Tatoeba.org is a free collaborative online database of example sentences geared towards foreign language learners. Its name comes from the Japanese term "tatoeba", meaning "for example". Unlike other online dictionaries, which focus on words, Tatoeba focuses on translation of complete sentences. In addition, the structure of the database and interface emphasize one-to-many relationships. Not only can a sentence have multiple translations within a single language, but its translations into all languages are visible, as are indirect translations that involve a chain of stepwise links from one language to another; the aim of the Tatoeba Project is to create a database of sentences and translations that can be used by anyone developing a language learning application. The idea is that the project creates the data, so programmers can just focus on coding the application; the data collected by the project is available under a Creative Commons Attribution license. As of November 2017, the Tatoeba Corpus has over 6,000,000 sentences in 319 languages.
The top 21 languages make up 90% of the corpus. Eighty-five of these languages have over 1,000 sentences; the top 13 languages have over 100,000 sentences each. The interface is available in 25 different languages. Tatoeba.org is the current home of the Tanaka Corpus, a public-domain series of about 150,000 English-Japanese sentence pairs compiled by Hyogo University professor Yasuhito Tanaka first released in 2001, where it is undergoing its latest revisions. The actual statistic of all languages are found at Tatoeba was founded by Trang Ho in 2006, she hosted the project on Sourceforge under the project name "multilangdict". Users those who are not registered, can search for words in any language to retrieve sentences that use them; each sentence in the Tatoeba database is displayed next to its translations in other languages. Sentences are tagged for content such as dialect, or vulgarity; as of early 2016, more than 200,000 sentences in 19 languages had audio readings. Sentences can be browsed by language, tag, or audio.
Registered users can add new sentences or translate or proofread existing ones if their target language is not their native tongue. However, it is preferred that users translate into their native or "strongest" language and add sentences from their native language rather than translating into or adding from their target language. Translations are linked to the original sentence automatically. Users can edit their own sentences, "adopt" and correct sentences without an owner, comment on others' sentences. Advanced contributors, a rank above ordinary contributors, can tag and unlink sentences. Corpus maintainers, a rank above advanced contributors, can delete sentences, they can modify owned sentences, though they do so only if the owner fails to respond to a request to make the change. Tatoeba's basic data structure is a series of links; each sentence is a node. The entire Tatoeba database is published under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 license, freeing it for academic and other use. Tatoeba received a grant from Mozilla Drumbeat in December 2010.
Some work on the Tatoeba infrastructure was sponsored by Google Summer of 2014 edition. Parallel text corpora such as Tatoeba are used for a variety of natural language processing tasks such as machine translation; the Tatoeba data has been used as data for treebanking Japanese and statistical machine translation, as well as the WWWJDIC Japanese-English dictionary and the Bilingual Sentence Pairs and Japanese Reading and Translation Practice on www. ManyThings.org. Selected content from Tatoeba – 83,932 phrases in Esperanto along with all their translations into other languages – has appeared in the third edition of the multilingual DVD Esperanto Elektronike published in 6,000 copies by E@I in July 2011. Tab-delimited data ready for import into Anki and similar software can be downloaded from http://www.manythings.org/anki/ Phrase book List of linguistic example sentences English Tatoeba homepage Video presenting the key ideas behind the Tatoeba Project
Kōjien is a single-volume Japanese dictionary first published by Iwanami Shoten in 1955. It is regarded as the most authoritative dictionary of Japanese, newspaper editorials cite its definitions; as of 2007, it had sold 11 million copies. Kōjien was the magnum opus of Shinmura Izuru, 1876–1967, a professor of linguistics and Japanese at Kyoto University, he was born in Yamaguchi Prefecture and graduated from the prestigious Tokyo University, where he was a student of Kazutoshi Ueda. After studying in Germany, Ueda taught comparative linguistics and edited foreign-language dictionaries in the latter part of the Meiji era. Through his tutelage, Shinmura became involved in Japanese language lexicography. Kōjien editions published after his death credit Shinmura as the chief editor; the predecessor of Kōjien originated during the Great Depression in East Asia. In 1930, the publisher Shigeo Oka wanted to create a Japanese dictionary for high school students, he asked his friend Shinmura to be chief editor, they chose the title Jien in a classical allusion to the Ziyuan Chinese dictionary.
