Southwest Florida is the region along the southwest Gulf coast of the U. S. state of Florida. The area is known for its sugar white sand beaches, lush tropical landscape, winter resort economy. Definitions of the region vary, though its boundaries are considered to put it south of the Tampa Bay area, west of Lake Okeechobee, north of the Everglades and to include Manatee, Charlotte and Collier counties. For some purposes, the inland counties of DeSoto and Hendry, the thinly populated mainland section of Monroe County, south of Collier, are included; the region includes four metropolitan areas: the North Port-Bradenton-Sarasota MSA, the Cape Coral-Fort Myers MSA, the Naples-Marco Island MSA, the Punta Gorda MSA. The most populous county in the region is Lee County, the region's largest city is Cape Coral with a population of 165,831 as of 2013. With no large cities in its early history, Southwest Florida was ignored by commercial developers until the late 1800s; as a result, the region lacks the heavier development present in other parts of Florida.
In recent years however, there has been a major real estate boom focusing on downtown Fort Myers. Numerous efforts in recent years have been made to reduce development and preserve open space and recreational areas. Inland counties are notably rural, with the primary economic driver being agriculture. Important products grown in this area include tomatoes, beef and citrus products including oranges. Agricultural harvesting in Southwest Florida employs 16,000 seasonal workers, 90 percent of which are thought to be migrants. Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council Each county in the region has its own county government. Within each county, there are self-governing cities and villages; the remaining majority of land in each county is controlled directly by the county government. It is very common for incorporated municipalities to contract county services in order to save costs and avoid redundancy; the region is designated as one of Florida's 4 districts for the Committee of Southern Historic Preservation.
The district has been represented by Tommy Stolly since 2013. Southwest Florida is served by several major highways, including the Tamiami Trail and the Interstate 75 freeway, both of which connect the area to Tampa to the north, Greater Miami–Ft. Lauderdale to the east. Long-term cooperative infrastructure planning is coordinated by the Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council, in populated Lee County, the Metropolitan Planning Organization. Greyhound Lines serves several locations in Southwest Florida, including Bradenton, Fort Myers, Port Charlotte, Punta Gorda and Sarasota. Southwest Florida International Airport, located in South Fort Myers, served over 7.42 million passengers in 2009 and offers non-stop flights to 3 cities in Europe and 2 in Canada, in addition to 36 domestic airports. The area's secondary airport, Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport, served 1.34 million passengers in 2009. The following table shows the airports that serve the Southwest Florida area with commercial flights: The Port of Manatee provides a full range of port services for commercial and cruise ship purposes.
Seminole Gulf Railway provides freight services throughout Southwest Florida. Many of Florida railroads are like the nickname: the Sunshine State. Florida features are interesting and diverse. South Florida's fantastic weather make it a worthwhile journey; the Atlantic Coast Line, Seaboard Air Line, the Florida East Coast provide Florida with a fascinating history since most of the South's classic lines are operated here. Tourism is a major economic driver in the area; the warm winter climate draws tourists from across the United States and Europe. Small towns as well as cultural centres, sea-captains hangouts and small industrial centres, Southwest Florida has more than 25 major tourist meccas. Southwest Florida is a region with a comfortable mixture of Florida's classic and cosmopolitan and fast-paced. A place for everyone. Major attractions/destinations: Beaches in the following locales:Bonita Beach Cape Romano Fort Myers Beach Longboat Key, offshore from Bradenton and Sarasota Marco Island, offshore from Naples Naples Sarasota Sarasota Jungle Gardens in Sarasota Sanibel and Captiva Islands, offshore from Fort Myers and Cape Coral St. Armands Circle on St. Armands Key Attractions including:Edison and Ford Winter Estates in Fort Myers Lake Okeechobee renowned for fishing and ecotourism.
