Punk rock is a rock music genre that developed in the mid-1970s in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia. Rooted in 1960s garage rock and other forms of what is now known as "proto-punk" music, punk rock bands rejected perceived excesses of mainstream 1970s rock, they produced short, fast-paced songs with hard-edged melodies and singing styles, stripped-down instrumentation, political, anti-establishment lyrics. Punk embraces a DIY ethic; the term "punk rock" was first used by certain American rock critics in the early 1970s to describe 1960s garage bands and subsequent acts perceived as stylistic inheritors. Between 1974 and 1976 the movement now called. By late 1976, bands such as Television and the Ramones in New York City, the Sex Pistols, the Clash, the Damned in London, the Saints in Brisbane were recognized as forming its vanguard; as 1977 approached, punk became a major and controversial cultural phenomenon in the UK. It spawned a punk subculture expressing youthful rebellion through distinctive styles of clothing and adornment and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.
In 1977 the influence of the music and subculture became more pervasive. It took root in a wide range of local scenes that rejected affiliation with the mainstream. In the late 1970s, punk experienced a second wave as new acts that were not active during its formative years adopted the style. By the early 1980s, faster and more aggressive subgenres such as hardcore punk, street punk and anarcho-punk became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk pursued other musical directions, giving rise to spinoffs such as post-punk, new wave, indie pop, alternative rock, noise rock. By the 1990s, punk re-emerged in the mainstream with the success of punk rock and pop punk bands such as Green Day, The Offspring, Blink-182; the first wave of punk rock was "aggressively modern" and differed from what came before. According to Ramones drummer Tommy Ramone, "In its initial form, a lot of stuff was innovative and exciting. What happens is that people who could not hold a candle to the likes of Hendrix started noodling away.
Soon you had endless solos. By 1973, I knew that what was needed was some pure, stripped down, no bullshit rock'n' roll." John Holmstrom, founding editor of Punk magazine, recalls feeling "punk rock had to come along because the rock scene had become so tame that like Billy Joel and Simon and Garfunkel were being called rock and roll, when to me and other fans and roll meant this wild and rebellious music." In critic Robert Christgau's description, "It was a subculture that scornfully rejected the political idealism and Californian flower-power silliness of hippie myth." Technical accessibility and a Do. UK pub rock from 1972-1975 contributed to the emergence of punk rock by developing a network of small venues, such as pubs, where non-mainstream bands could play. Pub rock introduced the idea of independent record labels, such as Stiff Records, which put out basic, low-cost records. Pub rock bands put out small pressings of their records. In the early days of punk rock, this DIY ethic stood in marked contrast to what those in the scene regarded as the ostentatious musical effects and technological demands of many mainstream rock bands.
Musical virtuosity was looked on with suspicion. According to Holmstrom, punk rock was "rock and roll by people who didn't have many skills as musicians but still felt the need to express themselves through music". In December 1976, the English fanzine Sideburns published a now-famous illustration of three chords, captioned "This is a chord, this is another, this is a third. Now form a band"; the title of a 1980 single by the New York punk band Stimulators, "Loud Fast Rules!", inscribed a catchphrase for punk's basic musical approach. Some of British punk rock's leading figures made a show of rejecting not only contemporary mainstream rock and the broader culture it was associated with, but their own most celebrated music predecessors: "No Elvis, Beatles or the Rolling Stones in 1977", declared the Clash song "1977"; the previous year, when the punk rock revolution began in Great Britain, was to be both a musical and a cultural "Year Zero". As nostalgia was discarded, many in the scene adopted a nihilistic attitude summed up by the Sex Pistols slogan "No Future".
While "self-imposed alienation" was common among "drunk punks" and "gutter punks", there was always a tension between their nihilistic outlook and the "radical leftist utopianism" of bands such as Crass, who found positive, liberating meaning in the movement. As a Clash associate describes singer Joe Strummer's outlook, "Punk rock is meant to be our freedom. We're meant to be able to do what we want to do."The issue of authenticity is important in the punk subculture—the pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Scholar Daniel S. Traber argues that "attaining authenticity in the punk identity can be difficult".
