click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

WYSIWYG

In computing, What You See Is What You Get is a system where editing software allows content to be edited in a form that resembles its appearance when printed or displayed as a finished product, such as a printed document, web page, or slide presentation. WYSIWYG implies a user interface that allows the user to view something similar to the end result—while the document is being created. In general, WYSIWYG implies the ability to directly manipulate the layout of a document, without having to type or remember names of layout commands; the actual meaning depends on the user's perspective, e.g. In presentation programs, compound documents, web pages, WYSIWYG means the display represents the appearance of the page displayed to the end-user, but does not reflect how the page will be printed unless the printer is matched to the editing program, as it was with the Xerox Star and early versions of the Apple Macintosh. In word processing and desktop publishing applications, WYSIWYG means that the display simulates the appearance and represents the effect of fonts and line breaks on the final pagination using a specific printer configuration, so that, for example, a citation on page 1 of a 500-page document can refer to a reference three hundred pages later.

WYSIWYG describes ways to manipulate 3D models in stereo-chemistry, computer-aided design, 3D computer graphics. Modern software does a good job of optimizing the screen display for a particular type of output. For example, a word processor is optimized for output to a typical printer; the software emulates the resolution of the printer in order to get as close as possible to WYSIWYG. However, not the main attraction of WYSIWYG, the ability of the user to be able to visualize what they are producing. In many situations, the subtle differences between what the user sees and what the user gets are unimportant. In fact, applications may offer multiple WYSIWYG modes with different levels of "realism", including A composition mode, in which the user sees something somewhat similar to the end result, but which employs an interface more conducive to composing than the layout itself. A layout mode, in which the user sees something similar to the end result, but which includes some additional information to facilitate proper alignment and spacing.

A preview mode, in which the application attempts to produce an output, as close to the final result as possible. Before the adoption of WYSIWYG techniques, text appeared in editors using the system standard typeface and style with little indication of layout. Users were required to enter special non-printing control codes to indicate that some text should be in boldface, italics, or a different typeface or size. In this environment there was little distinction between text editors and word processors; these applications used an arbitrary markup language to define the codes/tags. Each program had its own special way to format a document, it was a difficult and time-consuming process to change from one word processor to another; the use of markup tags and codes remains popular today in some applications due to their ability to store complex formatting information. When the tags are made visible in the editor, they occupy space in the unformatted text, as a result can disrupt the desired layout and flow.

Bravo, a document preparation program for the Alto produced at Xerox PARC by Butler Lampson, Charles Simonyi and colleagues in 1974, is considered to be the first program to incorporate the WYSIWYG technology, displaying text with formatting. The Alto monitor was designed so that one full page of text could be seen and printed on the first laser printers; when the text was laid out on the screen, 72 PPI font metric files were used, but when printed, 300 PPI files were used. As a result, one would find characters and words that are off—a problem that would continue up to this day. Bravo was released commercially, the software included in the Xerox Star can be seen as a direct descendant of it. In late 1978, in parallel with but independent of the work at Xerox PARC, Hewlett Packard developed and released the first commercial WYSIWYG software application for producing overhead slides; the first release, named BRUNO, ran on the HP 1000 minicomputer, taking advantage of HP 2640—HP's first bitmapped computer terminal.

BRUNO was ported to the HP-3000 and re-released as "HP Draw". By 1981, MicroPro advertised that its WordStar word processor had WYSIWYG, but its display was limited to displaying styled text in WYSIWYG fashion. In 1983, the Weekly Reader advertised its Stickybear educational software with the slogan "what you see is what you get", with photographs of its Apple II graphics, but home computers of the 1970s and early 1980s lacked the sophisticated graphics capabilities necessary to display WYSIWYG documents, meaning that such applications were confined to limited-purpose, high-end workstations that were too expensive for the general public to afford. Towards the mid-1980s, things began to change; as improving technology allowed the production of cheaper bitmapped displays, WYSIWYG software started to appear in more popular computers, including LisaWrite for the Apple Lisa, rel

Matthew Brady (lawyer)

Matthew A. Brady was a district attorney in San Francisco from 1919 through 1943. Brady defeated previous district attorney Charles Fickert, responsible for the conviction of Tom Mooney and Warren Billings in the Preparedness Day bombing. By 1926, he was convinced. In a letter to Governor Friend W. Richardson, Brady wrote "If these matters that have developed during the trials could be called to the attention of a court that had jurisdiction to grant a new trial, undoubtedly a new trial would be granted. Furthermore, if a new trial were granted, there would be no possibility of convicting Mooney or Billings." In 1935, he empaneled a grand jury and hired private investigator Edwin Atherton to report on police corruption in the San Francisco Police Department. Brady presided over numerous high-profile cases in the 1920s and 1930s, including the three Fatty Arbuckle murder trials and roundup of Communists, the Atherton Report produced in 1937 by Edwin Atherton, which reports on investigations of police corruption in San Francisco.

