W (New York City Subway service)

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Broadway Local
"W" train symbol
NYC Subway 8958 on the W.jpg
A train made of R160 cars in W service at 36th Avenue in Queens
MTA NYC Subway W train leaving 39th Ave.jpg
A train made of R68 cars in W service at 39th Avenue in Queens, bound for Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard.
Map of the "W" train
Note: Dashed pink line shows limited rush hour service to Gravesend-86th Street.
Northern end Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard
Southern end
Stations 23
44 (limited rush hour service)
Rolling stock (N/W shared) 24 R68s (3 trains)
300 R160Bs (30 trains)[1]
(Rolling stock assignments subject to change)
Depot Coney Island Yard
Started service July 22, 2001; 16 years ago (2001-07-22)
Discontinued June 25, 2010; 7 years ago (2010-06-25)
Reinstated November 7, 2016; 12 months ago (2016-11-07)
Route map
 N   W  Down arrow
Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard
Astoria Boulevard
30th Avenue
Broadway
36th Avenue
39th Avenue
( N 
rush
hours
)  Q  Down arrow
96th Street
 7   <7> trains continue east
86th Street
72nd Street
Queensboro Plaza
 7   <7> trains continue west
 F  trains continue to Queens
 R  trains continue east
Lexington Avenue–63rd Street
Lexington Avenue–59th Street
 F  trains continue south
Fifth Avenue–59th Street
57th Street–Seventh Avenue
Handicapped/disabled access
northbound
only
49th Street
Times Square–42nd Street
 N 
switches to express
during weekdays
34th Street–Herald Square
28th Street
23rd Street
14th Street–Union Square
Eighth Street–New York University
Prince Street
 N 
switches to Manhattan Bridge
during weekends
Canal Street
 N 
local via Montague Street
Tunnel during late nights
 B  D  trains continue north
City Hall
Cortlandt Street
Rector Street
 W  (weekdays) Up arrow
( R   late nights) Down arrow
Whitehall Street
 no regular service
trains continue north
Court Street
Jay Street–MetroTech
Myrtle Avenue
DeKalb Avenue
 B  Q  trains continue south
Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center
Union Street
Ninth Street
Prospect Avenue
25th Street
36th Street
 D  trains continue south
45th Street
53rd Street
59th Street
 R  trains continue south
 N  (late nights)  W  switch to local
Southbound  N  &  W  trains run
express due to station renovations
Eighth Avenue
Fort Hamilton Parkway
New Utrecht Avenue
18th Avenue
20th Avenue
 W  (rush hours) Up arrow
Bay Parkway
Kings Highway
Avenue U
 W  (rush hours) Up arrow
86th Street
 D  trains continue north
 F  trains continue north
 Q  trains continue north
 D   N  Up arrow
Up arrow  F  Q 
Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue

Lines used by the  N  and  W 
Other services sharing tracks with the  N  and  W 
Unused lines, connections, or service patterns

Cross-platform interchange

Platforms on different levels

The W Broadway Local is a rapid transit service of the New York City Subway's B Division. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow since it uses the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan.[2]

The W operates only on weekdays except during late nights between Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard in Astoria, Queens and Whitehall Street–South Ferry in Lower Manhattan, serving all stops along the BMT Astoria Line in Queens and the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan. Some rush hour W trains are extended to and from Gravesend-86th Street via the Montague Street Tunnel, the BMT Fourth Avenue Line, and the BMT Sea Beach Line to access Coney Island Yard.[3] The W is internally staffed and scheduled as part of the N.[4][5][6]

Introduced on July 22, 2001, the W ran at all times on the BMT West End Line and BMT Fourth Avenue Line in Brooklyn to Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue. It was truncated in 2004 its current service pattern until June 25, 2010, when it was eliminated due to the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA)'s financial crisis. As announced on May 23, 2016, the MTA restored the route on November 7, 2016, using its original emblem and 2004–2010 routing, as part of the updated service pattern related to the opening of the Second Avenue Subway.[5][7][8][9][10]

