He became an American legend while still alive, due to his kind, generous ways, his leadership in conservation, and the symbolic importance he attributed to apples. John Chapman was born on September 26,1774, in Leominster and his birthplace has a granite marker, and the street is called Johnny Appleseed Lane. While Nathaniel was in service, his wife died shortly after giving birth to a second son. The baby died two weeks after his mother. Nathaniel Chapman ended his service and returned home in 1780 to Longmeadow. In the summer of 1780 he married Lucy Cooley of Longmeadow, according to some accounts, an 18-year-old John persuaded his 11-year-old half-brother Nathaniel to go west with him in 1792. The duo apparently lived a life until their father brought his large family west in 1805. The younger Nathaniel decided to stay and help their father farm the land, shortly after the brothers parted ways, John began his apprenticeship as an orchardist under a Mr. Crawford, who had apple orchards, thus inspiring his lifes journey of planting apple trees.
There are stories of Johnny Appleseed practicing his craft in the area of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. Another story has Chapman living in Pittsburgh on Grants Hill in 1794 at the time of the Whiskey Rebellion, the popular image is of Johnny Appleseed spreading apple seeds randomly everywhere he went. His first nursery was planted on the bank of Brokenstraw Creek, south of Warren, next, he seems to have moved to Venango County along the shore of French Creek, but many of these nurseries were located in the Mohican area of north-central Ohio. This area included the towns of Mansfield, Lucas, according to Harpers New Monthly Magazine, toward the end of his career, he was present when an itinerant missionary was exhorting an open-air congregation in Mansfield, Ohio. The sermon was long and severe on the topic of extravagance, because the pioneers were buying such indulgences as calico, where now is there a man who, like the primitive Christians, is traveling to heaven barefooted and clad in coarse raiment.
The flummoxed sermonizer dismissed the congregation and he would tell stories to children and spread The New Church gospel to the adults, receiving a floor to sleep on for the night, and sometimes supper, in return. His was a strange eloquence at times, and he was undoubtedly a man of genius and he made several trips back east, both to visit his sister and to replenish his supply of Swedenborgian literature. He preached the gospel as he traveled, and during his travels he converted many Native Americans, the Native Americans regarded him as someone who had been touched by the Great Spirit, and even hostile tribes left him strictly alone. He cared very deeply about animals, including insects, according to another story, he heard that a horse was to be put down, so he bought the horse, bought a few grassy acres nearby, and turned it out to recover. When it did, he gave the horse to someone needy, during his life, he was a vegetarian
Ohio /oʊˈhaɪ. oʊ/ is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ohio is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, the states capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, the name originated from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning great river or large creek. Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state on March 1,1803, Ohio is historically known as the Buckeye State after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are known as Buckeyes. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives, Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state, Ohios geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo, Ohio has the nations 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North Americas population and 70% of North Americas manufacturing capacity.
To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline, Ohios southern border is defined by the Ohio River, and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohios neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Ontario Canada, to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the rivers 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark, the border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with a flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills, in 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region.
This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia, the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States. Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles, was the largest artificial lake in the world and it should be noted that Ohios canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their emergence to location on canals. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold, precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round
Bank of Indiana
The bank operated for twenty-six years and allowed the state to finance its internal improvements, stabilized the states currency problems, and encouraged greater private economic growth. The Indiana Territorial legislature had charted two banks in 1813, with no other established banks operating in Indiana, they were the first attempt by the government to bring banking and a standard currency to the young territory. The banks were granted twenty-year charters, but they fell into financial difficulties following the Panic of 1819. By 1823 both banks had folded, without any banks in the state, the government and the citizens came to rely on the use of notes issued from the Second Bank of the United States. The result caused a shortage of money at a critical time in Indianas development. The state had just begun a series of internal improvements and was funding the projects with millions of dollars of loans. The looming crisis became a political issue in the states 1833 election campaign. That year a Whig majority was elected to the Indiana General Assembly and they responded to the problem by passing legislation to establish the Bank of Indiana with the intention that the bank would be able to issue paper money and help to finance the states debt.