Naples Botanical Garden Naples Zoo at Caribbean Gardens Brighton Seminole Indian Reservation where the Seminole nation operates a sizable casino. Ringling Museum of Art in Sarasota St. Armand's Circle in Sarasota Florida Gulf Coast University is a public university located just south of the Southwest Florida International Airport in South Fort Myers in Lee County, Florida; the university belongs to the 12-campus State University System of Florida. FGCU competes in the Atlantic Sun Conference in NCAA Division I sports. FGCU is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award associate's, 51 different types of bachelor's, 29 different master's, 6 types of doctoral degrees; the following table shows the professional teams and major NCAA Division 1 teams that play in Southwest Florida. Florida is the traditional home for Major League Baseball spring training, with teams informally organized into the "Grapefruit League." As of 2004, Sou
Telemundo is an American Spanish language terrestrial television network owned by Comcast through NBCUniversal. It is the second largest provider of Spanish language content nationally behind American competitor Univision, with programming syndicated worldwide to more than 100 countries in over 35 languages; the channel broadcasts programs and original content aimed at Latin American audiences in the United States and worldwide, consisting of telenovelas, reality television, news programming and films — either imported or Spanish-dubbed. In addition, Telemundo operates NBC Universo, a separate channel directed towards young Hispanic audiences. Telemundo is headquartered in the Miami suburb of Beacon Lakes, has 1,900 employees worldwide; the majority of Telemundo's programs are filmed at an operated studio facility in Miami, where 85% of the network's telenovelas were filmed during 2011. The average hourly primetime drama costs $70K to produce. Launched as NetSpan in 1984, the network was renamed Telemundo in 1987, after the network owners purchased the previous owner of WKAQ-TV, a television station in San Juan, Puerto Rico, branded on air as Telemundo.
WKAQ-TV was signed on on March 28, 1954, was founded by Ángel Ramos – owner of Puerto Rico's main newspaper at the time, El Mundo, the U. S. territory's first radio station, WKAQ. Ramos wanted to maintain a consistent branding for his media properties based around the "mundo" theme, chose to brand his new television property as "Telemundo". On April 14, 1983, Ramos sold WKAQ-TV to John Co.. In 1984, the owners of WNJU in Linden, New Jersey and KSTS in San Jose, California formed NetSpan, the second Spanish-language television network in the continental United States; these stations joined KVEA in Los Angeles, run by its general manager and part-owner Joe Wallach, in 1985. The following year, KVEA's part-owner, Reliance Group Holdings, acquired the Telemundo brand when it purchased John Blair & Co. which owned WSCV in Fort Lauderdale–Miami-West Palm Beach in addition to WKAQ-TV. In late 1986, Reliance purchased WNJU. In 1987, Reliance Capital Group executives Saul Steinberg and Henry Silverman merged all these stations into the Telemundo Group.
The new corporation went public, in 1987, Reliance decided to rebrand NetSpan as Telemundo. That year, it purchased additional stations in San Francisco and San Antonio. Between 1988 and 1993, Telemundo acquired or affiliated with television stations in Texas, New Mexico and Washington, D. C.. In May 1992, Telemundo underwent another management change, appointing former Univision president Joaquin Blaya – who resigned from that network after discovering in an FCC filing for A. Jerrold Perenchio's purchase of the network from Hallmark Cards that Univision would increase its reliance on programming from Televisa and Venevision to levels that resulted in him concluding that there would be fewer opportunities for the addition of local programs on Univision's stations, was subsequently joined by four other Univision executives – to head the network; the following year in 1993, Telemundo underwent an extensive rebranding, introducing the signature framed "T" letter logo, a promotional campaign using the slogan "Arriba, Arriba".
The network began to produce its own original telenovelas, the first of which to premiere were Angélica, mi vida, Guadalupe, Señora Tentación and Tres Destinos. International distributors soon approached the network for the syndication rights to air these programs on television networks in other countries. Telemundo's effort faced an initial setback when Mexico's leading broadcaster, purchased production company Capitalvision, producing the telenovelas in conjunction with the network. Parent company Telemundo Group experienced major financial challenges during this time, filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in 1994, due to a debt load of more than $300 million that the company owed to its creditors. In an effort to boost its tepid ratings and quell complaints from advocacy organizations such as the National Hispanic Media Coalition that criticized both networks for not featuring content relatable to American Latinos, Telemundo outlined a new strategy to better compete against Univision by increasing production of domestically produced programs.
In 1995, under the direction of executive vice president of programming Harry Abraham Castillo, Telemundo opened its first network studio on the West Coast. Housed at Raleigh Studios in Hollywood, the network began daily production of three shows on the lot that year: La Hora Lunática, a daytime talk-variety show hosted by Los Angeles radio personality Humberto Luna, comedians Mario Ramírez Reyes "El Comodín" and Hugo Armando, producer Jackie Torres.