Service history[edit]

Context[edit]

The W was originally conceived as an extra Broadway Line local service running on the Astoria and Broadway lines to Whitehall Street. This service was essentially a variant of the N route, which in the 1970s and 1980s ran express between Queens and Brooklyn, with some trains running local between Queens and Whitehall Street. However, reconstruction of the Manhattan Bridge between 1986 and 2004 forced the N, which normally ran express on the Broadway Line and on the Bridge, to run local via the Montague Street Tunnel. This service change precluded W local service from running as envisioned, the W bullet appeared on roll signs as a yellow diamond bullet, but on the R68s and R68As, round bullet signs were installed. The W also appeared on the digital signs of the R44s and R46s with any route and destination combination that could be used for the Broadway Line.[11]

2001-2004[edit]

The W was introduced on July 22, 2001 when the Manhattan Bridge north tracks (leading to the IND Sixth Avenue Line) closed for reconstruction, the Bridge's south side tracks, which led to the Broadway Line, reopened after being closed since 1988. The B had run full-time from Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue to Manhattan via the BMT West End Line and Manhattan Bridge north tracks onto the Sixth Avenue Line, but it had to be split when the north side tracks closed.[12] This split had already been made from 1986 to 1988, when a part-time orange B only ran north of 34th Street–Herald Square on the Sixth Avenue Line.[13][14][15] At the same time, a full-time yellow B ran from Coney Island in Brooklyn across the south side of the bridge and up the BMT Broadway Line into Queens (at nights however, this yellow B only ran in Brooklyn). This old pattern was effectively restored in 2001, but instead of having two "B" services, the yellow B was instead named the W, this route began at Coney Island and ran up the West End Line (local), BMT Fourth Avenue Line (express), Manhattan Bridge south tracks, Broadway Line (express, switching to the local tracks for 49th Street), and BMT Astoria Line (express during rush hours in the peak direction until 9:30 PM, local otherwise)[16] to Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard. Evening service ended at 57th Street–Seventh Avenue in Manhattan (using the express tracks and bypassing 49th Street), late night service at 36th Street in Brooklyn, and weekend service at Atlantic Avenue–Pacific Street in Brooklyn.[17]

After September 11, 2001, Broadway Line service in Lower Manhattan was suspended; the N was completely suspended and W trains ran at all times between Ditmars Boulevard and Coney Island. It made all stops except in Brooklyn north of 36th Street, during late nights, it ran in two sections: between Ditmars Boulevard and 34th Street, skipping 49th Street in the northbound direction, and in Brooklyn between 36th Street and Coney Island. Normal service on both routes resumed on October 28, 2001.[18]

The Astoria express service, being unpopular with residents, was discontinued on January 15, 2002, around that time, evening service was extended from 57th Street to Astoria.[19]

Beginning on September 8, 2002, when Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue station underwent reconstruction, the W became a full-time Coney Island–Astoria service, during this time, it was the only train serving Coney Island, as all the other services that normally did so had been cut short. Late night and weekend service was sent via the Montague Street Tunnel and the local tracks of the Fourth Avenue and Broadway Lines; the N ran only in Brooklyn at those times.[11][20][21]

2004-2010[edit]

When all four tracks on the Manhattan Bridge were restored to service on February 22, 2004, the W was changed to its most recent service pattern, running weekdays only from 7:00 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. (7:00 to 21:30) as an entirely local service between Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard and Whitehall Street–South Ferry, Lower Manhattan. The Brooklyn portion was replaced by the D, which was extended over the north side of the bridge and down the West End Line.[11][22][23][24][25][26] Instead of reverting to the service pattern in 1986, prior to the Manhattan Bridge service changes, the W was kept because of increasing ridership on the BMT Astoria Line,[27] the first three W trains of the day entered service at 86th Street in Gravesend, Brooklyn and the last three trains of the night continued in service to Kings Highway. These trips ran local in Brooklyn via the Montague Street Tunnel, BMT Fourth Avenue and BMT Sea Beach lines.[28]