Shinmura appointed his son Takeshi Shinmura as an editor, in 1935, Hakubunkan published the Jien dictionary. It contained some 160,000 headword entries of old and new Japanese vocabulary, as well as encyclopedic content, became a bestseller; the editors began working on a revised edition, but the 1945 Firebombing of Tokyo destroyed their work. After the war and his lexicographers began anew in September 1948. Iwanami Shoten published the first Kōjien in 1955, it included 200,000 headwords, about 40,000 more than the Jien. The 2nd edition deleted about 20,000 old entries and added about 20,000 new ones scientific terms. On December 1, 1976, a revised and expanded version of the 2nd edition was published; the 3rd edition added 12,000 entries, was published in CD-ROM format in 1987. Three major Japanese publishers released new dictionaries designed to compete with the Iwanami's popular and profitable Kōjien: Sanseidō's Daijirin, Shōgakukan's Daijisen, Kōdansha's Nihongo Daijiten. In response, the 4th edition Kōjien was a major revision that added some 15,000 entry words, bringing the total to over 220,000.
The CD-ROM version was published in 1993 and revised with color illustrations in 1996. In 1992, Iwanami published a useful Gyakubiki Kōjien; the 5th edition includes over 230,000 headwords, its 2996 pages contain an estimated total of 14 million characters. Iwanami Shoten publishes Kōjien in several printed and digital formats, sells dictionary subscription services for cell phone and Internet access. Various manufacturers of Japanese electronic dictionaries have licensed the digital Kōjien, it is the core dictionary in many models. Shinmura's preface to the 1st edition stated his hope that the Kōjien would become regarded as the standard by which other dictionaries would be measured; this has been fulfilled. It remains a bestseller in Japan. According to Iwanami, the 1st edition Kōjien sold over one million copies, the 5th edition brought cumulative total sales to over eleven million in 2000; the sixth edition was released on January 11, 2008, includes more than 10,000 new entries, bringing the total to 240,000.
It contains an additional 1,500 quotations. The seventh edition was released on January 12, 2018. Changes include 10,000 new words were added from 100,000 words collected by its editors firstly, including "apuri", "Isuramu-koku", LGBT, "hanii torappu", "jidori" and "diipu raningu". Other changes include citing available source literature for a given explanation of a term, listing changes of the usages of a term, addition of 140 pages without adding book thickness. However, the definition of LGBT in the edition was written as "individuals whose sexual orientation differs from the majority." Some netizens criticized that the definition only describes the "LGB" portion of the acronym which refers to sexual orientation, while the "T" refers to sexual identity. In addition, Taiwanese government objected the change of definition of Taiwan as'the 26th province of People's Republic of China'. Jien?th printing Kōjien 1st edition?th printing Kōjien 2nd edition?th printing Kōjien 2nd revised edition?th printing Kōjien 3rd edition:?th printing Kōjien 4th edition: Includes 220,000 entries, 2500 illustrations.
Regular edition:?th printing desktop edition: B5 page size.?th printing reverse index regular edition?th printing reverse index desktop edition: B5 page size.?th printing leather edition?th printing EPWING CD-ROM edition: CD-ROM includes 84 bird sounds, 234 colour samples, search engine.?th printing Electronic Kōjien 4th edition (
Nichi-Ran jiten is a Japanese–Dutch dictionary compiled by Peter Adriaan van de Stadt and published by the Taiwanese branch of Nan'yō Kyōkai in 1934. It has about 33,800 entries; as of 2011, a second edition has not been published, but at least one facsimile edition was published in 1989 by the current Nan'yō Kyōkai, now based in Tokyo. While the Nichi-Ran jiten was published only in 1934, its compilation had been finished in 1925. According to the preface, the compiler, Peter Adriaan van de Stadt, was approached in 1922 by the Japanese consulate general Matsumoto in Batavia. Matsumoto had seen a Dutch-Japanese pocket dictionary by Van de Stadt and asked Van de Stadt to compile a larger Japanese–Dutch dictionary. Van de Stadt agreed after some persuasion, completed his work in 1925. However, when he offered the manuscript to the Nan'yō Kyōkai, they told him that the publication was too big a financial risk. Van de Stadt left the manuscript with Nan'yō Kyōkai. Only through the involvement of other parties, it was published nine years in 1934.
