Planning permission or developmental approval refers to the approval needed for construction or expansion in some jurisdictions. It is given in the form of a building permit; the new construction must be inspected during construction and after completion to ensure compliance with national and local building codes. Planning is dependent on the site's zone – for example, one cannot obtain permission to build a nightclub in an area where it is inappropriate such as a high-density suburb. Failure to obtain a permit can result in fines and demolition of unauthorized construction if it cannot be made to meet code. House building permits, for example, are subject to local housing statutes; the criteria for planning permission are a part of urban planning and construction law, are managed by town planners employed by local governments. Since building permits precede outlays for construction, employment and furnishings, they are used as a leading indicator for developments in other areas of the economy.
As part of broadcast law, the term is used in broadcasting, where individual radio and television stations must apply for and receive permission to construct radio towers and radio antennas. This type of permit is issued by a national broadcasting authority, but does not imply zoning any other permission that must be given by local government; the permit itself does not imply permission to operate the station once constructed. In the U. S. a construction permit is valid for three years. Afterwards, the station must receive a full license to operate, good for seven years; this is provided by a separate broadcast license called a "license to cover" by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States. Further permission or registration for towers may be needed from aviation authorities. In the U. S. construction permits for commercial stations are now assigned by auction, rather than the former process of determining who would serve the community of license best. If the given frequency allocation is sought by at least one non-commercial educational applicant, or is on an NCE-reserved TV channel or in the FM reserved band, the comparative process still takes place, though the FCC refuses to consider which radio format the applicants propose.
In Canada, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission maintains a comparative process in issuing permits, ensuring that a variety of programming is available in each area, that as many groups as possible have access to free speech over radio waves
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
WNYC is a non-profit, public radio station licensed to New York City. The station is owned by New York Public Radio along with sister stations WNYC-FM and Newark, New Jersey-licensed classical music outlet WQXR-FM, it carries local and national news/talk programs. Some programming is simulcast on WNYC-FM and at other times different programming airs on each station. WNYC broadcasts from studios and offices in the Hudson Square neighborhood of Manhattan and its transmitter is located in Kearny, New Jersey. WNYC is one of the oldest radio stations in New York. Funds for the establishment of the station were approved on June 2, 1922 by the New York City Board of Estimate and Apportionment. WNYC made its first official broadcast two years on July 8, 1924, at 570 AM with a second-hand transmitter shipped from Brazil. With the commencement of WNYC's operations, the City of New York became one of the first American municipalities to be directly involved in broadcasting. In 1928 WNYC was forced into a time-sharing arrangement on 570 with WMCA, another pioneering New York radio outlet.
This situation lasted until 1931, when the Federal Radio Commission moved WNYC to 810 AM. The frequency move did not help WNYC from an operational standpoint as it now had to share its frequency with the more-powerful WCCO in Minneapolis, limiting WNYC to daytime-only operations, broadcasting from sunrise to sunset. WNYC's transmitter was moved in 1937 from the top of the Municipal Building to City-owned land at 10 Kent Street in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, as part of a Works Progress Administration project; the site was designated as WNYC Transmitter Park. In 1938 the Municipal Broadcasting System was established by the City of New York to run the station. For its first 14 years, WNYC had been run by the New York City Commissioner for Bridges and Structures. Now, under an agency devoted singularly to its function and with the leadership of new director Morris S. Novik, appointed by Mayor LaGuardia, WNYC became a model public broadcaster. Among its many landmark programs was the annual American Music Festival.
In 1941 the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement shifted WNYC's frequency a second time, to 830. WCCO was moved to 830 as well, was given clear-channel authority. WNYC would remain a 1,000-watt outlet for the next 48 years; that year, on December 7, WNYC was the first radio station in the United States to announce the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. During World War II, the FCC allowed WNYC to stay on the air a few extra hours in the evening due to the public service it was providing; the Municipal Broadcasting System helped to form National Public Radio in 1971, the WNYC stations were among the 90 stations that carried the inaugural broadcast of All Things Considered that year. In 1990 WNYC moved from 830 kHz to 820 kHz, commenced around-the-clock operations, increased its daytime power to 10,000 watts while maintaining 1,000 watts at night, to protect WBAP in Fort Worth, Texas; the Brooklyn transmitter site was decommissioned, the AM transmitter was moved to Belleville Turnpike in Kearny, New Jersey, sharing three towers with WMCA, its former shared-time partner.
