DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider based in El Segundo, California and is a subsidiary of AT&T. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean, its primary competitors are cable television providers. On July 24, 2015, after receiving approval from the United States Federal Communications Commission and United States Department of Justice, AT&T acquired DirecTV in a transaction valued at $67.1 billion. As of Q1 2017, DirecTV U. S. had 21 million revenues of $12 billion. On November 30, 2016, DirecTV Now, their internet streaming TV service, was launched. In 1953, Howard Hughes created the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, to which he transferred full ownership of Hughes Aircraft. Ostensibly created as a non-profit medical research foundation, HHMI was accused of being used by Hughes as a tax shelter. Following Hughes' death in 1976, HHMI was incorporated in 1977, litigation ensued to determine whether it would be allowed to maintain its interest in Hughes Aircraft.
In 1984, the court appointed a new board for HHMI, which proceeded to sell off Hughes Aircraft to General Motors on December 20, 1985, for an estimated $5.1 billion. General Motors merged Hughes Aircraft with its subsidiary Delco Electronics to create Hughes Electronics Corporation; the new subsidiary was composed of four units: Delco Electronics Company, Hughes Aircraft Company, Hughes Space and Communications Company, Hughes Network Systems. Stanley E. Hubbard founded United States Satellite Broadcasting in 1981 and was a leading proponent for the development of direct-broadcast satellite service in the United States. USSB was awarded five frequencies at the coveted 101-degree west satellite location. Hughes Communications, Inc. was awarded 27 frequencies at the same 101-degree location. After many years, the technology was developed to enable the building of high-power satellites, digital compression standards were developed that allowed multiple digital television channels to be sent through each satellite frequency.
Hughes attempted to create a joint venture with NBC, News Corp. and Cablevision in 1990, to launch the first high-power digital television service called Sky Cable. Failing to do so, the company instead created DirecTV as a separate division and secured an agreement with USSB to build and launch the first high-power direct-broadcast satellite system. DirecTV's name is a portmanteau of "direct" and "TV". Hughes/DirecTV turned to Thomson Consumer Electronics to develop the digital satellite system for the service that would be capable of receiving 175 channels on a small 18-inch dish; these dishes utilized a new generation of smaller, lighter receiver dishes based on military technology introduced by the Global Broadcast System, which predated DirecTV's viability by ten years. Hughes was awarded the contract to build and launch the new high-powered satellites, USSB and DirecTV agreed that the new satellites would carry the two separate programming services: USSB and DirecTV; the USSB and DirecTV programming services were launched on June 17, 1994.
Digital Equipment Corporation provided the hardware for DirecTV, Matrixx Marketing provided customer care via the Matrixx Plus department, DBS Systems created the billing software. In December 1998, DirecTV acquired USSB for $1.3 billion, combined the two satellite services. In 1999, DirecTV acquired PrimeStar, a competitor in the satellite television industry, for $1.83 billion increasing its share of the satellite television market in the US. In September 1996, Hughes purchased 70% of PanAmSat for $3 billion. In 1997, GM transferred it to Delphi Automotive Systems; that same year, Hughes Aircraft was sold to Raytheon for $9.5 billion. Raytheon filed a lawsuit in 1999 accusing Hughes of overstating the value of Hughes Aircraft by $1 billion. A $635.5-million settlement was reached in 2001. In 2000, Hughes Space and Communications was sold to Boeing for $3.75 billion, which it claimed had been overvalued by Hughes. Hughes settled with Boeing for $360 million; these sales left DirecTV, PanAmSat and Hughes Network Systems as the remaining components of Hughes Electronics.
Direct satellite broadcaster were mandated in 1992 to set aside 4% of its channel space for noncommercial educational and informational programming. DirecTV selected C-SPAN, EWTN and the Trinity Broadcasting Network from its current channel lineup plus request additional proposals from other programmers. DirecTV had given PBS Kids, PBS's original application, carriage that did not count against the set aside six weeks before the deadline. DirecTV selected an additional six channels. In 2000, DirecTV introduced the first live in-flight television service for airlines. In September 2000, GM executives, under pressure from GM's shareholders as a result of its poor performance and the greater market worth of Hughes, authorized Hughes executives to begin seeking buyers. In 2001, News Corporation began negotiations to acquire Hughes Electronics in a deal worth $8 billion, which would allow News Corp. to expand its Sky Global Networks satellite television operations into the United States. Negotiations with News Corp. failed, Hughes entered into an agreement on October 28, 2001 to be purchased for $26 billion
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth. Most the term refers to a station which broadcasts structured content to an audience or it refers to the organization that operates the station. A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more via digital television signals. Television stations are differentiated from cable television or other video providers in that their content is broadcast via terrestrial radio waves. A group of television stations with common ownership or affiliation are known as a TV network and an individual station within the network is referred to as O&O or affiliate, respectively; because television station signals use the electromagnetic spectrum, which in the past has been a common, scarce resource, governments claim authority to regulate them.