According to the book's colophon, the 1934 publication was by Nan'yō Kyōkai Taiwan shibu, the branch of Nan'yō Kyōkai in Taiwan. Van de Stadt is acknowledged as the sole author. There never was a second edition. However, a facsimile edition was printed in 1989 by the current Nan'yō Kyōkai based in Tokyo. Despite uninterrupted relations between Japan and the Netherlands dating back to 1640 and earlier, the Nichi-Ran jiten has been the only Japanese–Dutch Dictionary of at least medium size till 2006. On the other hand, efforts to compile a Dutch–Japanese dictionary date back to the period of Rangaku and lead to two major publications in Japan; the dictionary Haruma Wage was published in 1796–1799. The publication known as the ‘Nagasaki Haruma' was presented to the Shōgun in 1833 and published 1855–1858. Both publications were based on François Halma's Woordenboek der Nederduitsche en Fransche Taalen. However, when Japan was opened to other countries from 1854 on, Rangaku became obsolete, the attention of Japanese scholars switched form Dutch to English.
The next medium size Dutch–Japanese dictionary was published 150 years in 1994, by the Japanese publisher Kodansha. The dictionary contains about 33,800 entries; the entries are alphabetical and spelled in a version of modified Hepburn. Van de Stadt deviated from current usage of modified Hepburn by not using the apostrophe to indicate the long n before a vowel. Sometimes he ignored the special case of other times he used a hyphen; the Latin spelling of the title word is followed by the Japanese spelling and equivalents or a definition in Dutch. Example sentences follow directly the meaning for which they are relevant or are placed all at the end of the entry; some examples show expressions in kanbun. Below is a text impression of the entry for aida. A photographic reproduction of a full page can be seen at the right. Aida zn. ruimte v.. Vz. gedurende. ¶ 其間に intusschen. ¶ 間に立つ tusschenin staan. ¶ 七人の間に分ける tusschen zeven menschen verdeelen. ¶ の間は zoo lang als. ¶ 私が留守の間に gedurende mijn afwezigheid. ¶ 君と僕の間 tusschen ons beiden.
¶ 此間 kort geleden. ¶ 御座候間 aangezien The compiler of the Japanese–Dutch dictionary Nichi-Ran jiten was Peter Adriaan van de Stadt. Van de Stadt was trained to be a government official at the University of Leiden. In 1895 he went to the Dutch East Indies. With the exception of 8 years in service of a private company and 3 years of additional study Van de Stadt worked as a civil servant. From 1918 on he was adviser for Japanese affairs, in which capacity he read and translated Japanese, he retired in 1932. Van de Stadt was made officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau in 1910, he received the Order of the Rising Sun and the Legion of Honor as well. Van de Stadt compiled the Chinese dictionary Hakka woordenboek, Batavia landsdrukkerij, The Hague, 1912. A searchable photographic version of Nichi-Ran jiten 日蘭辭典 An indexed photographic version of the Edo Haruma Dutch–Japanese dictionary is hosted by the library of the Waseda University: 早稲田大学図書館所蔵 江戸ハルマ（蘭和辞書）全文画像 Van de Stadt, P. A... 日蘭辭典. 臺北: 南洋協會臺灣支部. Van de Stadt, C.
J... Engel van de Stadt, 1746–1819. Zijn voor- en nageslacht. Den Haag. Van Sterkenburg, P. G. J. & W. J. Boot et al... Kodansha's Nederlands-Japans Woordenboek・講談社オランダ語辞典. Kodansha・講談社: 東京, 1994. ISBN 4-06-154801-8
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Despite the fact that over half of the citizens descend from the peoples of the British Isles, Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Many early settlements were penal colonies and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies. Large-scale immigration did not occur. Further waves of immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Latin America and Africa.
Prior to British settlement, Australia was inhabited by various indigenous peoples – Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders, a Melanesian people. A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples; the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 and various events of the Second World War, most notably the Kokoda Track campaign, are frequently mentioned in association with Australian identity. However, Australian culture predates the federation of the Australian colonies by several decades – Australian literature, most notably the work of the bush poets, dates from colonial times. Modern Australian identity draws on a multicultural and British cultural heritage; the majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the Indigenous population and other outer lying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Immigration from the Middle East and east Asia, Pacific Islands and Latin America has been having an impact; the predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, the popularity of sports originating in the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and "Antipodean". Australians were referred to as "Colonials", "British" and "British subjects"; as a result of many shared linguistic, historical and geographic characteristics, Australians have identified with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the modern Australian culture. Today, Australians of English and other European descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at around 70% of the total population. European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia; the majority of Australians are of British – English, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx – and Irish ancestral origin.
Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. About 20% of Australians are descendants of convicts. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, Ireland. Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Anglo-Celtic Australians have been influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, 6 percent were of European origin from Germany and Scandinavia.