Terrestrial television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna. The term terrestrial is more common in Europe and Latin America, while in the United States it is called broadcast or over-the-air television; the term "terrestrial" is used to distinguish this type from the newer technologies of satellite television, in which the television signal is transmitted to the receiver from an overhead satellite, cable television, in which the signal is carried to the receiver through a cable. Terrestrial television was the first technology used for television broadcasting, with the first public television broadcast from Schenectady, NY, in January, 1928; the BBC began broadcasting in 1929 and by 1930 many radio stations had a regular schedule of experimental television programmes. However, these early experimental systems had insufficient picture quality to attract the public, due to their mechanical scan technology, television did not become widespread until after World War II with the advent of electronic scan television technology.
The television broadcasting business followed the model of radio networks, with local television stations in cities and towns affiliated with television networks, either commercial or government-controlled, which provided content. Television broadcasts were in black and white until the transition to color television in the 1950s and 60s. There was no other method of television delivery until the 1950s with the beginnings of cable television and community antenna television. CATV was only a re-broadcast of over-the-air signals. With the widespread adoption of cable across the United States in the 1970s and 1980s, viewing of terrestrial television broadcasts has been in decline. A slight increase in use began after the 2009 final conversion to digital terrestrial television broadcasts, which offer HDTV image quality as an alternative to CATV for cord cutters. Following the ST61 conference, UHF frequencies were first used in the UK in 1964 with the introduction of BBC2. In UK, VHF channels were kept on the old 405-line system, while UHF was used for 625-line broadcasts.
Television broadcasting in the 405-line system continued after the introduction of four analogue programmes in the UHF bands until the last 405-line transmitters were switched off on January 6, 1985. VHF Band III was used in other countries around Europe for PAL broadcasts until planned phase out and switchover to digital television; the success of analogue terrestrial television across Europe varied from country to country. Although each country had rights to a certain number of frequencies by virtue of the ST61 plan, not all of them were brought into service. In 1941, the first NTSC standard was introduced by the National Television System Committee; this standard defined a transmission scheme for a black and white picture with 525 lines of vertical resolution at 60 fields per second. In the earl of the first tragic 1950s, this standard was superseded by a backwards-compatible standard for color television; the NTSC standard was being used in the Americas as well as Japan until the introduction of digital terrestrial television.
While Mexico have ended all its analogue television broadcasts and the US and Canada have shut down nearly all of their analogue TV stations, the NTSC standard continues to be used in the rest of Latin American countries while testing their DTT platform. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the Advanced Television Systems Committee developed the ATSC standard for digital high definition terrestrial transmission; this standard was adopted by many American countries, including the United States, Dominican Republic, Mexico, El Salvador and Honduras. The Pan-American terrestrial television operates on analog channels 2 through 6, 7 through 13, 14 through 51. Unlike with analog transmission, ATSC channel numbers do not correspond to radio frequencies. Instead, a virtual channel is defined as part of the ATSC stream metadata so that a station can transmit on any frequency but still show the same channel number. Additionally, free-to-air television repeaters and signal boosters can be used to rebroadcast a terrestrial television signal using an otherwise unused channel to cover areas with marginal reception.
Analog television channels 2 through 6, 7 through 13, 14 through 51 are only used for LPTV translator stations in the U. S. Channels 52 through 69 are still used by some existing stations, but these channels must be vacated if telecommunications companies notify the stations to vacate that signal spectrum. By convention, broadcast television signals are transmitted with horizontal polarization. Terrestrial television broadcast in Asia started as early as 1939 in Japan through a series of experiments done by NHK Broadcasting Institute of Technology. However, these experiments were interrupted by the beginning of the World War II in the Pacific. On February 1, 1953, NHK began broadcasting. On August 28, 1953, Nippon TV, the first commercial television broadcaster in Asia was launched. Meanwhile, in the Philippines, Alto Broadcasting System, the
Trinity Broadcasting Network
The Trinity Broadcasting Network is an international Christian-based broadcast television network and the world's largest religious television network. TBN was headquartered in Costa Mesa, California until March 3, 2017 when it sold its visible office park; the broadcaster will retain its Tustin, California facilities. Auxiliary studio facilities are located in Texas. TBN broadcasts programs hosted by a diverse group of ministries from Evangelical, traditional Protestant and Catholic denominations, non-profit charities, Messianic Jewish and Christian media personalities. TBN offers a wide range of original programming, faith-based films from various distributors. TBN operates six broadcast networks, each reaching separate demographics, it owns several other religious networks outside the United States, including international versions of its five U. S. networks. Matt Crouch serves as TBN's president and head of operations; the Trinity Broadcasting Network was co-founded in 1973 by Paul Crouch, an Assemblies of God minister, spouse Jan Crouch as KTBN.