Broadcast television systems standards vary around the world. Television stations broadcasting over an analog system were limited to one television channel, but digital television enables broadcasting via subchannels as well. Television stations require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements and limitations on the station. In the United States, for example, a television license defines the broadcast range, or geographic area, that the station is limited to, allocates the broadcast frequency of the radio spectrum for that station's transmissions, sets limits on what types of television programs can be programmed for broadcast and requires a station to broadcast a minimum amount of certain programs types, such as public affairs messages. Another form a television station may take is non-commercial educational and considered public broadcasting. To avoid concentration of media ownership of television stations, government regulations in most countries limit the ownership of television stations by television networks or other media operators, but these regulations vary considerably.
Some countries have set up nationwide television networks, in which individual television stations act as mere repeaters of nationwide programs. In those countries, the local television station has no station identification and, from a consumer's point of view, there is no practical distinction between a network and a station, with only small regional changes in programming, such as local television news. To broadcast its programs, a television station requires operators to operate equipment, a transmitter or radio antenna, located at the highest point available in the transmission area, such as on a summit, the top of a high skyscraper, or on a tall radio tower. To get a signal from the master control room to the transmitter, a studio/transmitter link is used; the link can be either by radio or T1/E1. A transmitter/studio link may send telemetry back to the station, but this may be embedded in subcarriers of the main broadcast. Stations which retransmit or simulcast another may pick-up that station over-the-air, or via STL or satellite.
The license specifies which other station it is allowed to carry. VHF stations have tall antennas due to their long wavelength, but require much less effective radiated power, therefore use much less transmitter power output saving on the electricity bill and emergency backup generators. In North America, full-power stations on band I are limited to 100 kW analog video and 10 kW analog audio, or 45 kW digital ERP. Stations on band III can go up by 31.6 kW audio, or 160 kW digital. Low-VHF stations are subject to long-distance reception just as with FM. There are no stations on Channel 1. UHF, by comparison, has a much shorter wavelength, thus requires a shorter antenna, but higher power. North American stations can go up to 5000 1000 kW digital. Low channels travel further than high ones at the same power, but UHF does not suffer from as much electromagnetic interference and background "noise" as VHF, making it much more desirable for TV. Despite this, in the U. S. the Federal Communications Commission is taking another large portion of this band away, in contrast to the rest of the world, taking VHF instead.
This means. Since at least 1974, there are no stations on channel 37 in North America for radio astronomy purposes. Most television stations are commercial broadcasting enterprises which are structured in a variety of ways to generate revenue from television commercials, they may be some other structure. They can produce some or all of their programs or buy some broadcast syndication programming for or all of it from other stations or independent production companies. Many stations have some sort of television studio, which on major-network stations is used for newscasts or other local programming. There is a news department, where journalists gather information. There is a section where electronic news-gathering operations are based, receiving remote broadcasts via remote pickup unit or satellite TV. Outside broadcasting vans, production trucks, or SUVs with electronic field production equipment are sent out with reporters, who may bring back news stories on video tape rather than sending them back live.
To keep pace with technology United States television stations have been replacing operators with broadcast automation systems to increas
Hurricane Hugo was a powerful Cape Verde hurricane that caused widespread damage and loss of life in Guadeloupe, Saint Croix, St. Thomas, Puerto Rico, the Southeast United States, it formed over the eastern Atlantic near the Cape Verde Islands on September 9, 1989. Hugo moved thousands of miles across the Atlantic strengthening to attain Category 5 hurricane strength on its journey, it crossed over Guadeloupe, St. Croix and St. Thomas on September 17 and 18 as a Category 4 hurricane. Weakening more, it passed over Puerto Rico as a strong Category 3 hurricane. Further weakening occurred several hours after re-emerging into the Atlantic, becoming downgraded to a Category 2 hurricane. However, it re-strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane before making landfall just north of Charleston, on Isle of Palms on September 22, with 140 mph sustained winds. Hugo had weakened into a remnant low near Lake Erie by the next day; as of 2016, Hurricane Hugo is the most intense tropical cyclone to strike the East Coast north of Florida since 1898.