The station's ownership by the City meant that it was subject to the whims of various mayors. As part of a crackdown on prostitution in 1979, then-Mayor Ed Koch tried to use the three WNYC radio and television stations to broadcast the names of "johns" arrested for soliciting. Announcers threatened a walkout over what was casually called The John Hour, station management refused to comply with the idea. Shortly after assuming the mayoralty in 1994, Rudolph W. Giuliani announced he was considering selling the WNYC stations. Giuliani believed that broadcasting was no longer essential as a municipal service, that the financial compensation from selling the stations could be used to help the City cover budget shortfalls; the final decision was made in March 1995: while the City opted to divest WNYC-TV through a blind auction to commercial buyers, WNYC-AM-FM was sold to the WNYC Foundation for $20 million over a six-year period, far less than what the stations could have been sold for if they were placed on the open market.
While the sale put an end to the occasional political intrusions of the past, it required the WNYC Foundation to embark on a major appeal towards listeners, other foundations, private benefactors. The station's audience and budget have continued to grow since the split from the City; the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 destroyed WNYC-FM's transmitter atop the World Trade Center. WNYC-AM-FM's studios, in the nearby Manhattan Municipal Building, had to be evacuated and station staff was unable to return to its offices for three weeks; the FM signal was knocked off the air for a time. WNYC temporarily moved to studios at National Public Radio's New York bureau in midtown Manhattan, where it broadcast on its still operating AM signal transmitting from towers in Kearny, New Jersey and by a live Internet stream; the stations returned to the Municipal Building. On June 16, 2008 WNYC moved from its 51,400 square feet of rent-free space scattered on eight floors of the Manhattan Municipal Building to a new location on Varick Street, near the Holland Tunnel.
The station now occupies three and a half floors of a 12-story former printing building. The new offices have 12-foot ceilings and
WOR is a 50,000 watt Class A clear-channel AM radio station owned by iHeartMedia and licensed to New York City. The station airs a mix of local and syndicated talk radio shows from co-owned Premiere Networks, including The Rush Limbaugh Show, The Sean Hannity Show, Coast to Coast AM with George Noory; the independently syndicated Dave Ramsey Show is heard at night. Since 2016, the station has served as the New York network affiliate for co-owned NBC News Radio; the station's studios are located in the Tribeca neighborhood of Manhattan at the former AT&T Building, with its transmitter in Rutherford, New Jersey. WOR began broadcasting in February 1922 and is one of the oldest radio stations in the United States with a three–letter call sign, characteristic of a station dating from the 1920s. WOR is the only New York City station to have retained its original three-letter call sign, making it the oldest continually used call letters in the New York City area. WOR's original owner was Bamberger's Department Store in New Jersey.
In the early 1920s, the store was selling radio receivers and wanted to put a radio station on the air to help promote receiver sales as well as for general publicity. Effective December 1, 1921 the U. S. Department of Commerce had set aside a single wavelength, 360 meters for radio stations to broadcast "entertainment" programs; the store applied for a license, granted on February 20, 1922 with the randomly assigned call sign of WOR. The station's original city of license was Newark; the station made its debut broadcast on February 22, 1922, from a studio located on an upper floor of the store. A 250-watt De Forest transmitter was constructed on the roof of the department store; the station's first broadcast was made with a homemade microphone constructed by attaching a megaphone to a telephone mouthpiece. Al Jolson's "April Showers" was the first record played on WOR. Three other broadcasting stations were on the air in the region transmitting on 360 meters: WJZ in Newark, operated by the Radio Corporation of America.
The use of the common wavelength required a time–sharing agreement between the stations designating transmitting hours. This soon became complicated, as by June there were a total of ten regional stations using 360 meters; this restricted the number of hours available to WOR, now limited to just a few hours per week. In September 1922, the Department of Commerce set aside a second entertainment wavelength, 400 meters for "Class B" stations that had quality equipment and programming. In the New York City region, WOR, along with two New York City American Telephone & Telegraph Company stations, WBAY and WEAF, were assigned to this new wavelength. In May 1923 additional "Class B" broadcasting frequencies were announced, including three for the Newark/New York City area. WOR moved to 740 kHz, where it shared time with WDT and a new RCA station, WJY. WJY used the time periods assigned to it, by the summer of 1926, WOR began operating full-time, stating that the silent WJY was considered to have forfeited its hours.