TBN began their broadcasting activities by renting time on independent station KBSA in Ontario, California. After that station was sold, he began buying two hours a day of programming time on KLXA-TV in Fontana, California in early 1974; that station was put up for sale shortly afterward. Paul Crouch placed a bid to buy the station for $1 million and raised $100,000 for a down payment. After many struggles, the Crouches managed to raise the down payment and took over the station outright, with the station becoming KTBN-TV in 1977 and its city of license being reassigned to TBN's original homebase, Santa Ana, in 1983; the station ran Christian programs for about six hours a day. KLXA continued to expand its programming to 12 hours a day by 1975 and began selling time to other Christian organizations to supplement their local programming; the fledgling network was so weak in its first days, according to Crouch in his autobiography, Hello World!, it went bankrupt after just two days on the air. TBN began national distribution through cable television providers in 1978.
The ministry, which became known as the Trinity Broadcasting Network, gained national distribution via communications satellite in 1982. The network was a member of the National Religious Broadcasters association until 1990. In 1977, the ministry purchased KPAZ-TV in Phoenix, becoming its second television station property. During the 1980s and 1990s, TBN purchased additional independent television stations and signed on new stations around the United States. TBN's availability expanded to 95% of American households by early 2005. TBN's stated mission is "To use every available means to reach as many individuals and families as possible with the life-changing Gospel of Jesus Christ." TBN owns 35 full-power television stations serving larger metropolitan areas in the United States. TBN has several hundred affiliate stations throughout the United States, although just 61 of these are full-power UHF or VHF stations. According to TVNewsCheck, TBN was the third largest over-the-air television station group in the country as of 2010, besting the station groups of CBS, Fox and NBC, but behind Ion Media Networks and Univision Communications.
Many of TBN's stations are owned by the ministry outright, while others are owned through the subsidiary Community Educational Television, in order to own stations that TBN cannot acquire directly due to FCC ownership limits, or are allocated for educational use and require additional programming to comply with that license purpose. TBN's programming is available by default via a national feed distributed to cable and satellite providers in markets without a local TBN station. Worldwide, TBN's channels are broadcast on 70 satellites and over 18,000 television and cable affiliates; the TBN networks are streamed live on the internet globally. TBN offers mobile apps that are available on the iTunes Store and Google Play, which gives users access to near real-time livestreams of TBN and its channels, as well as the Arabic language Healing Channel, Nejat TV in Persian. During 2010, citing economic problems and a lack of donations, TBN closed down and sold many of its low-powered television repeaters.
Of those, 17 were sold to Daystar. On April 13, 2012, TBN sold 36 of its translators to Regal Media, a broadcasting group headed by George Cooney, the CEO of EUE/Screen Gems. Another 151 translators were donated to the Minority Media and Television Co
Ultra high frequency
Ultra high frequency is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz and 3 gigahertz known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one tenth of a meter. Radio waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the super-high frequency or microwave frequency range. Lower frequency signals fall into lower bands. UHF radio waves propagate by line of sight, they are used for television broadcasting, cell phones, satellite communication including GPS, personal radio services including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, walkie-talkies, cordless phones, numerous other applications. The IEEE defines the UHF radar band as frequencies between 1 GHz. Two other IEEE radar bands overlap the ITU UHF band: the L band between 1 and 2 GHz and the S band between 2 and 4 GHz. Radio waves in the UHF band travel entirely by line-of-sight propagation and ground reflection. UHF radio waves are blocked by hills and cannot travel far beyond the horizon, but can penetrate foliage and buildings for indoor reception.
Since the wavelengths of UHF waves are comparable to the size of buildings, trees and other common objects and diffraction from these objects can cause fading due to multipath propagation in built-up urban areas. Atmospheric moisture reduces, or attenuates, the strength of UHF signals over long distances, the attenuation increases with frequency. UHF TV signals are more degraded by moisture than lower bands, such as VHF TV signals. Since UHF transmission is limited by the visual horizon to 30–40 miles and to shorter distances by local terrain, it allows the same frequency channels to be reused by other users in neighboring geographic areas. Public safety, business communications and personal radio services such as GMRS, PMR446, UHF CB are found on UHF frequencies as well as IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. The adopted GSM and UMTS cellular networks use UHF cellular frequencies. Radio repeaters are used to retransmit UHF signals when a distance greater than the line of sight is required; when conditions are right, UHF radio waves can travel long distances by tropospheric ducting as the atmosphere warms and cools throughout the day.
