beirut’s Municipality building, constructed in 1925 on Weygand Street was the masterpiece of Youssef Aftimos.

The building is characterized by oriental-style façades. Conforming to the Neo-Moorish revivalist school – Youssef Aftimos being its main protagonist in Lebanon – its architecture expressed a reaction against the westernization of the country as well as the need to establish a more local or regional identity. A text inscribed on the building’s entrance reflects this feeling: “These are the traces that identify us: seek out henceforth our traces.” Damaged and abandoned during the Civil War, the Municipality was restored by the year 2000. Beirut’s Municipality building, constructed in 1925, was the masterpiece of Youssef Aftimos, he began to work on it after his return to Lebanon from Chicago. Prior to the construction of the new building, the Municipality was located in the Petit Serail on Martyrs’ Square; the project to build a new headquarters for the Municipality of Beirut, together with a small garden, a fountain and a clock tower dates back to 1880. At first, the building was planned on the northwest corner of Martyrs’ Square.

An alternative location in today’s Riad Al-Solh Square was investigated, but the Weygand Street site was selected. The Municipality building is characterized by oriental-style façades. Conforming to the Neo-Moorish revivalist school – Youssef Aftimos being its main protagonist in Lebanon – its architecture expressed a reaction against the westernization of the country since the late 19th century, as well as the need to establish a more local or regional identity. A text inscribed on the building’s entrance reflects this feeling: “These are the traces that identify us: seek out henceforth our traces.” Damaged and abandoned during the Civil War, the Municipality was restored by the year 2000. 1880s: Project to build a new headquarters for the Municipality of Beirut together with a small garden, a fountain and a clock tower dates to these years. 1925: Constructed of Beirut's Municipality building by Youssef Aftimos. 1975-1990: Municipality building was damaged and abandoned during the Civil War.

2000: Restoration of the Municipality building. Youssef Aftimos Petit Serail Martyrs' Square Riad Al-Solh Square Weygand Street Neo-Moorish revivalist schoolof architecture Davie, May The History and Evolution of Public Spaces in Beirut Central District, Beirut. Saliba, Robert Beirut City Center Recovery: The Foch-Allenby and Etoile Conservation Area, Steidel, Göttingen