The bill was drafted by Samuel Hannah and was enacted law on January 28,1834. On February 13 the seven member board of directors met to begin organizing the bank, the board of directors included James Lanier, who would personally benefit from the bank the greatest. They elected James M. Ray as cashier, the state created a charter for the new bank similar to the one used by the national bank. There were some modifications to make the better fit the needs of Indiana including limiting the bank to thirteen branches. The directors choose to establish branches in Indianapolis, Richmond, New Albany, Bedford, Terre Haute, a Fort Wayne branch was added in 1835 and branches in South Bend and Michigan City in 1836. Each branch had an investment of $160,000, at first there were only ten branches. The start up money was all hard money in Spanish and Mexican silver dollars, the money was raised by issuing stock sold at $50 per share. Half of the stock was to be purchased by the state, by May 20,1834, all the public stock for the new bank had been issued.
On August 6, the state completed its purchase of 50% of the banks stock, the money to purchase the stock came through the sale and mortgage of thousands of acres of public land. On November 19 Governor Noah Noble declared the bank open for business, Hugh McCulloch, who served under four presidents as United States Secretary of the Treasury, begin his career in banking at the Bank of Indiana
History of Indiana
The history of human activity in Indiana, a US state in the Midwest, began with migratory tribes of Native Americans who inhabited Indiana as early as 8000 BC. Tribes succeeded one another in dominance for several years and reached their peak of development during the period of Mississippian culture. The region entered recorded history in the 1670s when the first Europeans came to Indiana, after France ruled for 100 years, it was defeated by Great Britain in the French and Indian War and ceded its territory east of the Mississippi. Britain held the land for more than twenty years, until after its defeat in the American Revolutionary War, at that time, Britain ceded the entire trans-Allegheny region, including what is now Indiana, to the new United States. The United States government divided the region into several new territories. The largest of these was the Northwest Territory, which was divided into several smaller territories by the United States Congress. In 1800, the Indiana Territory was the first new territory established from a portion of the Northwest Territory, the territory grew in population and development until it was admitted to the Union in 1816 as the nineteenth state, Indiana.
Following statehood, the established state government laid out on an ambitious plan to transform Indiana from a segment of the frontier into a developed, well populated. The states founders initiated a program led to the construction of roads, railroads. Despite the noble aims of the project, profligate spending ruined the states credit, by 1841 the state was near bankruptcy and forced to liquidate most of its public works. By its new constitution of 1851, it restricted rights of free blacks, during the 1850s, the states population grew to exceed one million. The ambitious program of its founders was realized as Indiana became the fourth-largest state in terms of population, Indiana became politically influential and played an important role in the Union during the American Civil War. Indiana was the first western state to mobilize for the war, following the Civil War, Indiana remained politically important as it became a critical swing state in U. S. It helped decide control of the presidency for three decades, during the Indiana Gas Boom of the late 19th century, industry began to develop rapidly in the state.
The states Golden Age of Literature began in the time period. By the early 20th century, Indiana developed into a strong manufacturing state and attracted numerous immigrants and it experienced setbacks during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Construction of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, expansion of the industry, urban development. During the second half of the 20th century, Indiana became a leader in the industry due to the innovations of companies such as Eli Lilly
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally. It was composed of a series of settlements and satellite villages linked together by a loose trading network. The Mississippian way of life began to develop in the Mississippi River Valley, cultures in the tributary Tennessee River Valley may have begun to develop Mississippian characteristics at this point. Almost all dated Mississippian sites predate 1539–1540, with exceptions being Natchez communities that maintained Mississippian cultural practices into the 18th century. A number of traits are recognized as being characteristic of the Mississippians. Although not all Mississippian peoples practiced all of the following activities, the construction of large, truncated earthwork pyramid mounds, or platform mounds. Such mounds were usually square, rectangular, or occasionally circular, structures were usually constructed atop such mounds. The adoption and use of shells as tempering agents in their shell tempered pottery.
Widespread trade networks extending as far west as the Rockies, north to the Great Lakes, south to the Gulf of Mexico, the development of the chiefdom or complex chiefdom level of social complexity. The development of institutionalized social inequality, a centralization of control of combined political and religious power in the hands of few or one. The beginnings of a settlement hierarchy, in one major center has clear influence or control over a number of lesser communities. The adoption of the paraphernalia of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, called the Southern Cult and this is the belief system of the Mississippians as we know it. SECC items are found in Mississippian-culture sites from Wisconsin to the Gulf Coast, the SECC was frequently tied in to ritual game-playing, as with chunkey. The Mississippians had no writing system or stone architecture, the Mississippi stage is usually divided into three or more chronological periods. Each period is an historical distinction varying regionally.
At a particular site, each period may be considered to begin earlier or later, the Mississippi period should not be confused with the Mississippian culture. The Mississippi period is the stage, while Mississippian culture refers to the cultural similarities that characterize this society. The Early Mississippi period had just transitioned from the Late Woodland period way of life, different groups abandoned tribal lifeways for increasing complexity, sedentism and agriculture
Fall Creek massacre
The tribal band was living in an encampment along Deer Lick Creek, near the falls at Fall Creek, the site of present-day Pendleton, Indiana. The incident sparked national attention as details of the massacre and trial were reported in newspapers of the day. It was the first documented case in which white Americans were convicted, sentenced to capital punishment, of the seven white men who participated in the crime, six were captured. The other white man, Thomas Harper, was never apprehended, four of the men were charged with murder and two testified for the prosecution. The four accused men were convicted and sentenced to death by hanging, James Hudson was hanged on January 12,1825, in Madison County, and Andrew Sawyer and John Bridge Sr. were hanged on June 3,1825. Ray, the governor of Indiana, pardoned John Bridge Jr. the eighteen-year-old son of John Bridge Sr. due to his age, few details about the victims are known. The white men knew the Native American men only as Ludlow, the names of the remaining victims were not recorded.
It is possible that the band had a tribal background of Seneca and Delaware. John Johnson, a federal Indian agent, identified them as a band of Seneca who had come to the area as part of their migration from their home base near Lewis Town. In spite of the notoriety and the convictions of the white perpetrators. A stone marker in Pendletons Fall Creek Park commemorates the site of the hangings, a state historical marker along State Road 38 in rural Madison County, close to present-day Markleville, identifies the nearby site of the murders. The events served as the inspiration for The Massacre at Fall Creek, a novel by Jessamyn West, the band included three men known to local whites as Logan, and MDoal, three women, two boys, and two girls. Other, slightly sources, suggest the band included Delaware, bands with remnant members from numerous tribes in the Old Northwest were quite common at this time, but the precise ethnic backgrounds of this particular groups members will never be known. They established their camp in Madison County, near a village of white settlers with whom they could trade their goods, Bridge Sr. in the days leading up to the attack.
Hudson alleged that he had encountered Ludlow several days prior to the massacre and he accused Ludlow of threatening to harm his wife after she refused to trade with Ludlow several days prior to the attack. Bridge Sr. and Harper had visited the camp a few prior to the attack. Hudson acknowledged that three days prior to the massacre he thought Bridge intended to poison the Native Americans, Hudson reported that Ludlow became angry after a dog he had purchased from Harper was taken away from him. More details are known about the background of the victims attackers, who was originally from Baltimore County, moved to Kentucky as a boy and migrated to Ohio before settling with his wife and their family in Madison County
From the dam near Huntington, Indiana, to its terminus at the Ohio River, the Wabash flows freely for 411 miles. Its watershed drains most of Indiana, the Wabash is the state river of Indiana, and subject of the state song On the Banks of the Wabash, Far Away by Paul Dresser. As the Laurentide ice sheet began to retreat from present day Northern Indiana, the eastern or Erie Lobe sat atop and behind the Fort Wayne Moraine. Meltwater from the glacier fed into two streams, which became the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers. Their combined discharge was probably the source of water for the proglacial Wabash River system. Around 11,000 years ago the waters of Lake Maumee became deep enough that it breached a sag or weak spot in the Fort Wayne Moraine. This caused a catastrophic draining of the lake which in turn scoured a 1 to 2 mi wide valley known as the Wabash-Erie Channel or sluiceway, the Little River flows through this channel and U. S.24 traverses it between Fort Wayne and Huntington. The valley is the largest topographical feature in Allen County, when the ice melted completely from the region, new outlets for Lake Maumees water opened up at elevations lower than the Wabash-Erie Channel.
While the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers continued to flow through the channel, now a low-lying, probably marshy bit of terrain lay in between. It is not known for certain when, but at some point in the distant past the St. Joseph and St. Marys Rivers jumped their banks and flooded the marshy ground of the Fort Wayne Outlet. The discharge of this flood was enough to cut across the outlet. This meant that when the waters receded, the sluiceway was permanently abandoned by the two rivers. As a result of capturing both, the Maumee was converted from a minor creek to a large river. Once again, river waters flowed through the Fort Wayne Outlet, following this event, the branch of the Wabash River that originates along the Wabash Moraine near Bluffton became the systems main course and source. For part of its course the Wabash follows the path of the pre-glacial Teays River, the name Wabash is an English spelling of the French name for the river, Ouabache. French traders named the river after the Miami-Illinois word for the river, waapaahšiiki, meaning it shines white, pure white, the Miami name reflected the clarity of the river in Huntington County, Indiana where the river bottom is limestone.
The Wabash was first mapped by French explorers to the Mississippi, although the Wabash is today considered a tributary of the Ohio, the Ohio was considered a tributary of the Wabash until the mid-18th century. This is because the French traders traveled north and south from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico via the Wabash, it served as a vital trade route for North American-French trade
The Clovis culture appears around 11, 500–11,000 uncal RCYBP, at the end of the last glacial period, and is characterized by the manufacture of Clovis points and distinctive bone and ivory tools. Archaeologists most precise determinations at present suggest that this age is equal to roughly 13,200 to 12,900 calendar years ago. Clovis people are considered to be the ancestors of most of the cultures of the Americas. The only human burial that has been associated with tools from the Clovis culture included the remains of an infant boy named Anzick-1. Researchers from the United States and Europe conducted paleogenetic research on Anzick-1s ancient nuclear, the results of these analyses reveal that Anzick-1 is closely related to modern Native American populations, which lends support to the Beringia hypothesis for the peopling of the Americas. The Clovis culture was replaced by more localized regional cultures from the time of the Younger Dryas cold climate period onward. Post-Clovis cultures include the Folsom tradition, Suwannee-Simpson, Plainview-Goshen, each of these is commonly thought to derive directly from Clovis, in some cases apparently differing only in the length of the fluting on their projectile points.
Recent preliminary carbon dating shows a culture from around or prior to 13,000 years ago, along with horse, camel, a hallmark of the toolkit associated with the Clovis culture is the distinctively shaped, fluted stone spear point, known as the Clovis point. The Clovis point is bifacial and typically fluted on both sides, the culture was originally named for a small number of artifacts found between 1932 and 1936 at Blackwater Locality No. 1, a site between the towns of Clovis and Portales, New Mexico. These finds were deemed especially important due to their association with mammoth sp. Clovis sites have since been identified throughout much, but not all, of the contiguous United States, as well as Mexico and Central America and it is generally accepted that Clovis people hunted mammoths, as Clovis points have repeatedly been found in sites containing mammoth remains. In total, more than 125 species of plants and animals are known to have used by Clovis people in the portion of the Western Hemisphere they inhabited.
The oldest Clovis site in North America is believed to be El Fin del Mundo in northwestern Sonora, Mexico and it features occupation dating around 13,390 calibrated years BP. In 2011, remains of Gomphothere were found, the evidence suggests that humans did in fact two of them here. Theres the Aubrey site in Denton County, which produced a date that is almost identical. After this time, Clovis-style fluted points were replaced by other fluted-point traditions with an uninterrupted sequence across North. An effectively continuous cultural adaptation proceeds from the Clovis period through the ensuing Middle, whether the Clovis culture drove the mammoth, and other species, to extinction via overhunting – the so-called Pleistocene overkill hypothesis – is still an open, and controversial, question
Vincennes is a city in and the county seat of Knox County, United States. It is located on the lower Wabash River in the part of the state. According to the 2010 census, its population was 18,423, the vicinity of Vincennes was inhabited for thousands of years by different cultures of indigenous peoples. During the Late Woodland period, some of these peoples used local loess hills as burial sites, some of the prominent examples are the Sugar Loaf Mound. In historic times, prominent local native groups were the Shawnee, the first European settlers were French, when Vincennes was founded as part of the French colony of New France. Later on, it would be transferred to the colony of Louisiana, several years later, France lost the French and Indian War, and as result ceded territory east of the Mississippi River, including Vincennes, to the victorious British. Once the area was under British rule, it was associated with the Province of Quebec and it became part of the Illinois Country of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia.
Next it became part of Knox County in the Northwest Territory, Vincennes served as capital of the Indiana Territory from 1800 until 1813, when the government was moved to Corydon. The first trading post on the Wabash River was established by Sieur Juchereau, with thirty-four Canadiens, he founded the company post on October 28,1702 to trade for Buffalo hides with American Indians. The exact location of Juchereaus trading post is not known, but because the Buffalo Trace crosses the Wabash at Vincennes, the post was a success, in the first two years, the traders collected over 13,000 buffalo hides. When Juchereau died, the post was abandoned, the French-Canadian settlers left what they considered hostile territory for Mobile, the capital of Louisiana. The oldest European town in Indiana, Vincennes was officially established in 1732 as a second French fur trading post in this area. The Compagnie des Indes commissioned a Canadian officer, François-Marie Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, de Vincennes founded the new trading post near the meeting points of the Wabash and White rivers, and the overland Buffalo Trace.
De Vincennes, who had lived with his father among the Miami tribe and he encouraged Canadien settlers to move there, and started his own family to increase the village population. Because the Wabash post was so remote, Vincennes had a time getting trade supplies from Louisiana for the native nations. The boundary between the French colonies of Louisiana and Canada, although inexact in the first years of the settlement, was decreed in 1745 to run between Fort Ouiatenon and Vincennes. In 1736, during the French war with the Chickasaw nation, de Vincennes was captured and burned at the stake near the town of Fulton. His settlement on the Wabash was renamed Poste Vincennes in his honor, Louisiana Governor Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville next appointed Louis Groston de Saint-Ange de Bellerive to command Poste Vincennes
The Miami are a Native American nation originally speaking one of the Algonquian languages. Among the peoples known as the Great Lakes tribes, it occupied territory that is now identified as Indiana, southwest Michigan, by 1846, most of the Miami had been removed to Indian Territory. The Miami Tribe of Oklahoma is the federally recognized tribe of Miami Indians in the United States. The Miami Nation of Indiana is an unrecognized tribe, the name Miami derives from Myaamia, the tribes autonym in their Algonquian language of Miami-Illinois. This appears to have derived from an older term meaning downstream people. Some scholars contended the Miami called themselves the Twightwee, supposedly a reference to their sacred bird. Recent studies have shown that Twightwee derives from the Delaware language exonym for the Miamis, tuwéhtuwe, some Miami have stated that this was only a name used by other tribes for the Miami, and not their autonym. The Miami continue to use this autonym today, early Miami people are considered to belong to the Fischer Tradition of Mississippian culture.
Mississippian societies were characterized by maize-based agriculture, chiefdom-level social organization, extensive trade networks, hierarchical settlement patterns. The historical Miami engaged in hunting, as did other Mississippian peoples, the Dutch and French traders and, after 1652, the British fueled demand. The warfare and social disruption contributed to the decimation of Native American populations and these are believed to have reduced the populations by ninety percent. Historic locations When French missionaries first encountered the Miami in the mid-17th century, the Miami had reportedly moved there because of pressure from the Iroquois further east. Early French explorers noticed many linguistic and cultural similarities between the Miami bands and the Illiniwek, a confederacy of Algonquian-speaking peoples. He befriended the Miami people, settling first at the St. Joseph River, by the 18th century, the Miami had for the most part returned to their homeland in present-day Indiana and Ohio.
The eventual victory of the British in the French and Indian War led to an increased British presence in traditional Miami areas, shifting alliances and the gradual encroachment of European-American settlement led to some Miami bands merging. Native Americans created larger tribal confederacies led by Chief Little Turtle, their alliances were for waging war against Europeans, by the end of the century, the tribal divisions were three, the Miami and Wea. The latter two groups were aligned with some of the Illini tribes. The US government included them with the Illini for administrative purposes, the Eel River band maintained a somewhat separate status, which proved beneficial in the removals of the 19th century
The Whitewater Canal, which was built between 1836 and 1847, spanned a distance of seventy-six miles and stretched from Lawrenceburg, Indiana on the Ohio River to Hagerstown, Indiana. As with most transportation improvements during the nineteenth century, industry paved the way within individual states. After successful canal development projects further east in the United States, the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 paved the way for improvement projects across the United States and changed the course of American transportation history. The Erie Canal was a financial success. This really set the precedent for future canals and proved canals could provide a contribution to local economies. Amidst all of this there was the need for a transportation system that could link the Whitewater Valley to the Ohio River. Before the canal, farmers had to transport their goods and livestock to Cincinnati, Ohio on badly rutted, the journey to Cincinnati could take several days. In 1836 the Indiana State Legislature approved the Mammoth Internal Improvement Act, which allowed for the development of the Whitewater Canal, the Whitewater Canal was built based on an 1834 survey conducted by Charles Hutchens.
In the 76 miles the canal dropped 491 feet and this a very ambitious route as it was quite steep and required the crossing of the Whitewater over an aqueduct at Laurel as well as several other streams of lesser size. The 491-foot drop compares the Erie Canal which dropped 500 feet, the Wabash & Erie Canal dropped 450 feet in 460 miles while the Chesapeake & Ohio dropped 538 feet in 184 miles. That meant that the Whitewater descended 6.4 feet per mile compared to the Chesapeake & Ohio at 2.9 feet per mile, the Erie at 1.7 feet per mile, the steepness became a problem whenever heavy rains came. Because of the grade the canal required 56 locks and seven dams. The canal was started as a project and ground was broken on September 13,1836. The first boat arrived in Brookville from Lawrenceburg on June 8,1839, because of budget problems construction was suspended in August 1839 not to be resumed until 1842. In 1842 the state of Indiana transferred its ownership in the canal to the White Water Valley Canal Company which was required to complete the canal to Cambridge City in five years, by 1843 boats were arriving in Laurel.
1845 saw the canal operating into Connersville, the canal company was running out of money and borrowed from Henry Valette of Cincinnati to finish the canal into Cambridge City from Connersville. From Cambridge City to Hagerstown the Canal was built by the Hagerstown Canal Company and was finished in 1847, the Whitewater Canal was a short venture, but it left a lasting mark on the communities it traveled through. The canal development project was funded under the Act of 1836 and was allotted $1,400,000 to build the canal through the Whitewater Valley
The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 1000 to 200 BC, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing a burial complex, the Adena lived in an area including parts of present-day Ohio, Wisconsin, West Virginia, New York and Maryland. The importance of the Adena complex comes from its influence on other contemporary. The Adena culture is seen as the precursor to the traditions of the Hopewell culture, the Adena culture was named for the large mound on Thomas Worthingtons early 19th-century estate called Adena, in Chillicothe, Ohio. Lasting traces of Adena culture are seen in their substantial earthworks. At one point, Adena mounds numbered in the hundreds, and these mounds generally ranged in size from 20 feet to 300 feet in diameter and served as burial structures, ceremonial sites, historical markers and possibly gathering places. These mounds were built using hundreds of thousands of full of specially selected and graded earth.
According to archaeological investigations, Adena mounds were built as part of burial ritual. These mortuary buildings were intended to keep and maintain the dead until their burial was performed. Before the construction of the mounds, some utilitarian and grave goods would be placed on the floor of the structure, the mound would be constructed, and often a new mortuary structure would be placed atop the new mound. After a series of repetitions, mound/mortuary/mound/mortuary, a quite prominent earthwork would remain, in the Adena period, circular ridges of unknown function were sometimes constructed around the burial mounds. Adena mounds stood in isolation from domestic living areas, although the mounds are beautiful artistic achievements themselves, Adena artists created smaller, more personal pieces of art. Art motifs that became important to many Native Americans began with the Adena, motifs such as the weeping eye and cross and circle design became mainstays in many succeeding cultures.
Many pieces of art seemed to revolve around shamanic practices, and this may indicate a belief that the practice imparted the animals qualities to the wearer or holder of the objects. Deer antlers, both real and constructed of copper, wolf and mountain lion jawbones, and many objects were fashioned into costumes, necklaces. Distinctive tubular smoking pipes, with flattened or blocked-end mouthpieces. The objective of pipe smoking may have been altered states of consciousness, all told, Adena was a manifestation of a broad regional increase in the number and kind of artifacts devoted to spiritual needs. The Adena carved stone tablets, usually 4 or 5 inches by 3 or 4 inches by.5 inches thick