The length of an antenna is related to the length of the radio waves used. Due to the short wavelengths, UHF antennas are conveniently short. UHF wavelengths are short enough that efficient transmitting antennas are small enough to mount on handheld and mobile devices, so these frequencies are used for two way land mobile radio systems, such as walkie-talkies, two way radios in vehicles, for portable wireless devices. Omnidirectional UHF antennas used on mobile devices are short whips, sleeve dipoles, rubber ducky antennas or the planar inverted F antenna used in cellphones. Higher gain omnidirectional UHF antennas can be made of collinear arrays of dipoles and are used for mobile base stations and cellular base station antennas; the short wavelengths allow high gain antennas to be conveniently small. High gain antennas for point-to-point communication links and UHF television reception are Yagi, log periodic, corner reflectors, or reflective array antennas. At the top end of the band slot antennas and parabolic dishes become practical.
For satellite communication and turnstile antennas are used since satellites employ circular polarization, not sensitive to the relative orientation of the transmitting and receiving antennas. For television broadcasting specialized vertical radiators that are modifications of the slot antenna or reflective array antenna are used: the slotted cylinder, zig-zag, panel antennas. UHF television broadcasting fulfilled the demand for additional over-the-air television channels in urban areas. Today, much of the bandwidth has been reallocated to land mobile, trunked radio and mobile telephone use. UHF channels are still used for digital television. UHF spectrum is used worldwide for land mobile radio systems for commercial, public safety, military purposes. Many personal radio services use frequencies allocated in the UHF band, although exact frequencies in use differ between countries. Major telecommunications providers have deployed voice and data cellular networks in UHF/VHF range; this allows mobile phones and mobile computing devices to be connected to the public switched telephone network and public Internet.
UHF radars are said to be effective at tracking stealth fighters, if not stealth bombers. UHF citizens band: 476–477 MHz Television broadcasting uses UHF channels between 503 and 694 MHz Fixed point-to-point Link 450.4875 - 451.5125 MHz Land mobile service 457.50625 - 459.9875 MHz Mobile satellite service: 406.0000 - 406.1000 MHz Segment and Service examples: Land mobile for private, Australian and Territory Government, Rail industry and Mobile-Satellite 430–450 MHz: Amateur radio 470–806 MHz: Terrestrial television 1452–1492 MHz: Digital Audio Broadcasting Many other frequency assignments for Canada and Mexico are similar to their US counterparts 380–399.9 MHz: Terrestrial Trunked Radio service for emergency use 430–440 MHz: Amateur ra
A television station is a set of equipment managed by a business, organisation or other entity, such as an amateur television operator, that transmits video content via radio waves directly from a transmitter on the earth's surface to a receiver on earth. Most the term refers to a station which broadcasts structured content to an audience or it refers to the organization that operates the station. A terrestrial television transmission can occur via analog television signals or, more via digital television signals. Television stations are differentiated from cable television or other video providers in that their content is broadcast via terrestrial radio waves. A group of television stations with common ownership or affiliation are known as a TV network and an individual station within the network is referred to as O&O or affiliate, respectively; because television station signals use the electromagnetic spectrum, which in the past has been a common, scarce resource, governments claim authority to regulate them.
Broadcast television systems standards vary around the world. Television stations broadcasting over an analog system were limited to one television channel, but digital television enables broadcasting via subchannels as well. Television stations require a broadcast license from a government agency which sets the requirements and limitations on the station. In the United States, for example, a television license defines the broadcast range, or geographic area, that the station is limited to, allocates the broadcast frequency of the radio spectrum for that station's transmissions, sets limits on what types of television programs can be programmed for broadcast and requires a station to broadcast a minimum amount of certain programs types, such as public affairs messages. Another form a television station may take is non-commercial educational and considered public broadcasting. To avoid concentration of media ownership of television stations, government regulations in most countries limit the ownership of television stations by television networks or other media operators, but these regulations vary considerably.