On July 27, 2008, the W was extended to run until 11:00 p.m in response to growth in the subway system's ridership.[29][30][31]

On March 24, 2010, the MTA announced the elimination of the W due to financial shortfalls with the N and Q replacing it. The N train became a full-time local north of Canal Street while the Q was extended to Astoria-Ditmars Boulevard on weekdays. The W ceased operation on Friday, June 25, 2010 with the last train bound for Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard leaving Whitehall Street–South Ferry at 10:50 p.m.[11][32]

2016 restoration[edit]

In July 2015, the MTA announced that it was considering restoring the W in its 2004-2010 service pattern once the first phase of the Second Avenue Subway opens. When the Second Avenue Line opened on January 1, 2017, the Q was rerouted from the Astoria Line to 96th Street on Manhattan's Upper East Side, the W replaced the Q in Astoria in order to maintain two services along the Astoria Line during weekdays.[33] However, there would be 20 fewer round-trips per weekday on the Astoria Line after the W's reintroduction, as the W serves Astoria for a shorter time span each day than the Q did.[34]

On May 23, 2016, the MTA announced that it had decided to restore the W.[35] Under the MTA's plan, W service was restored on November 7, 2016,[5] the Q was temporarily cut back to 57th Street–Seventh Avenue, allowing for a seamless extension of Q service to the Second Avenue Line, which opened on January 1, 2017.[7][8][9] Additionally, the N train once again became express in Manhattan on weekdays from 34th Street–Herald Square to Canal Street. As the N and W share the same fleet from the Coney Island Yard, the first three W trains originate at 86th Street; in addition, two W trains terminate there in the late morning and one in the evening.[36][37] These trains operate via the Montague Street Tunnel and local along the BMT Fourth Avenue Line and BMT Sea Beach Line as they did prior to 2010.[38][5]


Route[edit]

Service pattern[edit]

The following table shows the lines used by the W, with shaded boxes indicating the route at the specified times:[39]

Line From To Tracks Times
Week­days Rush hours
BMT Astoria Line (full line) Astoria–Ditmars Blvd Queensboro Plaza local    
60th Street Tunnel all
BMT Broadway Line (full line) Lexington Avenue/59th Street Canal Street local
City Hall Whitehall Street–South Ferry all
Montague Street Tunnel all   Limited service
BMT Fourth Avenue Line Court Street Jay Street–MetroTech all
DeKalb Avenue 59th Street local
BMT Sea Beach Line Eighth Avenue 86th Street

Stations[edit]

For a more detailed station listing, see the articles on the lines listed above.