In 1936, Brady was D. A. during the infamous sterilization plot charged by Ann Cooper Hewitt, 21-year-old heiress, daughter of Peter Cooper Hewitt, against her mother, Marion Jeanne Andrews, accused of sterilizing her daughter, Ann, to thwart an inheritance dependent on the young woman having children, in a climate of California Eugenics law, aided by Dr. Tilton E Tillman and Samuel G. Boyd, he was defeated for reelection by Pat Brown in 1943, the second time the two had competed for the office. Brady statement on 1934 roundup

Andrew Greta

Andrew Greta is an author, business executive, finance professional and a current vice president at Busey Bank. In 2011, Greta wrote I Am John Galt: Today's Heroic Innovators Building the World and the Villainous Parasites Destroying It with co-author Donald L. Luskin; the 307-page book was published in May of that year by John Sons. Greta was Director, Business Development at CME Group in Chicago and was General Manager, Asset Intelligence for GE Equipment Services in Stamford, Connecticut, he is a former contributing editor for TheStreet.com. His articles on finance and investing have appeared in numerous national publications including SFO magazine, DSNews.com, ABCNews.com, Online Investor, Individual Investor. Greta holds an MBA with a concentration in Finance from Purdue University’s Krannert Graduate School of Management, he is a former associate director of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's student-run Illinois Business Consulting and sits as a member of the Board of Directors for the Krannert School Alumni Association

Silent Poets

The Silent Poets is a Japanese electronic duo. They have released more than seven remix albums/EPs until now. Gaining international recognition, Silent Poets has been featured in countless music/fashion magazines, in over 30 compilations around the world ranging from the USA, UK, France and Italy, including the well known "Cafe Del Mar" compilation, their music style is in the best Acid Jazz / Down-tempo traditions and have something in common with such artists as their countryman DJ Krush, United Future Organization, DJ Cam, etc. Among the characteristic features the deep piano parts, rich colourful orchestra sound and undulating charming rhythm could be highlighted; the Silent Poets collaborate with such electronic / pop / rap music stars as ACO, Port Of Notes, Frederic Galliano, Attica Blues, Yasushi Ide, DJ Vadim, Kid Loco, Towa Tei, Spiritual Vibes, Ken Hirai, Ursula Rucker etc. The Silent Poets speak the universal language of music, whether amongst themselves on the instrumental “Mass” or supported by guests such as Last Poets Jalaluddin Mansur Nuriddin and Sulieman El-Hadi on “Inquizative, Derivative”.

Silent Poets was formed by Michiharu Shimoda in 1991. Their first meaningful work was the album "Potential Meeting" released in 1992 on Toy's Factory. After releasing their 5th album "To Come..." Hiruno left Silent Poets became Shimoda's solo project. After that Shimoda composed music for fashion shows, released a huge number of remixes; the latest album Sun was released after 6 years gap in the end of 2005. Potential Meeting Words and Silence drawing Firm Roots For Nothing To Come... Sun Another Trip from Sun dawn "La Vie"/"Shalom" 12“ "Drawing" CD/LP Cherry Tree EP CD/12 Sugar Man EP CD "Save the Day" 12“ "Someday" 12“ A Woman Like You Tori Death Stranding Cafe Del Mar vol 2, 1995 Funkungfusion from Ninja Tunes, 1998 X-Mix: Fast Forward & Rewind Official Web Page

Battle of Rafa

The Battle of Rafa known as the Action of Rafah, fought on 9 January 1917, was the third and final battle to complete the recapture of the Sinai Peninsula by British forces during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War. The Desert Column of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force attacked an entrenched Ottoman Army garrison at El Magruntein to the south of Rafah, close to the frontier between the Sultanate of Egypt and the Ottoman Empire, to the north and east of Sheikh Zowaiid; the attack marked the beginning of fighting in the Ottoman territory of Palestine. After the British Empire victories at the Battle of Romani in August 1916 and the Battle of Magdhaba in December, the Ottoman Army had been forced back to the southern edge of Palestine as the EEF pushed eastwards supported by extended lines of communication; this advance depended on the construction of a water pipeline. With the railway reaching El Arish on 4 January 1917, an attack on Rafa by the newly formed Desert Column became possible.