Hurricane Hugo caused 34 fatalities in the Caribbean and 27 in South Carolina, left nearly 100,000 homeless, resulted in $9.47 billion in damage overall, making it the most damaging hurricane recorded at the time. Of this total, $7 billion was from the United States and Puerto Rico, ranking it as the costliest storm to impact the country at the time. Hurricane Hugo originated as a tropical wave, which moved off the west coast of Africa on September 9. Soon after moving off the African coast, it was classified as Tropical Depression Eleven southeast of the Cape Verde Islands. Winds were 30 mph but they reached 35 mph soon after. Moving on a steady westward track at 18 knots, Tropical Depression Eleven intensified, becoming Tropical Storm Hugo on September 11 at 1800 UTC. On September 13, Hugo intensified, reached hurricane strength 1265 miles east of the Leeward Islands. A low-pressure area to the south caused Hugo to turn to the west-northwest, while the storm was strengthening. Shortly after, Hurricane Hugo began to intensify.
After this bout of rapid strengthening, Hugo began to deepen, becoming a major hurricane early the next morning. After becoming a major hurricane, maintaining Category 3 strength for a day, Hugo reached Category 4 strength, began to intensify again, while moving west-northwest. On becoming a Category 5 hurricane, its maximum sustained winds had increased to 160 mph and the minimum central pressure had dropped to 918 millibars. In the early hours of September 17, Hugo crossed in between Guadeloupe and Montserrat, while its winds were near 140 mph, when hurricane-force winds extended only 45 mi from the center. Less than 24 hours it made another landfall on the island of St. Croix, with the same intensity; that day, Hurricane Hugo made landfalls in Puerto Rico, in Vieques and Fajardo, though it was weaker. Hugo began to accelerate to the northwest soon after exiting eastern Puerto Rico. On September 18, the hurricane was located a couple of hundred miles east of Florida when it began a more northward track, in response to a steering flow associated with an upper-level low pressure area, moving across the southeastern United States.
Hugo began to strengthen again, it reached a secondary peak at 1800 UTC on September 21, as a Category 4 hurricane. The maximum sustained. On September 22, at 0400 UTC, Hugo made landfall on Sullivan's Island, South Carolina, at its secondary peak as a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, with 140-mph sustained winds and a central pressure of 934 millibars; the storm continued inland, weakened to a Category 1 hurricane as it approached Charlotte, North Carolina. Hugo continued on the weakening trend and weakened to a tropical storm on the same day over central North Carolina; the storm continued weakening as it moved inland, on September 23, the storm weakened to a remnant low. Its remnant low continued to accelerate north, reaching the far northern Atlantic before dissipating on September 25, to the south of Greenland. Late on September 15, the National Weather Service Office in San Juan, Puerto Rico issued a hurricane watch. On the following day, it was upgraded to a hurricane warning.
In addition, the Civil Defense Office of Puerto Rico activated its Disaster Interagency Committee and began to evacuate coastal residents. Savannah was evacuated in anticipation of Hugo, but saw no effects of the storm other than isolated and light showers. Had Hugo hit Savannah, it would have been the first major hurricane to make landfall in Georgia since Hurricane Seven of the 1898 season. Governor Carroll Campbell of South Carolina ordered an evacuation of the South Carolina coast in advance of the storm. Hugo caused nearly $7 billion in damage in the mainland United States and Puerto Rico. At the time it was the costliest hurricane in U. S. history, but was exceeded in 1992 by Hurricane Andrew, by several other storms since then. An additional $3 billion of damage was reported throughout the Caribbean. Therefore, total damage from the storm was near $9.47 billion. Sources differ on the number of people killed by Hugo, with some citing the American Meteorological Society's figure of 49, others claiming 56 deaths.
