The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis, they adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223.
The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" and "Capuchins"; the Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the name of the original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully.
He had cut all ties that remained with his family, pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ. Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, had others who wished to join him do the same; those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor. The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance, they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First OrderThe First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are called the Franciscans; this order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi. Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum. St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called the Minorites; the modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance.
They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor known as the Observants, are most simply called Franciscan friars, official name: Friars Minor; the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or Capuchins, official name: Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name: Friars Minor Conventual". Second OrderThe Second Order, most called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters; the order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", "The Order of San Damiano". Third OrderThe Franciscan third order, known as the Third Order of Saint Francis, has many men and women members, separated into two main branches: The Secular Franciscan Order, OFS known as the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third Order of Penance, try to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives outside of religious institutes.
The members of the Third Order Regular live in religious communities under the traditional religious vows. They grew out of the Secular Franciscan Order; the 2013 Annuario Pontificio gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan orders:. Order of Friars Minor: 2,212 communities. A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance, he was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a yea
Torreya californica is species of conifer endemic to California, occurring in the Pacific Coast Ranges and the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. It is known as California nutmeg or California torreya. California nutmeg is an evergreen tree growing to 15–25 m tall, with a trunk diameter of 0.5–1 m. The leaves are needle-like, sharp pointed, 3–5 cm long and 3 mm broad; the male cones are 5–7 mm long, grouped in lines along the underside of a shoot. The female cones are single or grouped two to five together on a short stem; the seeds were used by Native Americans in Northern California as food. The seeds were once mentioned in pharmacognostic literature under the Latin name nux moschata Californica; the wood was used for making bows. The wood is sometimes used in making Go game boards, as a cheaper substitute for the prized kaya of Japan and Southeast Asia; the tree is planted as a specimen ornamental tree in gardens. Farjon, A.. "Torreya californica". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2013: e.
T34026A2840781. Doi:10.2305/IUCN. UK.2013-1. RLTS. T34026A2840781.en. Retrieved 11 January 2018. Gymnosperm Database: Torreya californica Photos of foliage and mature seed cones and pollen cones and immature seed cones. Fairbairn, John, "A Survey of the best in Go Equipment" in Bozulich 2001—pp. 142–155
Acer macrophyllum, the bigleaf maple or Oregon maple, is a large deciduous tree in the genus Acer. It can grow up to 157.80 feet tall, but more reaches 15–20 m tall. It is native to western North America near the Pacific coast, from southernmost Alaska to southern California; some stands are found inland in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains of central California, a tiny population occurs in central Idaho. It has the largest leaves of any maple 15–30 cm across, with five incised palmate lobes, with the largest running to 61 centimetres. In the fall, the leaves turn to gold and yellow to spectacular effect against the backdrop of evergreen conifers; the flowers are produced in spring in pendulous racemes 10–15 cm long, greenish-yellow with inconspicuous petals. The fruit is a paired winged samara, each seed 1–1.5 centimetres in diameter with a 4–5-centimetre wing. In the more humid parts of its range, as in the Olympic National Park, its bark is covered with epiphytic moss and fern species.
Bigleaf maple can form pure stands on moist soils in proximity to streams, but are found within riparian hardwood forests or dispersed open canopies of conifers, mixed evergreens, or oaks In cool and moist temperate mixed woods they are one of the dominant species. It is rare north of Vancouver Island though cultivated in Prince Rupert, near Ketchikan and in Juneau. Bigleaf maple has been used for creating syrup but it is not common; this is. Syrup production has become a localized industry in bigleaf maple groves where weather conditions are suitable, such as near sea-level in British Columbia and at higher elevations along the West Coast from Washington through Northern California. Bigleaf maple is the only commercially important maple of the Pacific Coast region; the wood is used for applications as diverse as furniture, piano frames and salad bowls. Figured wood is not uncommon and is used for veneer, stringed instruments, guitar bodies, gun stocks; the wood is used in veneer production for furniture, but is used in musical instrument production, interior paneling, other hardwood products.