Station service legend
Stops all times Stops all times
Stops all times except late nights Stops all times except late nights
Stops weekdays only Stops weekdays only
Stops rush hours in peak direction only Stops rush hours in the peak direction only
Stops rush hours only Stops rush hours only (limited service not noted on map)
Time period details
Handicapped/disabled access Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act
Handicapped/disabled access ↑ Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act
in the indicated direction only
Handicapped/disabled access ↓
Aiga elevator.svg Elevator access to mezzanine only
W service Stations Handicapped/disabled access Subway transfers Connections and notes
Queens
Astoria Line
Stops weekdays only Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard N all times
Stops weekdays only Astoria Boulevard N all times M60 Select Bus Service to LaGuardia Airport
Station closed 30th Avenue N all times Station is closed for renovations as part of the Enhanced Station Initiative until Spring 2018.
Stops weekdays only Broadway N all times
Station closed 36th Avenue N all times Station is closed for renovations as part of the Enhanced Station Initiative until Spring 2018.
Stops weekdays only 39th Avenue N all times
Stops weekdays only Queensboro Plaza N all times
7 all times <7> rush hours until 9:30 p.m., peak direction​ (IRT Flushing Line)
Manhattan
Broadway Line
Stops weekdays only Lexington Avenue/59th Street N all timesR all except late nights
4 all times5 all except late nights6 all times <6> weekdays until 8:45 p.m., peak direction (IRT Lexington Avenue Line)
Out-of-system transfer with MetroCard: F all timesN selected rush-hour tripsQ all times, and ​R one a.m. rush hour trip in the northbound direction only (63rd Street Lines at Lexington Avenue–63rd Street)
Roosevelt Island Tramway
Stops weekdays only Fifth Avenue–59th Street N all timesR all except late nights
Stops weekdays only 57th Street–Seventh Avenue Elevator access to mezzanine only N all timesQ all timesR all except late nights
Stops weekdays only 49th Street Handicapped/disabled access ↑ N all timesR all except late nights Station is accessible in the northbound direction only.
Stops weekdays only Times Square–42nd Street Handicapped/disabled access N all timesQ all timesR all except late nights
1 all times 2 all times 3 all times (IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line)
7 all times <7> rush hours until 9:30 p.m., peak direction​ (IRT Flushing Line)
S all except late nights (42nd Street Shuttle)
A all timesC all except late nightsE all times (IND Eighth Avenue Line at 42nd Street–Port Authority Bus Terminal)
Port Authority Bus Terminal
Stops weekdays only 34th Street–Herald Square Handicapped/disabled access N all timesQ all timesR all except late nights
B weekdays until 11:00 p.m.D all timesF all timesM weekdays until 11:00 p.m. (IND Sixth Avenue Line)
M34 / M34A Select Bus Service
PATH at 33rd Street
Stops weekdays only 28th Street R all except late nights
Stops weekdays only 23rd Street R all except late nights M23 Select Bus Service
Stops weekdays only 14th Street–Union Square Handicapped/disabled access N all timesQ all timesR all except late nights
L all times (BMT Canarsie Line)
4 all times5 all except late nights6 all times <6> weekdays until 8:45 p.m., peak direction (IRT Lexington Avenue Line)
Stops weekdays only Eighth Street–New York University R all except late nights
Stops weekdays only Prince Street R all except late nights
Stops weekdays only Canal Street Elevator access to mezzanine only N all timesQ all timesR all except late nights
6 all times <6> weekdays until 8:45 p.m., peak direction (IRT Lexington Avenue Line)
J all times M weekday evenings only in the westbound direction Z rush hours, peak direction​ (BMT Nassau Street Line)
Some northbound rush hour trips begin at this station.
Stops weekdays only City Hall R all except late nights
Stops weekdays only Cortlandt Street Handicapped/disabled access R all except late nights PATH at World Trade Center
Stops weekdays only Rector Street R all except late nights
Stops weekdays only Whitehall Street–South Ferry Elevator access to mezzanine only R all times
1 all times (IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line)
M15 Select Bus Service
Staten Island Ferry at Whitehall Terminal
Brooklyn
Montague Street Branch (Limited rush hour service only to/from Gravesend-86th Street)
Stops rush hours only (limited service) Court Street Elevator access to mezzanine only R all times
2 weekdays and weekday late nights3 weekdays only (IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line) at Borough Hall
4 all times5 all times except weekday late nights (IRT Eastern Parkway Line) at Borough Hall