A color commentator or expert commentator is a sports commentator who assists the main commentator by filling in any time when play is not in progress. The phrase "color commentator" is used in American English; the color analyst and main commentator will exchange comments throughout the broadcast, when the main commentator is not describing the action. The color commentator provides expert analysis and background information, such as statistics and injury reports on the teams and athletes, anecdotes or light humor. Color commentators are former athletes or coaches of the sport being broadcast; the term color refers to insight provided by a secondary announcer. A sports color commentator customarily works alongside the play-by-play broadcaster. Commentary teams feature one professional commentator describing the passage of play, another a former player or coach, providing supplementary input as the game progresses; the color commentator will restrict his input to periods when the ball or puck is out of play or there is no significant action on the field and will defer to the main commentator whenever there is a shot on goal or other significant event, sometimes resulting in their being talked-over or cut short by the primary commentator.
Additionally, former players and managers appear as pundits, carrying out a similar role to the co-commentator during the pre-game show preceding a given contest and the post-game show following it. In American motorsports coverage, there may be as many as two color commentators in the booth for a given broadcast. A rules analyst a former official, may comment on rules enforcement and replays. In the past, American sports broadcasts employed three-man booths, with two color commentators, one, a former player or coach, the other with a journalism or entertainment background. WWE is a primary example of the three-man booth, with main commentator Michael Cole and two color commentators, Corey Graves and Renee Young, on the flagship show WWE Raw. In the United Kingdom, the role of "color commentator" is unknown. Cricket coverage on ESPNcricinfo uses similar terminology; the term is not used in Australia. Those giving the analysis alongside the main commentator are sometimes said to be giving additional or expert analysis, or "special comments", or may be referred to as "expert commentators".
For football broadcasts on Latin American sports television channels, this type of commentator is called a comentarista in both Spanish and Portuguese, in contrast with the narrador, locutor or relator who leads the transmission. There is no mention or translation to the term "color". In Denmark and Sweden the position is known as ekspertkommentator / expertkommentator, whereas the play-by-play announcer is called hovedkommentator / huvudkommentator or kommentator. In Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries, the position is known as a comentarista and comentador in contrast with the narrador who describes the action. In Finland kommentaattori is used for the second commentator, selostaja for the main one. In France, the term for a color commentator is consultant, as opposed to the commentateur sportif. In Italy, the color commentator is referred to as responsible for the commento tecnico whereas the play-by-play commentator is the main telecronista. In Italy, the color commentator is a person directly involved in the sport.
Recent Formula 1 races have no fewer than three commentators: the telecronista, a former pilot, an engineer, the last two sharing the commento tecnico. In Turkey, the term spiker is used for the play-by-play announcer whereas the color commentator is referred to as yorumcu. In some countries, the two-person commentating team is not used as much as elsewhere. In Germany, most broadcasts of sports matches traditionally feature a single play-by-play announcer who provides commentary, background information, statistics. If the broadcast is on TV, the announcer will not comment on visually obvious things. A two-person commentating team is used more for sports where understanding of events depends more on details and subtle visual cues that not everybody might get or might need extra information in order to reasonably understand – for example in auto racing or winter sport. In those cases, a current or former athlete or coach is used as co-commentator or Experte. Though not always the case, in professional wrestling, the color commentator is a "heel sympathizer" as opposed to the play-by-play announcer, more or less the "voice of the fans" as well as supporters of the "good guys".
Though both are supposed to show neutral stance while announcing, the color commentators are more blatant about their stance than the play-by-play announcers. Jesse "The Body" Ventura and Bobby "The Brain" Heenan pioneered the "heel sympathizer" for color commentary in wrestling. Jer
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means, that produced using electronics only. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, so on, electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, the electric guitar, which are made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the theremin and computer can produce electronic sounds; the first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical.
During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. By the 1940s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the 1940s, in Egypt and France. Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. Music produced from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music was created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. Algorithmic composition with computers was first demonstrated in the 1950s. In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry, Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music.
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303. In the early 1980s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 were popularized, a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Electronically produced music became prevalent in the popular domain by the 1990s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Today, pop electronic music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form and more connected with the mainstream culture as opposed to its preceding forms which were specialized to niche markets.