In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages arranged alphabetically, which may include information on definitions, etymologies, translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon. It is a lexicographical reference. A broad distinction is made between specialized dictionaries. Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study. In theory, general dictionaries are supposed to be semasiological, mapping word to definition, while specialized dictionaries are supposed to be onomasiological, first identifying concepts and establishing the terms used to designate them. In practice, the two approaches are used for both types.
There are other types of dictionaries that do not fit neatly into the above distinction, for instance bilingual dictionaries, dictionaries of synonyms, rhyming dictionaries. The word dictionary is understood to refer to a general purpose monolingual dictionary. There is a contrast between prescriptive or descriptive dictionaries. Stylistic indications in many modern dictionaries are considered by some to be less than objectively descriptive. Although the first recorded dictionaries date back to Sumerian times, the systematic study of dictionaries as objects of scientific interest themselves is a 20th-century enterprise, called lexicography, initiated by Ladislav Zgusta; the birth of the new discipline was not without controversy, the practical dictionary-makers being sometimes accused by others of "astonishing" lack of method and critical-self reflection. The oldest known dictionaries were Akkadian Empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual Sumerian–Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla and dated 2300 BCE.
The early 2nd millennium BCE Urra=hubullu glossary is the canonical Babylonian version of such bilingual Sumerian wordlists. A Chinese dictionary, the c. 3rd century BCE Erya, was the earliest surviving monolingual dictionary. Philitas of Cos wrote a pioneering vocabulary Disorderly Words which explained the meanings of rare Homeric and other literary words, words from local dialects, technical terms. Apollonius the Sophist wrote the oldest surviving Homeric lexicon; the first Sanskrit dictionary, the Amarakośa, was written by Amara Sinha c. 4th century CE. Written in verse, it listed around 10,000 words. According to the Nihon Shoki, the first Japanese dictionary was the long-lost 682 CE Niina glossary of Chinese characters; the oldest existing Japanese dictionary, the c. 835 CE Tenrei Banshō Meigi, was a glossary of written Chinese. In Frahang-i Pahlavig, Aramaic heterograms are listed together with their translation in Middle Persian language and phonetic transcription in Pazand alphabet. A 9th-century CE Irish dictionary, Sanas Cormaic, contained etymologies and explanations of over 1,400 Irish words.
In India around 1320, Amir Khusro compiled the Khaliq-e-bari which dealt with Hindustani and Persian words. Arabic dictionaries were compiled between the 8th and 14th centuries CE, organizing words in rhyme order, by alphabetical order of the radicals, or according to the alphabetical order of the first letter; the modern system was used in specialist dictionaries, such as those of terms from the Qur'an and hadith, while most general use dictionaries, such as the Lisan al-`Arab and al-Qamus al-Muhit listed words in the alphabetical order of the radicals. The Qamus al-Muhit is the first handy dictionary in Arabic, which includes only words and their definitions, eliminating the supporting examples used in such dictionaries as the Lisan and the Oxford English Dictionary. In medieval Europe, glossaries with equivalents for Latin words in vernacular or simpler Latin were in use; the Catholicon by Johannes Balbus, a large grammatical work with an alphabetical lexicon, was adopted. It served as the basis for several bilingual dictionaries and was one of the earliest books to be printed.
In 1502 Ambrogio Calepino's Dictionarium was published a monolingual Latin dictionary, which over the course of the 16th century was enlarged to become a multilingual glossary. In 1532 Robert Estienne published the Thesaurus linguae latinae and in 1572 his son Henri Estienne published the Thesaurus linguae graecae, which served up to the 19th century as the basis of Greek lexicography; the first monolingual dictionary written in Europe was the Spanish, written by Sebastián Covarrubias' Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española, published in 1611 in Madrid, Spain. In 1612 the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, for Italian, was published, it served as the model for similar works in English. In 1690 in Rotterdam was published, the Dictionnaire Universel by
The New Nelson Japanese-English Character Dictionary
The New Nelson Japanese-English Character Dictionary is a kanji dictionary published with English speakers in mind. It is an updated version of the original dictionary authored by Andrew N. Nelson, The Modern Reader's Japanese-English Character Dictionary; the primary change in the new version is the adoption of the traditional 214 Kangxi radicals as the dictionary's main indexing method. The dictionary features two additional indices: the Universal Radical Index and the on-kun index; the dictionary uses rōmaji throughout. On-yomi readings of the kanji are denoted by small kun-yomi by italics. Okurigana are separated by parentheses; the New Nelson contains about 7,000 entries, many of which are variant characters. Every character has index numbers into the Morohashi dictionary and the Japanese JIS X 0208 standard if they exist. All characters are prioritized by their Jōyō simplifications, however traditional forms are provided for every one. Non-standard simplifications are not included in the variants of a character, however those characters do point to the main entry
Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary
First published in 1918, Kenkyusha’s New Japanese-English Dictionary has long been the largest and most authoritative Japanese-English dictionary. Translators and specialists who use the Japanese language affectionately refer to this dictionary as the Green Goddess or because of its distinctive dark-green cover; the fifth edition, published in 2003, is a volume with 3,000 pages. The editors in chiefs of the fifth edition are Watanabe Toshiro, Edmund R. Skrzypczak, Paul Snowden. Besides the print edition, the dictionary is available on CD-ROM, in electronic dictionary and iPhone versions. Electronic dictionaries that contain the fifth edition are flagship models, they include the Canon Wordtank G70, the Seiko SR-E10000 and SR-G10000, the Casio "University Student" series and "Professional" series. The Sharp PW-SB2, PW-SB3, PW-SB4 and PW-SB5 models contain the full Kenkyusha dictionary. For both Casio and Sharp at least, the dictionary is available on an SD or micro SD card that can be purchased separately for certain models.