Stops rush hours only (limited service) Jay Street–MetroTech Handicapped/disabled access R all times
A all timesC all except late nights F all times (IND Fulton Street and Culver Lines)
Stops rush hours only (limited service) DeKalb Avenue Handicapped/disabled access B weekdays until 11:00 p.m.Q all timesR all except late nights
Fourth Avenue Line
Stops rush hours only (limited service) Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center Handicapped/disabled access D all timesN all timesR all times
B weekdays until 11:00 p.m.Q all times (BMT Brighton Line)
2 weekdays and weekday late nights3 weekdays only4 all times5 all times except weekday late nights (IRT Eastern Parkway Line)
LIRR Atlantic Branch at Atlantic Terminal
Stops rush hours only (limited service) Union Street R all times
Stops rush hours only (limited service) Ninth Street R all times
F all timesG all times (IND Culver Line at Fourth Avenue)
Stops rush hours only (limited service) Prospect Avenue R all times
Stops rush hours only (limited service) 25th Street R all times
Stops rush hours only (limited service) 36th Street D all timesN all timesR all times
Stops rush hours only (limited service) 45th Street R all times
Stops rush hours only (limited service) 53rd Street R all times
Stops rush hours only (limited service) 59th Street N all timesR all times
Sea Beach Line
Stops rush hours only (limited service) Eighth Avenue N all times
Stops rush hours only (limited service) Fort Hamilton Parkway N all times Bay Parkway–bound trains do not stop here due to renovations until Fall 2018.
Stops rush hours only (limited service) New Utrecht Avenue N all times
D all times (BMT West End Line at 62nd Street)
Bay Parkway–bound trains do not stop here due to renovations until Fall 2018.
Stops rush hours only (limited service) 18th Avenue N all times Bay Parkway–bound trains do not stop here due to renovations until Fall 2018.
Stops rush hours only (limited service) 20th Avenue N all times Bay Parkway–bound trains do not stop here due to renovations until Fall 2018.
Stops rush hours only (limited service) Bay Parkway N all times Bay Parkway–bound trains terminate here due to renovations until Fall 2018.
Stops rush hours only (limited service) Kings Highway N all times Served only by northbound trains due to renovations until Fall 2018.
Stops rush hours only (limited service) Avenue U N all times Served only by northbound trains due to renovations until Fall 2018.
Stops rush hours only (limited service) 86th Street N all times Served only by northbound trains due to renovations until Fall 2018.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Korman, Joe (January 1, 2017). "BMT-IND Car Assignments". JoeKorNer. 
  2. ^ Grynbaum, Michael M. (May 10, 2010). "Take the Tomato 2 Stops to the Sunflower". New York Times. Retrieved October 30, 2016. 
  3. ^ Spivack, Caroline (January 10, 2017). "W-w-what!? W trains mysteriously appearing in Brooklyn". Brooklyn Paper. Retrieved April 18, 2017. 
  4. ^ "BMT-IND Car Assignments - Nov 6, 2016". www.thejoekorner.com. Retrieved November 6, 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d "GENERAL DISTRIBUTION - SUB-DIVISION B - TRAIN OPERATOR/CONDUCTOR - ROAD & NON-ROAD WORK PROGRAMS" (PDF). New York City Transit Authority. July 29, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016. 
  6. ^ "1979 Subway Map Service Guide". railfanwindow.com. New York City Transit Authority. 1979. Retrieved November 8, 2016. 
  7. ^ a b }* "Transit & Bus Committee Meeting February 2016" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. February 20, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Kabak, Benjamin. "Ahead of 2nd Ave. Subway opening, MTA officially set to restore W service to Astoria". Second Ave. Sagas. Retrieved February 19, 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Martinez, Jose (February 19, 2016). "MTA Confirms W Train is Coming Back". TWC News NY1. Retrieved February 19, 2016. 
  10. ^ Lam, Katherine (October 23, 2016). "MTA flyers spotted for W train's return in November". PIX11. Retrieved October 24, 2016. 
  11. ^ a b c d Bolden, Eric. "NYCT Line by Line History". erictb.info. Retrieved October 29, 2016. 
  12. ^ "New Subway Routes Take Effect Today". New York Times. July 22, 2001. Retrieved February 21, 2016. 
  13. ^ "If You Ride These Subway Lines, You Know Something Drastic Has To Be Done". TheJoeKorNer.com. New York City Transit Authority. 1986. Retrieved October 30, 2016. 
  14. ^ "System-Wide Changes In Subway Service Effective Sunday, December 11, 1988". Flickr. New York City Transit Authority. 1988. Retrieved October 30, 2016. 