In June 1927, the Federal Radio Commission moved WOR to 710 kHz, which it has occupied since. On November 11, 1928, under the provisions of the FRC's General Order 40, this assignment was designated a "clear channel" frequency, with WOR the dominant station. In December 1924, although still licensed to Newark, WOR opened a second studio in Manhattan to originate programs, so that stars of the day based in New York City would have better access to the station. In 1926, WOR left its original New York City studio on the 9th floor of Chickering Hall at 27 West 57th Street, it relocated two blocks from Times Square. WOR was a charter member of the CBS Radio Network, acting as the flagship of the 16 stations that aired the first Columbia Broadcasting System network program on September 18, 1927. In partnership with Chicago radio station WGN and Cincinnati radio station WLW, WOR formed the Mutual Broadcasting System in 1934 and became its New York City flagship station. Mutual was one of the "Big Four" national radio networks in the United States during the 1930s–1980s.
In 1941, the station changed its city of license from Newark to New York City. However, for all intents and purposes it had been a New York City station since its early days, had set up studios across the Hudson two years after it signed on. In 1957, WOR became an independent station. Mutual's new outlet in New York City was AM 970 WAAT in Newark, but WOR continued to carry Mutual's "Top of the News" with Fulton Lewis for 15 minutes each evening, Monday to Friday at 7:00 p.m. for several more years. It aired Mutual's all night talk show hosted by Larry King for several years. For a few years in the late-1950s, WOR aired selected St. Louis Cardinals baseball games sponsored by Budweiser due to the departures of the Dodgers and Giants from New York City to California. In 1941, WOR put W71NY, on the air. WOR had been experimenting with FM broadcasts as W2XWI from its Carteret, New Jersey transmitter site from 1938. For most of its first two decades, W71NY WOR-FM simulcast the same programming as WOR.
In 1949, WOR signed on a sister television station, Channel 9 WOR-TV. It started as an independent station, showing movies and reruns of network shows, with some local children's and talk programs. In 1952, WOR-AM-FM-TV were sold to RKO General; the TV station became WWOR-TV, re
In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it. Repeaters are used to extend transmissions so that the signal can cover longer distances or be received on the other side of an obstruction; some types of repeaters broadcast an identical signal, but alter its method of transmission, for example, on another frequency or baud rate. There are several different types of repeaters. A broadcast relay station is a repeater used in broadcast television; when an information-bearing signal passes through a communication channel, it is progressively degraded due to loss of power. For example, when a telephone call passes through a wire telephone line, some of the power in the electric current which represents the audio signal is dissipated as heat in the resistance of the copper wire; the longer the wire is, the more power is lost, the smaller the amplitude of the signal at the far end. So with a long enough wire the call will not be audible at the other end.
The farther from a radio station a receiver is, the weaker the radio signal, the poorer the reception. A repeater is an electronic device in a communication channel that increases the power of a signal and retransmits it, allowing it to travel further. Since it amplifies the signal, it requires a source of electric power; the term "repeater" originated with telegraphy in the 19th century, referred to an electromechanical device used to regenerate telegraph signals. Use of the term has continued in data communications. In computer networking, because repeaters work with the actual physical signal, do not attempt to interpret the data being transmitted, they operate on the physical layer, the first layer of the OSI model; this is used to increase the range of telephone signals in a telephone line. Land line repeaterThey are most used in trunklines that carry long distance calls. In an analog telephone line consisting of a pair of wires, it consists of an amplifier circuit made of transistors which use power from a DC current source to increase the power of the alternating current audio signal on the line.
Since the telephone is a duplex communication system, the wire pair carries two audio signals, one going in each direction. So telephone repeaters have to be bilateral, amplifying the signal in both directions without causing feedback, which complicates their design considerably. Telephone repeaters were the first type of repeater and were some of the first applications of amplification; the development of telephone repeaters between 1900 and 1915 made long distance phone service possible. Now, most telecommunications cables are fiber optic cables. Before the invention of electronic amplifiers, mechanically coupled carbon microphones were used as amplifiers in telephone repeaters. After the turn of the 20th century it was found that negative resistance mercury lamps could amplify, they were used; the invention of audion tube repeaters around 1916 made transcontinental telephony practical. In the 1930s vacuum tube repeaters using hybrid coils became commonplace, allowing the use of thinner wires.
In the 1950s negative impedance gain devices were more popular, a transistorized version called the E6 repeater was the final major type used in the Bell System before the low cost of digital transmission made all voiceband repeaters obsolete. Frequency frogging repeaters were commonplace in frequency-division multiplexing systems from the middle to late 20th century. Submarine cable repeaterThis is a type of telephone repeater used in underwater submarine telecommunications cables; this is used to increase the range of signals in a fiber optic cable. Digital information travels through a fiber optic cable in the form of short pulses of light; the light is made up of particles called photons, which can be scattered in the fiber. An optical communications repeater consists of a phototransistor which converts the light pulses to an electrical signal, an amplifier to increase the power of the signal, an electronic filter which reshapes the pulses, a laser which converts the electrical signal to light again and sends it out the other fiber.