At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments. These initial inventions were not sold, but were instead used in demonstrations and public performances; the audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments. While some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium synthesized the sound of orchestral instruments, it achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments. Ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments, he predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. Futurists such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo began composing music with acoustic noise to evoke the sound of machinery.
They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises. Developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller and more practical for performance. In particular, the theremin, ondes Martenot and trautonium were commercially produced by the early 1930s. From the late 1920s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt them, they were used within orchestras, most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments. Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes; the instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse. Further, Percy Grainger used the theremin to abandon fixed tonation while Russian composers such as Gavriil Popov treated it as a source of noise in otherwise-acoustic noise music.
Developments in early recording technology paralleled that of electronic instruments. The first means of recording and reproducing audio was invented in the late 19th century with the mechanical phonograph. Record players became a common household item, by the 1920s comp
Art Basel is a for-profit owned and managed international art fair staged annually in Basel, Switzerland. The commercial fairs offer parallel programming produced in collaboration with the host city’s local institutions. While Art Basel provides a platform for galleries to show and sell their work to buyers, it attracts a large international audience of art spectators and students. Art Basel was started in 1970 by Trudl Bruckner and Balz Hilt. In its inaugural year, the Basel show attracted more than 16,000 visitors who viewed work presented by 90 galleries representing 10 countries. Thirty art publishers participated. By 1975, five years after its founding, the Basel show reached 300 exhibitors; the participating galleries came from 21 countries. UBS is the lead partner of the Art Basel in Basel since 1994, the lead partner of the Art Basel in Miami Beach since its inception in 2002 and the lead partner of the Art Basel in Hong Kong since its inception in 2013. In 2013, Art Basel launched its inaugural sales fair in Hong Kong.
Half of the participating galleries came from the Asia-Pacific region. In 2014, Art Basel partnered with Kickstarter to create a crowdfunding initiative aimed at funding non-profit visual arts organizations worldwide. Together with JRP Ringier, Art Basel publishes Art Basel | Year 44 the first book that covered all three shows. In 2015, the BMW Art Journey award was established by BMW and Art Basel to reward promising artists from the Discoveries sector in Hong Kong and the Positions sector in Miami Beach; the executive-education program Collecting Contemporary Art in Hong Kong was launched by Art Basel, HKU SPACE Centre for Degree Programmes and Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design. Under the stewardship of Art Basel’s Global Director, Marc Spiegler, the 2015 show in Basel, attracted 98,000 visitors over six days, it presented 284 galleries from 33 countries. A total of 14 galleries showed in Basel for the first time. Alongside private collectors from Europe and Asia, representatives and groups from over 80 museums and institutions from across the world were in attendance.
Spearheaded by Noah Horowitz, Art Basel’s Director Americas, the 2015 show in Miami Beach, presented 267 leading international galleries from 32 countries. Over five days, the show attracted 77,000 visitors including private collectors and directors, curators and patrons of nearly 200 museum and institution groups; the show hosted first-time collectors from Cambodia, Nicaragua, Romania and Zimbabwe. Art Basel Miami Beach was first introduced in 2002 under the direction of Sam Keller. In 2008, MCH Group, Angus Montgomery Arts and the events organiser Tim Etchells launched Art HK, sparking investor interest in Hong Kong. MCH bought it out in 2013 to create Art Basel in Hong Kong; the 2015 Hong Kong Exhibition, directed by Adeline Ooi, attracted over 70,000 visitors, among them directors, curators and patrons from over 100 leading international museums and institutions. On display were 239 galleries from 35 countries and territories. Art Basel’s initiatives concentrate on the broader art world. Art Basel has three main initiatives: Art Basel Cities, BMW Art Journey, Crowdfunding.
Art Basel Cities is a project between Art Basel and cities worldwide to create cultural events and programming throughout the year. Art Basel, the city’s local art stakeholders and the city’s officials will sit together and develop a program in line with the city’s mid- and long-term cultural development goals; this initiative was launched during the 2016 Hong Kong edition of Art Basel. Cities interested in the collaboration have to apply via an online questionnaire; as of 2016, Art Basel has yet to announce. BMW Art Journey Award is a grant that supports emerging creatives and enables them to go on an artistic journey of their own definition; the chosen artist can select the destination and go anywhere in the world to explore new ideas, discover new themes, create new works. A winner is selected twice a year from a shortlist of three finalists during the Art Basel shows in Hong Kong and Miami Beach; the Crowdfunding Initiative is a partnership between Kickstarter and Art Basel to provide visibility and generate support for projects from non-profit organizations around the world.