  15. ^ Johnson, Kirk (December 9, 1988). "Big Changes For Subways Are to Begin". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved October 30, 2016. 
  16. ^ "NYC Transit Subway Schedules". mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. November 11, 2001. Archived from the original on November 11, 2001. Retrieved February 21, 2016. 
  17. ^ "Manhattan Bridge Service Changes B D Q Q W July 22, 2001 until 2004". Thejoekorner.com. New York City Transit. 2001. Retrieved October 29, 2016. 
  18. ^ Korman, Joseph D. "Subway Line Names World Trade Center Terror - 9-11-2001". www.thejoekorner.com. Retrieved October 23, 2016. 
  19. ^ "W Line Service Information". mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 28, 2002. Archived from the original on July 28, 2002. Retrieved October 29, 2016. 
  20. ^ "F N W Q Q Changes Sun, Sept 8, 2002 to Spring 2004 Reconstruction of Stillwell Avenue Terminal changes service in Brooklyn, Manhattan and Queens". The Subway Nut. New York City Transit. July 2002. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  21. ^ "W Train Timetable" (PDF). mta.info. New York City Transit. Fall 2003. Archived from the original on December 4, 2003. Retrieved October 29, 2016. 
  22. ^ "February 2004 Subway Map" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. February 2004. Archived from the original on March 26, 2004. Retrieved November 8, 2016. 
  23. ^ "More Service on the Manhattan Bridge B D M N Q R W New Subway Service! February 22, 2004". The JoeKorNer. New York City Transit. 2003. Retrieved August 5, 2010. 
  24. ^ "B D M N Q R W Weekday Service Manhattan Bridge Map" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. February 2004. Archived from the original on February 5, 2004. Retrieved September 18, 2016. 
  25. ^ "MTA NYC Transit Manhattan Bridge Information". mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. February 5, 2004. Archived from the original on February 5, 2004. Retrieved September 18, 2016. 
  26. ^ "Expanded Subway Service Starts Sunday Four-Track Manhattan Bridge Service Returns Bringing Route Changes, Increased Service". mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. February 20, 2004. Archived from the original on April 14, 2004. Retrieved November 8, 2016. 
  27. ^ "A Subway Map Remade, in Hopes of Matching Routes and Riders". The New York Times. February 20, 2004. Retrieved June 9, 2014. 
  28. ^ A search using the MTA's trip planner using "Whitehall Street" and "Kings Highway" as stations and setting the time to the appropriate hour (6:00 am into Manhattan; 9:00pm out of Manhattan) turned out results that showed the W as a possible travel option. Clicking the departure time also showed two additional times.
  29. ^ "W Train Timetable" (PDF). mta.info. New York City Transit. November 25, 2009. Archived from the original on June 2, 2010. Retrieved October 29, 2016. 
  30. ^ Compare:
    • "New York City Subway Map" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. April 2008. Archived from the original on September 13, 2008. Retrieved October 29, 2016.  (W service ends at 9 PM)
    • (W service ends at 11 PM)
  31. ^ "MTA | Press Release | NYC Transit | Service Adjustments on BMW Lines". www.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 24, 2008. Retrieved October 30, 2016. 
  32. ^ "MTA | Press Release | NYC Transit | Major Subway Changes Set for Monday". www.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 24, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2016. 
  33. ^ "MTA considers bringing back W train from Astoria to lower Manhattan". amNewYork. July 12, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2015. 
  34. ^ Evelly, Jeanmarie. "W Train Rollout Will Mean Fewer Trains Per Day in Astoria, MTA Says". DNAInfo. Archived from the original on November 6, 2016. Retrieved November 5, 2016. 
  35. ^ Venugopal, Nikhita (May 25, 2016). "W Train's Return Is Now Official With Approval From MTA Board". DNAinfo New York. Archived from the original on August 5, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2016. 
  36. ^ "W Line Returns to Queens". mta.info. Retrieved November 12, 2016. 
  37. ^ Spivack, Caroline (January 10, 2017). "W-w-what!? W trains mysteriously appearing in Brooklyn". Brooklyn Daily. Retrieved January 17, 2017. 
  38. ^ See:
    • Northbound: "W Train (northbound)". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 11, 2016. Retrieved October 29, 2016. 
    • Southbound: "W Train (southbound)". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 11, 2016. Retrieved October 29, 2016. 
  39. ^ "Subway Service Guide" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 25, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2017. 

External links[edit]