During the day-long assault, the Ottoman garrison defended El Magruntein's series of fortified redoubts and trenches on rising ground surrounded by flat grassland. They were encircled by Australian Light Horsemen, New Zealand mounted riflemen, mounted Yeomanry and armoured cars. In the late afternoon, the New Zealand Mounted Rifles Brigade captured the central redoubt and the remaining defences were occupied shortly afterwards. Following their victory at the Battle of Romani on 4 August 1916, the ANZAC Mounted Division with the 5th Mounted Brigade attached and infantry in support, went onto the offensive, their advance depended on the construction of a water pipeline. With the railhead about 40 miles away, on 23 December 1916 the ANZAC Mounted Division, less the 2nd Light Horse Brigade but with the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade attached, occupied El Arish during day-long fighting at the Battle of Magdhaba. Meanwhile, the 52nd Division, having marched from Romani, established a garrison at El Arish and began to fortify the town on the Mediterranean Sea, 30 miles from the railhead.

El Arish was 90 miles by road from the nearest British base at Kantara on the Suez Canal making resupply difficult. The arrival of the Royal Navy on 22 December followed by the first stores on 24 December, meant that during the next fortnight the important Egyptian Expeditionary Force forward base grew as 1,500 tons of supplies arrived by ship. Supplies of all kinds were unloaded by the Egyptian Labour Corps and distributed by the Egyptian Camel Transport Corps. Vitally important, the supply activities at El Arish were protected by the infantry garrison and ground-based artillery, supported by the navy. On 4 January 1917 the first construction train arrived at El Arish, but it was some time before the railway, with its vast capacity to support the development of infrastructure and the supply of large garrisons, was developed. General Sir Archibald Murray, the commander of the EEF, was keen to complete the advance across the north of the Sinai, to put pressure on the southern Ottoman Army. Believing an attack would compel Ottoman forces to abandon their desert bases and outposts on the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula, he ordered an advance from El Arish to Rafa, a distance of 27 miles, to begin as soon as possible.

On 28 December, Major General Harry Chauvel, commander of the ANZAC Mounted Division, ordered the 1st Light Horse Brigade to reconnoitre Bir el Burj, 12 miles along the road from El Arish towards Rafa. The road was found to be suitable for cars and artillery, a further reconnaissance by the same brigade two days to Sheikh Zowaiid, 20 miles from El Arish, reported rolling stretches of pasture and poppies. A small advance guard moved ten miles further, to within sight of the main Ottoman defences at El Magruntein, reporting "great activity" in the area; the weather cleared on 5 January, allowing a patrol from No. 1 Squadron, Australian Flying Corps, to observe 2,000 to 3,000 Ottoman soldiers digging defences south of Rafa in the area of El Magruntein. Two days British air patrols found Ottoman garrisons in strength at El Kossaima and Hafir el Auja in central northern Sinai, which could threaten the right flank of the advancing EEF or reinforce Rafa. While the British air patrols were absent on 7 January, German airmen took advantage of the growing concentration of EEF formations and supply dumps, bombing El Arish during the morning and evening.

The next day the patrols from No. 1 Squadron AFC were in the air all day, covering preparations for the attack on Rafa. Lieutenant General Philip Chetwode, commanding the Desert Column, rode out of El Arish at 16:00 on 8 January towards Rafa where a 2,000-strong Ottoman garrison was based. Chetwode's mounted force was the same as that Chauvel had commanded during the Battle of Magdhaba in December, with the addition of the 5th Mounted Brigade and the 7th Light Car Patrol consisting of four gun cars and three stores cars. Risking an aerial attack during daylight hours, the force began the 30-mile journey before sunset to ensure there was enough time for the force to reach El Magruntein. For the first few miles they trekked over heavy sand dunes, which were difficult to negotiate for the doubled teams of horses pulling the guns and ammunition wagons. Once the great shallow trough, worn down by traffic since ancient times, along the Old Road or Pilgrims' Way appeared, the guns and ammunition wagons travelled on the firm middle way while the mounted units rode on either side.