There is a companion English-Japanese dictionary in its 6th edition, which contains 260,000 headwords. In 1918, the publication of the first edition of Kenkyusha’s New Japanese–English Dictionary, Takenobu's Japanese–English Dictionary, named after the editor-in-chief, Takenobu Yoshitarō, was a landmark event in the field of lexicography in Japan. Completed in under five years with the assistance and support of leading scholars in the field, published when Kenkyūsha was still a minor academic publishing company, the Takenobu was the most authoritative Japanese–English dictionary of the time, cemented Kenkyūsha's reputation in the field of academic publishing. In 1931, Kenkyūsha undertook a major revision in the dictionary by expanding upon former entries and adding newer ones; the British diplomat George Sansom, who became a renowned historian of Japan, was a major contributor and editor of this edition. Aside from the ever-evolving nature of the Japanese and English languages, competition from two other major dictionaries released in the 1920s – Takehara's Japanese–English Dictionary and Saitō's Japanese–English Dictionary, both of which were larger than the first edition of Kenkyūsha's – was a major driving force behind these revisions.
From this second edition onward, the dictionary became known as Kenkyusha’s New Japanese–English Dictionary. During World War II, reputable institutions in the United States and Great Britain, including Harvard University's Department of Far Eastern Languages, produced pirated versions of this dictionary for the war effort; because of the Pacific War, Kenkyūsha did not revise the dictionary for 20 years until 1949, when it decided to incorporate the many new borrowings from English that resulted from the American occupation of Japan. After five years of revision, Kenkyūsha published its third edition in 1954. Beginning with this edition and continuing through the 1974 fourth edition, the editors attempted to make the dictionary into a more scholarly work by citing English language expressions from English texts from literature; the editors abandoned this practice for the fifth edition, which has entries that sound more natural to both native-Japanese and native-English speakers. 1st Edition 2nd Edition 82th impression 91th impression Harvard University Press edition: A photolithographic reprint of the 82nd printing of the Japanese dictionary, with enlarged print size.?th impression 3rd Edition 4th Edition: Includes 80000 headwords, 100000 compound words and sentences, 50000 examples.
Headlines sorted by Romanized alphabet. ISBN 0-7859-71289/ISBN 978-0-7859-7128-3 1st impression 4th impression?th impression 5th Edition: Includes 130000 headwords, 100000 compound words, 250000 examples. Headlines sorted by kana. ISBN 978-4-7674-2026-4 C7582, ISBN 978-4-7674-2016-5 C7582 Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary PLUS: A supplement book for the 5th edition of the printed dictionary, which adds 40000 entries including colloquial terms from Kenkyusha's CD-ROM dictionary and Kenkyusha Online Dictionary. ISBN 978-4-7674-2027-1 C0582 6th Edition: Includes 260000 entries. ISBN 978-4-7674-1026-5 C0582, ISBN 978-4-7674-1016-6 C0582 Kenkyusha's Bilingual Dictionary of Japanese Cultural Terms: Includes 3500 headwords and compound words. Consists of revised entries about Japanese-specific culture, seasonal events, modern terms from Kenkyusha's New Japanese-English Dictionary. ISBN 978-4-7674-9053-3 C0582 Kenkyusha's FURIGANA English-Japanese Dictionary: Includes kana readings for Japanese entries.?th impression Kenkyusha's FURIGANA English-Japanese Dictionary Revised &