Some countries have set up nationwide television networks, in which individual television stations act as mere repeaters of nationwide programs. In those countries, the local television station has no station identification and, from a consumer's point of view, there is no practical distinction between a network and a station, with only small regional changes in programming, such as local television news. To broadcast its programs, a television station requires operators to operate equipment, a transmitter or radio antenna, located at the highest point available in the transmission area, such as on a summit, the top of a high skyscraper, or on a tall radio tower. To get a signal from the master control room to the transmitter, a studio/transmitter link is used; the link can be either by radio or T1/E1. A transmitter/studio link may send telemetry back to the station, but this may be embedded in subcarriers of the main broadcast. Stations which retransmit or simulcast another may pick-up that station over-the-air, or via STL or satellite.
The license specifies which other station it is allowed to carry. VHF stations have tall antennas due to their long wavelength, but require much less effective radiated power, therefore use much less transmitter power output saving on the electricity bill and emergency backup generators. In North America, full-power stations on band I are limited to 100 kW analog video and 10 kW analog audio, or 45 kW digital ERP. Stations on band III can go up by 31.6 kW audio, or 160 kW digital. Low-VHF stations are subject to long-distance reception just as with FM. There are no stations on Channel 1. UHF, by comparison, has a much shorter wavelength, thus requires a shorter antenna, but higher power. North American stations can go up to 5000 1000 kW digital. Low channels travel further than high ones at the same power, but UHF does not suffer from as much electromagnetic interference and background "noise" as VHF, making it much more desirable for TV. Despite this, in the U. S. the Federal Communications Commission is taking another large portion of this band away, in contrast to the rest of the world, taking VHF instead.
This means. Since at least 1974, there are no stations on channel 37 in North America for radio astronomy purposes. Most television stations are commercial broadcasting enterprises which are structured in a variety of ways to generate revenue from television commercials, they may be some other structure. They can produce some or all of their programs or buy some broadcast syndication programming for or all of it from other stations or independent production companies. Many stations have some sort of television studio, which on major-network stations is used for newscasts or other local programming. There is a news department, where journalists gather information. There is a section where electronic news-gathering operations are based, receiving remote broadcasts via remote pickup unit or satellite TV. Outside broadcasting vans, production trucks, or SUVs with electronic field production equipment are sent out with reporters, who may bring back news stories on video tape rather than sending them back live.
To keep pace with technology United States television stations have been replacing operators with broadcast automation systems to increas
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States of America, they are used for all FCC-licensed transmitters. A call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or cryptographically encoded to disguise a station's identity; the use of call signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one telegraph line linking all railroad stations, there needed to be a way to address each one when sending a telegram. In order to save time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose; this pattern continued in radiotelegraph operation. These were not globally unique, so a one-letter company identifier was added. By 1912, the need to identify stations operated by multiple companies in multiple nations required an international standard. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities.
In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned call signs beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were assigned call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters. Ships equipped with Morse code radiotelegraphy, or life boat radio sets, Aviation ground stations, broadcast stations were given four letter call signs. Maritime coast stations on high frequency were assigned three letter call signs; as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels with radiotelephony only were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US still wishing to have a radio license are under FCC class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped."
Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47-foot motor lifeboats; the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Aviation mobile stations equipped with radiotelegraphy were assigned five letter call signs.. Land Stations in Aviation were assigned four letter call signs; these call signs were phased out in the 1960s when flight radio officers were no longer required on international flights. USSR kept FRO's for the Moscow-Havana run until around 2000. All signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation and whether or not the caller is in an aircraft or at a ground facility.
In most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircraft's registration number. In this case, the call sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, followed by a unique identifier made up of letters and numbers. For example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would omit saying November, instead use the name of the aircraft manufacturer or the specific model. At times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters; this is true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions or at towered airports after establishing two-way communication with the tower controller. For example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base.
In most countries, the aircraft call sign or "tail number"/"tail letters" are linked to the international radio call sign allocation table and follow a convention that aircraft radio stations receive call signs consisting of five letters. For example, all British civil aircraft have a five-letter call sign beginning with the letter G. Canadian aircraft have a call sign beginning with C–F or C–G, such as C–FABC. Wing In Ground-effect vehicles in Canada are eligible to receive C–Hxxx call signs, ultralight aircraft receive C-Ixxx call signs. In days gone by American aircraft used five letter call signs, such as KH–ABC, but they were replaced prior to World War II by the current American system of civilian aircraft call signs. Radio call signs used for communication in manned spaceflight is not formalized or regulated to the same degree as for aircraft; the three nations curren