Severe damage was reported throughout the islands of the Caribbean. The storm cause
WCBS-TV, channel 2, is the flagship station of the CBS television network, licensed to New York City. WCBS-TV is owned by the CBS Television Stations division of CBS Corporation, operates as part of a television duopoly with WLNY-TV, New York. WCBS-TV's studios are located within the CBS Broadcast Center on West 57th Street in Manhattan and its transmitter is located at One World Trade Center. In the few areas of the eastern United States where a CBS station is not receivable over-the-air, WCBS is available on Satellite television via DirecTV. WCBS-TV's history dates back to CBS' opening of experimental station W2XAB on July 21, 1931, using the mechanical television system, more-or-less perfected in the late 1920s, its first broadcast featured New York Mayor Jimmy Walker, Kate Smith, George Gershwin. The station had the first regular seven-day broadcasting schedule in American television, broadcasting 28 hours a week. Among its early programming included The Television Ghost, Helen Haynes and Piano Lessons.
Announcer-director Bill Schudt was the station's only paid employee. W2XAB pioneered program development including small-scale dramatic acts, monologues and the use of projection slides to simulate sets. Engineer Bill Lodge devised the first synchronized sound wave for a television station in 1932, enabling W2XAB to broadcast picture and sound on a single shortwave channel instead of the two needed. On November 8, 1932, W2XAB broadcast the first television coverage of presidential election returns; the station suspended operations on February 20, 1933, as monochrome television transmission standards were in flux, in the process of changing from a mechanical to an all-electronic system. W2XAB returned with an all-electronic system in 1939 from a new studio complex in Grand Central Station and a transmitter located at the Chrysler Building broadcasting on channel 2. W2XAB transmitted the first color broadcast in the United States on August 28, 1940. On June 24, 1941, W2XAB received a commercial construction permit and program authorization as WCBW.
The station went on the air at 2:30 p.m. on July 1, one hour after rival WNBT, making it the second authorized commercial television station in the United States. The Federal Communications Commission issued permits to CBS and NBC at the same time and intended WNBT and WCBW to sign on on July 1, so no one station could claim to be the "first". WCBW's initial broadcast was the first local newscast aired on a commercial station in the country, its assigned frequency was 60–66 MHz, now known as channel 3 but referred to as Channel 2 in the 1940–46 alignment of the VHF band. Program schedules were irregular through the summer and early fall of 1941. Regular daily operations began on October 29 and WCBW received a full Broadcast license, its construction permit and commercial program authorization on March 10, 1942. After the war, the FCC re-allocated FM bands. WCBW closed down its operation on the old channel 2 at the end of February 1946 in order to move to a new channel 2 at 54–60 MHz, it began operation on the new frequency, where it remained from the spring of 1946 until the end of analog full power television service in the late spring of 2009.
The call letters were changed to WCBS-TV on November 1, 1946, after the FCC allowed television stations owned by radio stations in the same city to use the same call letters as the radio station with the suffix -TV – it is the only station in the CBS-owned television station to have been built from the ground up by the network. On February 26, 1951, WCBS-TV became the first station to broadcast a scheduled feature film series, The Late Show. On August 11, 1951, WCBS-TV broadcast the first baseball game on color television, between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Boston Braves from Ebbets Field; as were all color programs at the time, it was transmitted via a field-sequential color system developed by CBS. Signals transmitted; the CBS color system was scrapped after the FCC embraced the alternative RCA all-electronic dot sequential system, compatible with the existing monochrome television standard, late in 1953. However, CBS telecast few programs in color, either locally or on the network, until the mid-1960s when color receivers began to grow in popularity.
In May 1997, the station adopted the "CBS 2" branding, along with sister stations KCBS-TV in Los Angeles and WBBM-TV in Chicago, while retaining a unique and distinctive logo. The practice of CBS-owned stations placing the network identity ahead of their local identity would end up being known as the "Viacom Mandate". WCBS-TV's over-the air signal was not affected by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks that destroyed the World Trade Center. Unlike its competitors, channel 2 had long maintained a full-powered backup transmitter at the Empire State Building after moving its main transmitter to the North Tower of the then-new World Trade Center in 1975; the station's coverage of the attacks was simulcast nationally on Viacom cable network VH1 that day. In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, WCBS-TV was the only full-coverage over-the-air television service operating in New York City, although the station lent transmission time to other stations who had lost their transmitters until they found suitable backup equipment and locations.
The backup transmitter had been put into operation once before, when the World Trade Center bombing of February 26, 1993 knocked most of the area's stations off the
New Year's Eve
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve, the last day of the year, is on 31 December. In many countries, New Year's Eve is celebrated at evening social gatherings, where many people dance, drink alcoholic beverages, watch or light fireworks to mark the new year; some Christians attend a watchnight service. The celebrations go on past midnight into New Year's Day, 1 January. Tonga and Kiritimati, part of Kiribati, are examples of the first places to welcome the New Year while and Baker Island in the United States of America are among the last. In Algeria, New Year's Eve is celebrated with family and friends. In the largest cities, such as Algiers, Annaba, Oran, Sétif and Béjaïa, there are large celebrations which may feature concerts, late-night partying, fireworks at midnight and sparklers and shouts of "Bonne année!". The Martyrs' Memorial and the Grand-Post Place in Algiers are the main attraction for the majority of Algerians during the celebration. At 8pm, the President's message of greetings to Algerians is read on TV.
EPTV network airs a yearly New Year's Eve entertainment show, variying its name and guests, which features sketches and musical performances. Popular films are broadcast. At home or at restaurants, a special type of pastry cake, called "la bûche" is eaten, black coffee or soda is drunk with it, few minutes before the New Year's countdown. On New Year's Day, people children, write their "New Year's letter" on decorated paper, called "Carte de bonne année", to their parents and relatives, featuring their resolutions and wishes. In Egypt the new year is celebrated with fireworks, fire crackers, smashing glass bottles or breaking things on the street also. In Ghana, many people celebrate New Year's Eve by going to Church. At midnight, fireworks are displayed across various cities of Ghana in Accra and Tema. In Morocco, New Year's Eve is celebrated in the company of family and friends. People get together to eat cake and laugh. Traditionally, people celebrate it at home. At midnight, fireworks are displayed in the corniche of Casablanca.
In Nigeria, the New Year's Eve is celebrated by going to Church. The Lagos Countdown is an event in Nigeria, created to increase tourism and making Lagos a premium destination for business and leisure; the event lasts till 1 January. It is attended by an average of 100,000 people; the event takes place at the Eko Atlantic city, beside the Barbeach attracting thousands of domestic and foreign tourists who are entertained every evening by different artists... In South Sudan, people attend church services at many churches in Juba; the service begins at 9PM. At the stroke of midnight, people sing the famous carol, "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing" to mark the beginning of the year with a blessing; the service ends at 12:30AM. In Rwanda, New Year's Eve is celebrated by going to church, taking part in social gatherings and family activities; the services start from 6 PM for the Roman Catholic church and 10 PM for the Protestants. At 00:00, the president delivers an end-of-year address, broadcast live on many Radio and Televisions stations.
Fireworks were introduced in recent years, with the most significant displays happening at Kigali Convention Centre, Rebero Hill, Mount Kigali, Bumbogo Hill. Traditional celebrations in Argentina include a family dinner of traditional dishes, including vitel tonné, sandwiches de miga, piononos. Like dessert: turrón, mantecol and pan dulce. Just before midnight, people flock to the streets to enjoy fireworks and light firecrackers; the fireworks can be seen in any terrace. The first day of the New Year is celebrated at midnight with champagne. People wish each other a happy New Year, sometimes share a toast with neighbours. Parties continue until dawn; the celebration is during the summer, like in many South American countries, so it's normal to see many families in the New Year at tourist centers of the Argentine Atlantic coast. The New Year, is one of Brazil's main holidays, it marks the beginning of the summer holidays, which last until Carnival. Brazilians traditionally have a copious meal with family or friends at home, in restaurants or private clubs, consume alcoholic beverages.
Champagne is traditionally drunk. Those spending New Year's Eve at the beach dress in white, to bring good luck into the new year. Fireworks and eating grapes or lentils are customs associated with the holiday; the beach at Copacabana in Rio de Janeiro is ranked among the top 10 New Year Fireworks display. The combination of live concerts, a spectacular fireworks display and millions of revelers combine to make the Copacabana's New Year's party one of the best in the world. In addition, the celebrations are broadcast on major Brazilian television networks including Rede Globo with the special Show da Virada. In other regions, different events take place; the most famous are on the edge such as Copacabana. In the Northeast, in Fortaleza, the party is in Iracema Beach, in Salvador, the change of year happens in a great music festival. In the South, the most famous festivities on th
United States Virgin Islands
The United States Virgin Islands the Virgin Islands of the United States, is a group of islands in the Caribbean and an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States. The islands are geographically part of the Virgin Islands archipelago and are located in the Leeward Islands of the Lesser Antilles; the U. S. Virgin Islands consists of the main islands of Saint Croix, Saint John, Saint Thomas, many other surrounding minor islands; the total land area of the territory is 133.73 square miles. The territory's capital is Charlotte Amalie on the island of St. Thomas. Known as the Danish West Indies of the Kingdom of Denmark–Norway, they were sold to the United States by Denmark in the Treaty of the Danish West Indies of 1916, they are classified by the United Nations as a Non-Self-Governing Territory, are an organized, unincorporated United States territory. The U. S. Virgin Islands are organized under the 1954 Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands and have since held five constitutional conventions.
The last and only proposed Constitution, adopted by the Fifth Constitutional Convention of the U. S. Virgin Islands in 2009, was rejected by the U. S. Congress in 2010, which urged the convention to reconvene to address the concerns Congress and the Obama Administration had with the proposed document; the Fifth Constitutional Convention of the U. S. Virgin Islands met in October 2012 to address these concerns, but was not able to produce a revised Constitution before its October 31 deadline. In 2010 the population was 106,405, Afro-Caribbean. Tourism and related categories are the primary economic activity, employing a high percentage of the civilian non-farm labor force that totaled 42,752 persons in 2016. Private sector jobs made up 71 percent of the total workforce; the average private sector salary was $34,088 and the average public sector salary was $52,572. In a May 2016 report, some 11,000 people were categorized as being involved in some aspect of agriculture in the first half of 2016 but this category makes up a small part of the total economy.
At that time, there were 607 manufacturing jobs and 1,487 natural resource and construction jobs. The single largest employer was the government. In mid-February 2017, the USVI was facing a financial crisis due to a high debt level of $2 billion and a structural budget deficit of $110 million. Early August 2017, the U. S. Virgin Islands government was rejected from the bond market; the U. S. Virgin Islands were inhabited by the Ciboney and Arawaks; the islands were discovered by the Spanish and named by Christopher Columbus on his second voyage in 1493 for Saint Ursula and her virgin followers. Over the next two centuries, the islands were held by several European powers, including Spain, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Denmark–Norway; the Danish West India Company settled on St. Thomas in 1672, settled on St. John in 1694, purchased St. Croix from France in 1733; the islands became royal Danish colonies in 1754, named the Danish West Indian Islands. Sugarcane, produced by slave labor, drove the islands' economy during the 18th and early 19th centuries.
Other plantation crops included indigo dye. The Danish West India and Guinea Company are credited with naming the island St. John; the Danish crown took full control of St. John in 1754 along with St. Croix. Sugarcane plantations such as the famous Annaberg Sugar Plantation were established in great numbers on St. John because of the intense heat and fertile terrain that provided ideal growing conditions; the establishment of sugarcane plantations led to the buying of more slaves from Africa. In 1733, St. John was the site of one of the first significant slave rebellions in the New World when Akwamu slaves from the Gold Coast took over the island for six months; the Danish were able to defeat the enslaved Africans with help from the French in Martinique. Instead of allowing themselves to be recaptured, more than a dozen of the ringleaders shot themselves before the French forces could capture them and call them to account for their activities during the period of rebel control, it is estimated that by 1775, slaves outnumbered the Danish settlers by a ratio of 5:1.
After a slavery rebellion in Saint Croix, slavery was abolished by governor Peter von Scholten on July 3, 1848, now celebrated as Emancipation Day. Although some plantation owners refused to accept the abolition, some 5,000 Black people were freed while another 17,000 remained enslaved. Over the following years, strict labor laws were implemented several times, leading to the 1878 St. Croix labor riot. Planters began to abandon their estates, causing a significant drop in population and the overall economy. Additionally, the 1867 hurricane and earthquake and tsunami had further diminished the economy. For the remainder of the period of Danish rule the islands were not economically viable and significant transfers were made from the Danish state budgets to the authorities in the islands. In 1867 a treaty to sell St. Thomas and St. John to the United States was agreed, but the sale was never effected. A number of reforms aimed at reviving the islands' economy were attempted, but none had great success.
A second draft treaty to sell the islands to the United States was negotiated in 1902 but was defeated in the upper house of the Danish parliament in a tie vote. The onset of World War I brought the reforms to a close and again left the islands isolated and exposed
Broadcast relay station
A broadcast relay station known as a satellite station, relay transmitter, broadcast translator, re-broadcaster, repeater or complementary station, is a broadcast transmitter which repeats the signal of a radio or television station to an area not covered by the originating station. It expands the broadcast range of a television or radio station beyond the primary signal's original coverage or improves service in the original coverage area; the stations may be used to create a single-frequency network. They may be used by an FM or AM radio station to establish a presence on the other band. A re-broadcaster may be owned by a community group, rather than the owner of the primary station. WHLS/WHLX in Port Huron, Michigan purchased a translator and switched to an alternative rock format shortly afterwards without mentioning the original FM translator, except for its required top-of-the-hour ID. No AM frequencies have been mentioned. In its simplest form, a broadcast translator is a facility created to receive a terrestrial broadcast over the air on one frequency and rebroadcast the same signal on another frequency.
These stations are used in television and radio to cover areas which are not adequately covered by a station's main signal. They can be used to expand market coverage by duplicating programming on another band. Relays which broadcast within the parent station's coverage area on the same channel are known in the U. S. as booster stations. Signals from the stations may interfere with each other without careful antenna design. Radio interference can be avoided by using atomic time, obtained from GPS satellites, to synchronize co-channel stations in a single-frequency network. Analog television stations cannot have same-channel boosters unless opposite polarization is used, due to video synchronization issues such as ghosting. In the U. S. no new on-channel UHF signal boosters have been authorized since July 11, 1975. A distributed transmission system uses several medium-power stations on the same frequency to cover a broadcast area, rather than one high-power station with repeaters on a different frequency.
Although digital television stations are technically capable of sharing a channel, this is more difficult with the 8VSB modulation and unvariable guard interval used in ATSC standards than with the orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing used in the European and Australian DVB-T standard. A distributed transmission system would have stringent synchronization requirements, requiring each transmitter to receive its signal from a central source for broadcast at a GPS-synchronized time. A DTS does not use broadcast repeaters in the conventional sense, since they cannot receive a signal from a main terrestrial broadcast transmitter for rebroadcast; the use of virtual channels is another alternative, although this may cause the same channel to appear several times in a receiver – once for each relay station – and require the user to tune to the best one. Although boosters or DTS cause all relay stations to appear as one signal, they require careful engineering to avoid interference; some licensed stations simulcast another station.
Relay stations in name only, they are licensed like any other station. Although this is unregulated in the U. S. and permitted in Canada, the U. S. Federal Communications Commission regulates radio formats to ensure diversity in programming. U. S. satellite stations may request an FCC exemption from requirements for a properly staffed broadcast studio in the city of license. The stations cover large, sparsely populated regions or operate as statewide non-commercial educational radio and television systems. A television re-broadcaster sells local advertising for broadcast only on the local transmitter, may air a limited amount of programming distinct from its parent station; some "semi-satellites" broadcast local news or separate news segments during part of the newscast. CHEX-TV-2 in Oshawa, Ontario aired daily late-afternoon and early-evening news and community programs separate from its parent station, CHEX-TV in Peterborough, Ontario; the FCC prohibits this on U. S. FM translator stations, only permitting it on licensed stations.
In some cases, a semi-satellite is a autonomous full-service station, programmed remotely through centralcasting or broadcast automation to avoid the cost of a local staff. CBLFT, an owned-and-operated station of the French-language network Ici Radio-Canada Télé in Toronto, is a de facto semi-satellite of its stronger Ottawa sibling CBOFT. A financially weak owned broadcaster in a small market can become a de facto semi-satellite by curtailing local production and relying on a owned station in a larger city for programming. Broadcast automation allows the substitution of syndicated programming or digital subchannel content which the broadcaster was unable to obtain for both cities; some defunct full-service stations have originate nothing. If programming from the parent station must be removed or substituted due to local sports blackouts, the modified signal is that of a semi-satellite station. Most broadcasters outside North America maintain a national network