The projects include artist residencies, education programs, public installations and other innovative artistic projects. They are selected by an independent jury made up of three non-profit art world specialists; the Art Market is an annual global art market analysis. It covers all aspects of the international market and highlights the most important developments in the previous year; the first report was published in 2017. Franz Schultheis, Erwin Single, Stephan Egger, Thomas Mazzurana: When Art meets Money. Encounters at the Art Basel. Verlag Walther König, Cologne 2015. ISBN 978-3863357443. Art Basel | Year 45. JRP|Ringier, 2015. ISBN 978-3-03764-395-2. Official website
Ultra Music Festival
Ultra Music Festival is an annual outdoor electronic music festival that takes place during March in Miami, United States. The festival was founded in 1999 by Russell Faibisch and Alex Omes and is named after the 1997 Depeche Mode album, Ultra, it was first held on Miami Beach, but besides a tenure at Bicentennial Park, it had been held at Bayfront Park in downtown Miami. It was a one-day festival from 1999 to 2006, In 2019, the festival moved to the Virginia Key Beach Park and Miami Marine Stadium. Since 2011, Ultra has taken place across three days during the month of March. In 2012, a record attendance of 155,000 people attended the festival. In 2013, for the first time in Ultra's history, the festival took place across two consecutive weekends welcoming a combined attendance of 330,000 people. In 2014, the festival returned to its original one weekend format, selling out pre sale tickets in under five minutes; the most recent edition of Ultra, in 2017, welcomed 165,000 people to the festival.
Although they share names, Ultra Music Festival was not directly tied to Ultra Records, an electronic music record label. However, the two entities did announce a "global alliance" in August 2012, which would allow them to collaborate on marketing and cross-promotion. Alongside the flagship event in Miami, Ultra has spawned a larger series of international franchises under the blanket branding Ultra Worldwide, which have included locations such as South Africa, South Korea, Mexico, Brazil and others. Ultra Music Festival was inaugurated and produced in 1999 by business partners Russell Faibisch and Alex Omes; the first festival was held as a one-day event on March 13, 1999. Artists at Ultra's first festival included Paul van Dyk, Rabbit in the Moon, Josh Wink, DJ Baby Anne; the first Ultra Beach Music Festival, held at Collins Park in Miami Beach proved popular, with an estimated ten thousand concertgoers in attendance. However and Omes still saw a financial loss of between $10,000 to $20,000 during the festival's inaugural year.
However, in March 2000 the festival returned to South Beach's Collins Park and was met with more success. The festival was renewed for a third year. Due to the massive rise in attendance between 1999 and 2000, festival organizers decided to relocate to Bayfront Park in Downtown Miami for Ultra's third annual event in 2001. Ultra Music Festival continued to bring the biggest names in electronic dance music to Miami with performances by Robin Fox, Tiësto, EC Twins, Paul van Dyk, Paul Oakenfold, Sander Kleinenberg, Josh Wink, DJ Craze, Pete Tong, Erick Morillo, Rabbit in the Moon from 2001 to 2005. In 2005, Fabisch met with Adam Russakoff, who has since been the executive producer, director of business affairs, talent buyer for Ultra Music Festival and Ultra Worldwide. 2005 was the year that Carl Cox and Ultra worked together to curate the Carl Cox and Friends Arena known as the Carl Cox Global Arena, a mainstay at Ultra Music Festival for the past twelve years. With the record-breaking attendance of the seventh annual Ultra Music Festival in 2005, the festival was again relocated to another venue, Bicentennial Park, for 2006.
In 2007, the festival held its first two-day event at Bicentennial Park with more than 50,000 concert goers in attendance, another record at the time for Ultra. The festival celebrated its 10th anniversary during March 28–29, 2008 with performances by Tiësto, Justice, Paul van Dyk, Carl Cox, Armin van Buuren, MSTRKRFT, deadmau5, Annie Mac, Eric Prydz, Ferry Corsten, Calvin Harris, The Crystal Method, Boys Noize, Benny Benassi, Armand van Helden, The Bravery, David Guetta, many more. With an estimated attendance of over 70,000 people, Ultra Music Festival set a new record for the City of Miami for number of tickets sold at a single event; the eleventh annual edition of the festival occurred during March 27–28, 2009—the lineup included more crossover acts and live bands featuring the likes of The Black Eyed Peas, The Prodigy, The Ting Tings, Crystal Castles, The Whip, Perry Farrell. Ultra's twelfth edition took place during March 26–27, 2010, featuring exclusive performances from Tiësto, deadmau5, Groove Armada, Little Boots, Sasha & Digweed, Above & Beyond, Armin van Buuren, Carl Cox, Swedish House Mafia and The Bloody Beetroots.
Each stage was accompanied with visual arts provided by VJs Vello Virkhaus and Cozer. The festival sold out for the first time with over 100,000 attendees, where it was announced that the thirteenth annual edition would take place over the course of three days during March 2011. Ultra Music Festival expanded to a three-day festival in 2011, spanning the weekend of March 25–27, 2011. At Ultra's 2011 edition, Armin van Buuren debuted a stage dedicated to his radio show, A State of Trance, celebrating 500 episodes. Like the Carl Cox & Friends Arena, the A State of Trance stage continues to be a mainstay at Ultra Music Festival, taking place on the third day of the festival each year; the A State of Trance 500 stage featured artists like Ferry Corsten, Markus Schulz, ATB, Cosmic Gate, Gareth Emery, Sander van Doorn, Alex M. O. R. P. H. and more. The fourteenth edition of Ultra Music Festival was held from March 23–25, 2012. Due to the construction of the Miami Art Museum at Bicentennial Park, the event was moved back to Bayfront Park for the first time since 2005.
Beginning this year, the festival began to produce an official live streaming broadcast. Early bird pre-sale tickets for Ultra Music Festival 2012 sold out within seconds. Shortly after, pre sale ticket prices increased from $149 to $229; the lineup was headlined by acts such as Kraftwerk, Justice, Fatboy Slim, Wolfgang Gart
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies; the term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country, dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions: In the former Soviet republics, some former Eastern Bloc countries, the older 65.8–74 MHz band is used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz; this band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is being phased out in many countries.
In those countries the 87.5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used; the frequency of an FM broadcast station is an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe and Africa, only multiples are used. In the UK odd or are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. In most countries the maximum permitted frequency error is specified, the unmodulated carrier should be within 2000 Hz of the assigned frequency. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500, 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500 kHz frequency separation when closer frequency spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as interfering signals are more attenuated and so have less effect on neighboring frequencies.
Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation which conveys information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal; because transmitted FM signals use more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is used with the higher frequencies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, land mobile radio systems. The maximum frequency deviation of the carrier is specified and regulated by the licensing authorities in each country. For a stereo broadcast, the maximum permitted carrier deviation is invariably ±75 kHz, although a little higher is permitted in the United States when SCA systems are used. For a monophonic broadcast, again the most common permitted. However, some countries specify a lower value for monophonic broadcasts, such as ±50 kHz. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the baseband.
This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise; these processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In the Americas and South Korea, 75 µs is used; this applies to both stereo transmissions. For stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing; the use of pre-emphasis becomes a problem because of the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. Pre-emphasizing these high frequency sounds would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Modulation control devices are used to prevent this.
Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing, at his experimental 41 MHz station W2XDG located on the 85th floor of the Empire State Building in New York City; these FM multiplex transmissions started in November 1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing signal for the fax program and a telegraph “order” channel. These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network, were transmitted using the same system of subcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter link system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were replaced with much improved results.
The first FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from Major Armstrong's experimental station KE2XCC at Alpine, New Jersey occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-cha
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music known as dance music, club music, or dance, is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made for nightclubs and festivals. It is produced for playback by disc jockeys who create seamless selections of tracks, called a mix by segueing from one recording to another. EDM producers perform their music live in a concert or festival setting in what is sometimes called a live PA. In Europe, EDM is more called'dance music', or simply'dance'. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, following the emergence of raving, pirate radios and an upsurge of interest in club culture, EDM achieved widespread mainstream popularity in Europe. In the United States at that time, acceptance of dance culture was not universal. There was a perceived association between EDM and drug culture, which led governments at state and city level to enact laws and policies intended to halt the spread of rave culture. Subsequently, in the new millennium, the popularity of EDM increased globally in Australia and the United States.
By the early 2010s, the term "electronic dance music" and the initialism "EDM" was being pushed by the American music industry and music press in an effort to rebrand American rave culture. Despite the industry's attempt to create a specific EDM brand, the initialism remains in use as an umbrella term for multiple genres, including house, trance and bass and dubstep, as well as their respective subgenres. Various EDM genres have evolved for example. Stylistic variation within an established EDM genre can lead to the emergence of what is called a subgenre. Hybridization, where elements of two or more genres are combined, can lead to the emergence of an new genre of EDM. In the late 1960s bands such as Silver Apples created electronic music, intended to be danced to. Other early examples of music that influenced electronic dance music include Jamaican dub music during the late 1960s to 1970s, the synthesizer-based disco music of Italian producer Giorgio Moroder in the late 1970s, the electro-pop of Kraftwerk and Yellow Magic Orchestra in the mid-to-late 1970s.
Author Michael Veal considers dub music, a Jamaican music stemming from roots reggae and sound system culture that flourished between 1968 and 1985, to be one of the important precursors to contemporary electronic dance music. Dub productions were remixed reggae tracks that emphasized rhythm, fragmented lyrical and melodic elements, reverberant textures; the music was pioneered by studio engineers, such as Sylvan Morris, King Tubby, Errol Thompson, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Scientist. Their productions included forms of tape editing and sound processing that Veal considers comparable to techniques used in musique concrète. Dub producers made improvised deconstructions of existing multi-track reggae mixes by using the studio mixing board as a performance instrument, they foregrounded spatial effects such as reverb and delay by using auxiliary send routings creatively. The Roland Space Echo, manufactured by Roland Corporation, was used by dub producers in the 1970s to produce echo and delay effects.
Despite the limited electronic equipment available to dub pioneers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry, their experiments in remix culture were musically cutting-edge. Ambient dub was pioneered by King Tubby and other Jamaican sound artists, using DJ-inspired ambient electronics, complete with drop-outs, echo and psychedelic electronic effects, it featured layering techniques and incorporated elements of world music, deep bass lines and harmonic sounds. Techniques such as a long echo delay were used. Hip hop music has played a key role in the development of electronic dance music since the 1970s. Inspired by Jamaican sound system culture Jamaican-American DJ Kool Herc introduced large bass heavy speaker rigs to the Bronx, his parties are credited with having kick-started the New York hip-hop movement in 1973. A technique developed by DJ Kool Herc that became popular in hip hop culture was playing two copies of the same record on two turntables, in alternation, at the point where a track featured a break.
This technique was further used to manually loop a purely percussive break, leading to what was called a break beat. Turntablism has origins in the invention of the direct-drive turntable, by Shuichi Obata, an engineer at Matsushita. In 1969, Matsushita released it as the SP-10, the first direct-drive turntable on the market, the first in their influential Technics series of turntables; the most influential turntable was the Technics SL-1200, developed in 1971 by a team led by Shuichi Obata at Matsushita, which released it onto the market in 1972. In the 1980s and 1990s hip-hop DJs used turntables as musical instruments in their own right and virtuosic use developed into a creative practice called turntablism. In 1974, George McCrae's early disco hit "Rock Your Baby" was one of the first records to use a drum machine, an early Roland rhythm machine, its use of a drum machine was anticipated by Sly and the Family Stone's "Family Affair", which anticipated the sound of disco, with its rhythm echoed in "Rock Your Baby".
The use of drum machines in "Family Affair" and Timmy Thomas' "Why Can't We Live Together", which used a 1972 Roland rhythm machine, influenced the adoption of drum machines by disco artists. Disco producer Biddu used synthesizers in several disco songs from 1976 to 1977, including "Bionic Boogie" from Rain Forest, "Soul Coaxing", and