However, optical amplifiers are being developed for repeaters to amplify the light itself without the need of converting it to an electric signal first. This is used to extend the range of coverage of a radio signal; the history of radio relay repeaters began in 1898 from the publication by Johann Mattausch in Austrian Journal Zeitschrift für Electrotechnik. But his proposal "Translator" was not suitable for use; the first relay system with radio repeaters, which functioned, was that invented in 1899 by Emile Guarini-Foresio. A radio repeater consists of a radio receiver connected to a radio transmitter; the received signal is amplified and retransmitted on another frequency, to provide coverage beyond the obstruction. Usage of a duplexer can allow the repeater to use one antenna for both receive and transmit at the same time. Broadcast relay station, rebroadcastor or translator: This is a repeater used to extend the coverage of a radio or television broadcasting station, it consists of a secondary television transmitter.
The signal from the main transmitter comes over leased telephone lines or by microwave relay. Microwave relay: This is a specialized point-to-point telecommunications link, consisting of a microwave receiver that receives information over a beam of microwaves from an
New York metropolitan area
The New York metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at 4,495 sq mi. The metropolitan area includes New York City, Long Island, the Mid and Lower Hudson Valley in the state of New York; the New York metropolitan area remains, by a significant margin, the most populous in the United States, as defined by both the Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Combined Statistical Area. It is the tenth largest in the world; the New York metropolitan area continues to be the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States, with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. The MSA covers 6,720 sq mi, while the CSA area is 13,318 sq mi, encompassing an ethnically and geographically diverse region; the New York metropolitan area's population is larger than that of the state of New York, the metropolitan airspace accommodated over 130 million passengers in 2016. As a center of many industries, including finance, international trade and traditional media, real estate, fashion, tourism, biotechnology and manufacturing, the New York City metropolitan region is one of the most important economic regions in the world.
In 2012, the New York metropolitan area was home to seven of the 25 wealthiest counties in the United States by median household income, according to the American Community Survey. According to Forbes, in 2014, the New York City metropolitan area was home to eight of the top ten ZIP codes in the United States by median housing price, with six in Manhattan alone; the New York Metropolitan Area houses five of the top ten richest places in America, according to Bloomberg. These are Scarsdale, NY; the New York metropolitan region's higher education network comprises hundreds of colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Princeton University, Yale University, which are ranked among the top 3 universities in the United States and top 10 in the world. Institutions such as New York University, Rockefeller University, the Cornell Tech campus of Cornell University additionally have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the U. S. Office of Management and Budget utilizes two definitions of the area: the Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Combined Statistical Area.
The MSA definition is titled the New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, includes a population of 20.3 million people by 2017 Census estimates 1 in 16 Americans and nearly 7 million more than the second-place Los Angeles metropolitan area in the United States. The MSA is further subdivided into four metropolitan divisions; the 26-county MSA includes 12 counties in New York State. The largest urbanized area in the United States is at the heart of the metropolitan area, the New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT Urbanized Area; the counties and county groupings constituting the New York metropolitan area are listed below, with 2012 population estimates: New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA Metropolitan Statistical Area New York–Jersey City–White Plains, NY–NJ Metropolitan Division Kings County, NY Queens County, NY New York County, NY Bronx County, NY Richmond County, NY Westchester County, NY Bergen County, NJ Hudson County, NJ Middlesex County, NJ Monmouth County, NJ Ocean County, NJ Passaic County, NJ Rockland County, NY Orange County, NY Nassau County–Suffolk County, NY Metropolitan Division Suffolk County Nassau County Dutchess County-Putnam County, NY Metropolitan Division Putnam County Dutchess County Newark, NJ–PA Metropolitan Division Essex County, NJ Union County, NJ Morris County, NJ Somerset County, NJ Sussex County, NJ Hunterdon County, NJ Pike County, PA Combined statistical areas group together adjacent core-based statistical areas with a high degree of economic interconnection.
The New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA Combined Statistical Area had an estimated population of 23.7 million as of 2014. About one out of every fifteen Americans resides in this region, which includes ten additional counties in New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania; this area, less the Pennsylvania portion, is referred to as the tri-state area and less the tri-state region. The New York City television designated market area includes Pike County, included in the CSA. In addition to the New York–Newark–Jersey City, NY–NJ–PA metropolitan statistical areas, the following core-based statistical areas are included in the New York–Newark, NY–NJ–CT–PA CSA: Bridgeport–Stamford–Norw
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –