Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Theudebald or Theodebald, son of Theudebert I and Deuteria, was the king of Metz, Rheims, or Austrasia—as its variously called—from 547 or 548 to 555. He was only thirteen years of age when he succeeded and of ill health, the loyalty of the nobility to his fathers memory preserved the peace during his minority. He married Waldrada, daughter of the Lombard king Wacho and his step-aunt and this marriage fortified the alliance between Austrasia and Lombardy. Nevertheless, Theudebald could not hold on to the conquests of his father in the north of Italia, the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I sent an army under the command of Narses in 552 and, like his father before him, Theudebald avoided direct confrontation with it. After a prolonged sickness and prostration, he died in 555 and his realm passed finally outside of the family of Theuderic I and was united to the kingdoms of his granduncle Clotaire I, who would soon become king of all the Franks
The Gepids were an East Germanic tribe. They were closely related to, or a subdivision of, the Goths and they are first recorded in 6th-century historiography as having been allied with the Goths in the invasion of Dacia in c. In the 4th century, they were incorporated into the Hunnic Empire, under their leader Ardaric, the Gepids united with other Germanic tribes and defeated the Huns at the Battle of Nedao in 454. The Gepids founded a kingdom centered on Sirmium, known as Gepidia, remnants of the Gepids were conquered by the Avars in the 6th century. Jordanes reports that their name is from gepanta, an insult meaning sluggish, an Old English form of their name is recorded in Widsith, as Gefþ-, alongside the name of the Wends. The Gepids were the most shadowy of all the major Germanic peoples of the migration period, neither Tacitus nor Ptolemy mentioned them in their detailed lists of the barbarians, suggesting that the Gepids emerged only in the 3rd century AD. The first sporadic references to them, which were recorded in the late 3rd century, the 6th-century Byzantine writer, listed the Gepids among the Gothic nations, along with the Vandals and Goths proper, in his Wars of Justinian.
All information of the Gepids origins came from malicious and convoluted Gothic legends, according to Jordanes narration the northern island of Scandza, which is associated with Sweden by modern scholars, was the original homeland of the ancestors of the Goths and Gepids. They left Scandza in three boats under the leadership of Berig, the legendary Gothic King, Jordanes writes that the Gepids ancestors traveled in the last of the three ships, for which their fellows mocked them as gepanta, or slow and stolid. They settled along the shore of the Baltic Sea on an island at mouth of the Vistula River, called Gepedoius, or the Gepids fruitful meadows. Jordanes passage in his Getica is the following, Should you ask how the and Gepidae are kinsmen, I can tell you in a few words. One of these three ships proved to be slower than the others, as is usually the case, and thus is said to have given the tribe their name, for in their language gepanta means slow. Hence it came to pass that gradually and by corruption the name Gepidae was coined for them by way of reproach.
For undoubtedly they too trace their origin from the stock of the Goths, but because, as I have said, gepanta means something slow and stolid, the word Gepidae arose as a gratuitous name of reproach. Modern historians who write of the Gepids early history tend to apply a mixed argumentation, according to Jordanes, the Gepids decided to leave Gepedoius during the reign of their legendary king, Fastida. They moved to the south and defeated the Burgundians, after the victory, Fastida demanded land from Ostrogotha, King of the Visigoths, because the Gepids territory was hemmed in by rugged mountains and dense forests. Ostrogotha refused Fastidas demand and the Gepids joined battle with the Goths at the town of Galtis, near which the river Auha flowed and they fought until darkness when Fastida and his Gepids withdrew from the battlefield and returned to their land. Archaeologist Kurdt Horedt writes that the battle took place east of the Carpathian Mountains after 248, on the other hand, historian István Bóna says that the two armies clashed in the former province of Dacia around 290
Chlothar I, called Clotaire I and the Old, King of the Franks, was one of the four sons of Clovis I of the Merovingian dynasty. Although his father, Childeric I, had united Francia for the first time, in 511 at the age of circa 14, Clothar I inherited two large territories on the Western coast of Francia, separated by the lands of his brother Charibert Is Kingdom of Paris. Chlothar spent most of his life in a campaign to expand his territories at the expense of his relatives. His brothers avoided outright war by cooperating with his attacks on neighbouring lands in concert or by invading lands when their rulers died, the spoils were shared between the participating brothers. By the end of his life, Chlothar had managed to reunite Francia by surviving his brothers, but upon his own death, the Kingdom of the Franks was once again divided between his own four surviving sons. A fifth son had rebelled and was killed, along with his family, Frankish customs of the day allowed for the practice polygamy, especially among royalty.
So it was not uncommon for a king to have multiple wives and this was a major deviation from the monogamy of late Roman customs, influenced by the Church. Frankish rulers followed this practice mainly to increase their influence across larger areas of land in the wake of the Roman empires collapse, the aim was to maintain peace and ensure the preservation of the kingdom by appeasing local leaders. In the Germanic tradition succession fell, not to sons, but to younger brothers, but under Salic law, Clovis I instituted the custom of sons being the primary heirs in all respects. However, it was not a system of primogeniture, with the eldest son receiving the vast majority of an inheritance, the greater Frankish Kingdom was often splintered into smaller sub-kingdoms. Chlothar was the son of Clovis I and the fourth son of Queen Clotilde. Chlothar was born around 497 in Soissons, but he was very ambitious and sought to extend his domain. Upon the death of Clovis I in the year 511, the Frankish kingdom was divided between Chlothar and his brothers, Theuderic and Chlodomer, because of the rights of mothers, queens were granted a portion of their sons kingdom.
Clovis I, who had two wives, divided his kingdom into two for each of his wives, parceled out pieces to his respective sons. The eldest, son of the first wife, had the benefit of receiving one half of the kingdom of Francia, Chlothar shared the second half of the kingdom with his brothers Childebert and Chlodomer. Chlothar received the northern portion, Childebert the central kingdom of Paris, in 516 Gundobad, king of Burgundy and the throne passed to his son Sigismund, who converted to Catholicism. Sigismund adopted an extreme anti-Arian policy, going so far as to execute his Arian son Sigeric, in 523, at the instigation of their mother, Chlothar and Chlodomer joined forces in an expedition against the Burgundians. The Burgundian army was defeated, and Sigismund was captured and executed, sigismunds brother Godomar replaced him on the throne, with the support of the aristocracy, and the Franks were forced to leave
The kingdom was founded by Clovis I, crowned first King of the Franks in 496. The tradition of dividing patrimonies among brothers meant that the Frankish realm was ruled, even so, sometimes the term was used as well to encompass Neustria north of the Loire and west of the Seine. Most Frankish Kings were buried in the Basilica of Saint Denis, modern France is still named Francia in Spanish and Italian. The Franks emerged in the 3rd century as a confederation of smaller Germanic tribes, such as the Sicambri, Ampsivarii and Chattuarii, in the area north and east of the Rhine. Some of these peoples, such as the Sicambri and Salians, already had lands in the Roman Empire, in 357 the Salian king entered the Roman Empire and made a permanent foothold there by a treaty granted by Julian the Apostate, who forced back the Chamavi to Hamaland. As Frankish territory expanded, the meaning of Francia expanded with it, after the fall of Arbogastes, his son Arigius succeeded in establishing a hereditary countship at Trier and after the fall of the usurper Constantine III some Franks supported the usurper Jovinus.
Jovinus was dead by 413, but the Romans found it difficult to manage the Franks within their borders. The Frankish king Theudemer was executed by the sword, in c, around 428 the Salian king Chlodio, whose kingdom included Toxandria and the civitatus Tungrorum, launched an attack on Roman territory and extended his realm as far as Camaracum and the Somme. The kingdom of Chlodio changed the borders and the meaning of the word Francia permanently, Francia was no longer barbaricum trans Rhenum, but a landed political power on both sides of the river, deeply involved in Roman politics. Chlodios family, the Merovingians, extended Francia even further south, the core territory of the Frankish kingdom came to be known as Austrasia. Chlodios successors are obscure figures, but what can be certain is that Childeric I, possibly his grandson, Clovis converted to Christianity and put himself on good terms with the powerful Church and with his Gallo-Roman subjects. In a thirty-year reign Clovis defeated the Roman general Syagrius and conquered the Roman exclave of Soissons, defeated the Alemanni, Clovis defeated the Visigoths and conquered their entire kingdom with its capital at Toulouse, and conquered the Bretons and made them vassals of Francia.
He conquered most or all of the neighbouring Frankish tribes along the Rhine, by the end of his life, Clovis ruled all of Gaul save the Gothic province of Septimania and the Burgundian kingdom in the southeast. The Merovingians were a hereditary monarchy, the Frankish kings adhered to the practice of partible inheritance, dividing their lands among their sons. Cloviss sons made their capitals near the Frankish heartland in northeastern Gaul, Theuderic I made his capital at Reims, Chlodomer at Orléans, Childebert I at Paris, and Chlothar I at Soissons. During their reigns, the Thuringii and Saxons and Frisians were incorporated into the Frankish kingdom, the fraternal kings showed only intermittent signs of friendship and were often in rivalry. Theuderic died in 534, but his adult son Theudebert I was capable of defending his inheritance, which formed the largest of the Frankish subkingdoms and the kernel of the kingdom of Austrasia. Theudebert interfered in the Gothic War on the side of the Gepids and Lombards against the Ostrogoths, receiving the provinces of Rhaetia and part of Venetia
The Ostrogoths were the eastern branch of the Goths. They built an empire stretching from the Black Sea to the Baltic, the Ostrogoths were probably literate in the 3rd century, and their trade with the Romans was highly developed. Their Danubian kingdom reached its zenith under King Ermanaric, who is said to have committed suicide at an old age when the Huns attacked his people and subjugated them in about 370. After their annexation by the Huns, little is heard of the Ostrogoths for about 80 years, after the collapse of the Hun empire after the Battle of Nedao, Ostrogoths migrated westwards towards Illyria and the borders of Italy, while some remained in the Crimea. During the late 5th and 6th centuries, under Theodoric the Great most of the Ostrogoths moved first to Moesia, in 493, Theodoric the Great established a kingdom in Italy. A period of instability ensued, tempting the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian to declare war on the Ostrogoths in 535 in an effort to restore the western provinces of the Roman Empire.
Initially, the Byzantines were successful, but under the leadership of Totila, the war lasted for almost 20 years and caused enormous damage and depopulation of Italy. The remaining Ostrogoths were absorbed into the Lombards who established a kingdom in Italy in 568, a division of the Goths is first attested in 291. The Tervingi are first attested around that date, the Greuthungi, the Ostrogoths are first named in a document dated September 392 from Milan. Claudian mentions that they together with the Greuthungi inhabit Phrygia, according to Herwig Wolfram, the primary sources either use the terminology of Tervingi/Greuthungi or Vesi/Ostrogothi and never mix the pairs. All four names were used together, but the pairing was always preserved, as in Gruthungi, Ostrogothi and that the Tervingi were the Vesi/Visigothi and the Greuthungi the Ostrogothi is supported by Jordanes. This interpretation, though common among scholars today, is not universal. Both Herwig Wolfram and Thomas Burns conclude that the terms Tervingi and Greuthungi were geographical identifiers used by each tribe to describe the other and this terminology therefore dropped out of use after the Goths were displaced by the Hunnic invasions.
In support of this, Wolfram cites Zosimus as referring to a group of Scythians north of the Danube who were called Greuthungi by the north of the Ister. Wolfram asserts that it was the Tervingi who remained behind after the Hunnic conquest and he further believes that the terms Vesi and Ostrogothi were used by the peoples to boastfully describe themselves. On this understanding, the Greuthungi and Ostrogothi were more or less the same people, the nomenclature of Greuthungi and Tervingi fell out of use shortly after 400. In general, the terminology of a divided Gothic people disappeared gradually after they entered the Roman Empire, the term Visigoth, was an invention of the sixth century. Cassiodorus, a Roman in the service of Theodoric the Great, invented the term Visigothi to match Ostrogothi, the western-eastern division was a simplification and a literary device of sixth-century historians where political realities were more complex
Nobility of Italy
They often held lands as fiefs and were sometimes endowed with hereditary titles or nobiliary particles. From the Middle Ages until 1861, Italy was not a country but was a number of separate kingdoms and other states. These were often related through marriage to other and to other European royal families. Before Italian Unification there was a relatively large nobility in Italy, there were families which had been part of Italian nobility for many decades or even centuries. These families freely intermarried with aristocratic nobility, like other noble families, those with both papal power and money were able to purchase comunes or other tracts of land and elevate family patriarchs and other relatives to noble titles. Hereditary patriarchs were appointed Duke and even Prince of various 16th-, according to Ranke, Popes commonly elevated members of prominent families to the position of Cardinal, especially second and third sons who would not otherwise inherit hereditary titles. Popes elevated their own family members – especially nephews – to the position of Cardinal-Nephew.
The period was famous for papal nepotism and many families, such as the Barberini and Pamphili, modern Italy is dotted with the fruits of their success – various family palazzi remain standing today as a testament to their sometimes meteoric rise to power. The architect of Italian unification was Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, rome itself remained for a further decade under the Papacy, and became part of the Kingdom of Italy only in 1870. Those nobles who maintained allegiance to the pope became known as the Black Nobility, after the unification, the kings of Italy continued to create titles of nobility to eminent Italians, this time with a validity for all of the Italian territory. For example, General Enrico Cialdini was created Duca di Gaeta for his role during the unification, the practice continued until the 20th century, when nominations would be made by the Prime Minister of Italy and approved by the Crown. In the aftermath of the First World War, most Italians who were ennobled received their titles through the patronage of the Mussolini government, examples include General Armando Diaz, Admiral Paolo Thaon di Revel, Commodore Luigi Rizzo, Costanzo Ciano, Dino Grandi and Cesare Maria de Vecchi.
Many of these were victory titles for services rendered to the nation in the Great War, the writer and aviator Gabriele dAnnunzio was created Principe di Montenevoso in 1924, and the physicist and Nobel laureate Guglielmo Marconi was ennobled in 1924 as Marchese Marconi. In 1937, Ettore Tolomei was ennobled as Conte della Vetta, after the successful Italian invasion of Abyssinia, the Mussolini government recommended further Italians to the king for titles of nobility. For example, Marshal Pietro Badoglio was created Marchese del Sabotino and Duke of Addis Abeba, in 1946, the Kingdom of Italy was replaced by a republic. Under the Italian Constitution adopted in 1948, titles of nobility are not legally recognised, certain predicati recognised before 1922 may continue to be attached to surnames and used in legal documents. Often these were historic feudal territories of noble families, a high court ruling in 1967 definitively established that the heraldic-nobiliary legislation of the Kingdom of Italy is not current law.
The southern kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia, as well as the Papal states, granted the titles typical of such as Spain, France or England, Duke, Count
In the third century, they were named along with Goths as one of the most important Scythian groups who attacked Greece from the Black Sea by sea, and marauded around the Balkans for several years. In the fourth century, they were subjugated by the empires of Ermanaric the Ostrogoth, and Attila the Hun and they established their own kingdom and many joined Odoacer, who deposed the last Western Roman Emperor Romulus Augustus in 476 AD. They became well known both as soldiers in various Roman armies, in the Italian kingdom of Odoacer, and as sea raiders on the Atlantic coast, the Danubian kingdom broke up and remnants settled in the Balkans and other places. The last known political entity which was described as Herulian seem to have been in the area of modern Belgrade in the 550s, as a settlement within the Roman empire, the details of their history are difficult to reconstruct. The Herules are possibly first mentioned as the Hirri in the writings of Pliny the Elder, plinius stated that the territory extending from the Vistula river, as far as Eningia, is inhabited by the following nations, the Wends, the Scirii and the Hirri.
According to Procopius, they maintained links with Thule and some even moved there after the conquest of their Danubian kingdom and their request was granted, and a new king arrived with 200 young men. The first clear mention of the Herules by Roman writers is generally taken to be in the reign of Gallienus and this is based on accepting the writer Jordanes, who equated the Herules of his time and the Elouri mentioned by Dexippus. These Elouri accompanied the Goths and other Scythians ravaging the coasts of the Black Sea and entering the Aegean, sacks of Byzantium, Lemnos, Sparta and Argos followed. Armed groups moved around Greece and the Balkans, and the East Roman military took several years to contain the threat. After suffering a defeat at the river Nessos one surrendering Herul chief named Naulobatus became the first barbarian known from written records to receive imperial insignia from the Romans. It seems to have been the Herules specifically who sacked Athens despite the construction of a new wall and this was the occasion for a famous defense made by Dexippus, whose writings were a source for historians.
Herules were seen in western Europe before the empire of Attila, in 268 Claudius Mamertinus reported the victory of Maximian over a group of Herules and Chaibones attacking Gaul. In 406, a number of barbarian groups crossed the Rhine, entering the Roman empire. However this list is thought to have drawn on historical lists for literary effect. Some historians have speculated that there must have been a western Herul group with a power base somewhere in northern Europe. After this nothing is heard of again in that region. After the death of Attila his sons and their Ostrogoth allies lost power over the peoples of his empire at the Battle of Nedao in 454. The centre of this alliance was now settled upon the Roman border, Herules on the winning side of the Gepids were subsequently among the several peoples now able to form a kingdom on the northern banks of the Danubian area
Origo Gentis Langobardorum
The Origo Gentis Langobardorum is a short 7th-century, Latin account offering a founding myth of the Lombard people. The first part visions the origin and naming of the Lombards, and the text more resembles a king-list, up until the rule of Perctarit. The account has been preserved in three codices, mostly containing legalistic writings compiled in the reign of Rothari and known as Edictum Rothari or Leges Langobardorum. As such, Origo Gentis Langobardorum is preserved in three manuscripts, Biblioteca Capitolare 0. I.2, Cava de’ Tirreni, Archivio Della Badia 4, Origo Gentis Langobardorum is the textual source of the Lombard theonym godan. The Origo is summarized somewhat faithfully in the Historia Langobardorum by Paulus Diaconus, whereas the Origo is only extant in three copies, there are hundreds of medieval copies of the Historia. Origin The text mentions an island Scandanan, the home of the Winnili and their ruler was a woman called Gambara, with her sons Ybor and Agio. The leaders of the Vandals and Assi, asked them to pay them tribute and Assi went to Godan, and asked him for victory over the Winnili.
Godan replied that he would give the victory to whomever he saw first at sunrise, at the same time and her sons asked Frea, Godans wife, for victory. Frea advised that the women of the Winnili should tie their hair in front of their faces like beards, at sunrise, Frea turned her husbands bed so that he was facing east, and woke him. Godan saw the women of the Winnili, their hair tied in front of their faces, and asked Who are these longbeards. and Frea replied, since you named them, give them victory, from this day, the Winnili were called Langobardi, longbeards. He was succeeded by his son and after him, the Danubian lands Audochari came from Ravenna with the Alans, and came to Rugilanda to fight the Rugi, and he killed Theuvanue their king, and returned to Italy with many captives. The Lombards consequently left their land and lived in Rugilanda for some years, gudehoc was succeeded by his son, and he by his son, Tato. The Lombards tarried at Feld for three years, where Tato fought and killed Rodolfo, king of the Heruli, Wacho son of Unichus killed Tato, and Ildichus, Tatos son fought Wacho, but he had to flee to the Gepids, where he died.
Farigaidus was the last of the line of Lethuc, after Waltari ruled Auduin, who led the Lombards to Pannonia. Albuin, son of Auduin and his wife Rodelenda ruled after him, Albuin fought and killed Cunimund, king of the Gippidi. Albuin took to wife Cunimunds daughter and after she died Flutsuinda, daughter of Flothario and she had a daughter called Albsuinda. Italy After the Lombards had lived in Pannonia for 42 years, Albuin led them into Italy, in the month of April and he ruled for three years before he was killed by Hilmichis and his wife Rosemunda, in the palace in Verona. Thus, Longinus was left all the treasures of the Lombards, and with Albsuinda, the kings daughter
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records