The vanguard of the column reached Sheikh Zowaiid at about 22:00. Here the first grass th

Derby della Madonnina

The Derby della Madonnina known as the Derby di Milano, is a derby football match between the two prominent Milanese clubs Internazionale and Milan. It is called Derby della Madonnina in honour of one of the main sights in the city of Milan, the statue of the Virgin Mary on the top of the Duomo, referred to as the Madonnina. In the past, Inter was seen as the club of the Milan bourgeoisie, whereas Milan was supported by working class; because of their more prosperous ancestry, Inter fans had the "luxury" to go to the San Siro stadium by motorcycle. On the other hand, the Rossoneri were known as tramvee. Today, this difference has been mitigated. Taking place at least twice during the year via the league fixtures, this cross-town rivalry has extended to the Coppa Italia, Champions League, Supercoppa Italiana, as well as minor tournaments and friendlies, it is one of the only major crosstown derbies in association football that are always played in the same stadium, in this case the San Siro, as both Milan and Internazionale call San Siro "home".

On 13 December 1899, others founded the Milan Cricket and Football Club. Edwards, a former British vice-consul in Milan and a well-known personality of the Milanese high society, was the club's first elected president; the team included a cricket section, managed by Edward Berra, a football section managed by David Allison. The Milan team soon gained relevant notability under Herbert Kilpin's guide; the first trophy to be won was the Medaglia del Re in January 1900, the team won three national leagues, in 1901, 1906 and 1907. The triumph of 1901 was relevant because it ended the consecutive series of wins of Genoa, the only team to have won the title prior to 1901. On 9 March 1908, issues over the signing of foreign players led to a split and the foundation of Football Club Internazionale; the first derby match between the two Milanese rivals was held in the final of the Chiasso Cup of 1908, a football tournament played in Canton Ticino, Switzerland, on 18 October of that year. While Inter and Milan faced each other sporadically in the early years, the rivalry has been renewed annually since the inaugural 1926-27 season of the Divisione Nazionale, the first national Italian league.

The two teams have played each other at least twice a year since then. In the 1960s, the Milan derby saw. One of the most representative players of Inter was Sandro Mazzola, the son of former Torino player Valentino Mazzola who, along with most of his Torino teammates, died in the 1949 Superga air disaster after dominating Serie A for four seasons, his Milan counterpart was Gianni Rivera, nicknamed "Golden Boy" for his talent. This era saw brilliant derby matches and an increasing rivalry: while Milan won the European Cup in 1962–63, Inter followed with back-to-back success in the following years. Milan again won the title in 1968–69. During this successful period for both teams, Milan were coached by Nereo Rocco and Inter by Helenio Herrera, both coaching many notable players; the rivalry continued on the Italian national team, where two players from their respective clubs would not play together, with one being substituted by the other at half-time. Rivera ended up losing the starting line-up to Mazzola in the 1970 final against Brazil, in which Italy was defeated 1–4 by the South Americans.

He would enter in the 84th minute after Italy were far behind. Arguably Milan's greatest-ever era took place during the late 1980s and had extended through to the mid-2000s. Hailed as the greatest-ever Milan side, the team stemming from the 1989 European champions managed by Arrigo Sacchi, contained legendary Milan players, Marco van Basten, Ruud Gullit, Frank Rijkaard and Paolo Maldini, amongst others. Milan's dominance, both domestically and internationally, had seen them capture four league titles and three European Cups between 1989 and 1996. During this time, Inter had gone on to finish runners-up in the 1992–93 season and won two UEFA Cups. Inter's long wait for a league title that began after 1989 arrived in 2006, when the Calciopoli scandal stripped Juventus of the 2005–06 title and handed it to the Inter, who were placed third behind both Juventus and Milan; this was seen as a controversial decision by many, as though the title won the previous season by Juventus was stripped, it was left un-awarded, which many felt should have been the case with the 2005–06 title.

Inter went on to win the 2006–07 Serie A title as well in a season that saw Juventus relegated from the top division, Milan, as punishment, starting the season with negative points. Inter's triumphant campaign included a record-breaking run of 17 consecutive victories and victories in both fixtures against Milan. During the same season, Milan had captured their seventh European Cup/ UEFA Champions League, defeating Liverpool in the Final in Athens; as the Italian league recovered from the aftermath of the match-fixing scandal, Inter continued to dominate, winning each league up until the 2009–10 season in which they secured the title on the last day of the season. That season had seen Inter become the first Italian side to win a t