Lakwungen First Nations people of Vancouver Island call it the paddle tree and used it to make paddles and spindle wheels. In California, land managers do not value bigleaf maple, it is intentionally knocked over and left un-harvested during harvest of Douglas fir and redwood stands. Maple syrup has been made from the sap of bigleaf maple trees. While the sugar concentration is about the same as in Acer saccharum, the flavor is somewhat different. Interest in commercially producing syrup from bigleaf maple sap has been limited. Although not traditionally used for syrup production, it takes about 40 volumes of sap to produce 1 volume of maple syrup, it is used as browse by black-tailed deer, mule deer, horses during the sapling stage. A western Oregon study found that 60 percent of bigleaf maple seedlings over 10 inches tall had been browsed by deer, most several times; the current national champion bigleaf maple is located in Oregon. It has a circumference of 38.6 feet —or an average diameter at breast height of about 12.3 feet —and is 119 feet tall with a crown spread of 91 feet.
The previous national champion is located in Marion and has a circumference of 25.4 feet —or an average diameter at breast height of about 8.1 feet —and is 88 feet tall with a crown spread of 104 feet. Media related to Acer macrophyllum at Wikimedia Commons Calflora photo of herbarium specimen at Missouri Botanical Garden, collected in Yolo County, California, in 1903
Populus trichocarpa, the black cottonwood, western balsam-poplar or California poplar, is a deciduous broadleaf tree species native to western North America. It is used for timber, is notable as a model organism in plant biology. A high-coverage genome sequence was the first tree genome to be sequenced. Assembly of the genome is difficult due to the tetraploidy of the species. However, long-read Pacbio sequencing enabled the assembly of all scaffolds in 2018, it is a large tree, growing to a height of 30 metres to 50 metres and a trunk diameter of over 2 metres, which makes it the largest poplar species in the Americas. It is fairly short-lived, but some trees may live for up to 400 years. A cottonwood in Willamette Mission State Park near Salem, Oregon holds the national and world records. Last measured in April, 2008 this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft tall, 29 ft around, with 527 points; the bark is grey and covered with lenticels, becoming thick and fissured on old trees.
The bark can become hard enough to cause. The stem is grey in light brown in younger parts; the crown is roughly conical and quite dense. In large trees the lower branches droop downwards. Spur shoots are common; the wood has a straight grain. The leaves are 7–20 cm long with a glossy dark green upper side and glaucous light grey-green underside; the leaves are alternate, elliptic with a crenate margin and an acute tip, reticulate venation. The petiole is reddish; the buds are conical, long and sticky, with a strong balsam scent in spring when they open. Populus trichocarpa has an extensive and aggressive root system, which can invade and damage drainage systems. Sometimes the roots can damage the foundations of buildings by drying out the soil. Flowering and fruiting Populus trichocarpa is dioecious; the species reaches flowering age at about 10 years. Flowers may appear in early March to late May in Washington and Oregon, sometimes as late as mid-June in northern and interior British Columbia and Montana.
Staminate catkins contain 30 to 60 stamens, elongate to 2 to 3 cm, are deciduous. Pistillate catkins at maturity are 8 to 20 cm long with rotund-ovate, three carpellate subsessile fruits 5 to 8 mm long; each capsule contains many minute seeds with white cottony hairs. Seed production and dissemination The seed ripens and is disseminated by late May to late June in Oregon and Washington, but not until mid-July in Idaho and Montana. Abundant seed crops are produced every year. Attached to its cotton, the seed is light and buoyant and can be transported long distances by wind and water. Although viable, longevity of P. trichocarpa seed under natural conditions may be as short as two weeks to a month. This can be increased with cold storage. Seedling development Moist seedbeds are essential for high germination, seedling survival depends on continuously favorable conditions during the first month. Wet bottom lands of rivers and major streams provide such conditions where bare soil has been exposed or new soil laid down.
Germination is epigeal. P. trichocarpa seedlings do not become established in abundance after logging unless special measures are taken to prepare the bare, moist seedbeds required for initial establishment. Where seedlings become established in great numbers, they thin out by age five because the weaker seedlings of this shade-intolerant species are suppressed. Vegetative reproduction Due to its high levels of rooting hormones, P. trichocarpa sprouts readily. After logging operations, it sometimes regenerates from rooting of buried fragments of branches or from stumps. Sprouting from roots occurs; the species has the ability to abscise shoots complete with green leaves. These may root where they fall or may be dispersed by water transport. In some situations, abscission may be one means of colonizing exposed sandbars; the native range of P. trichocarpa covers large sections of western North America. It extends northeast from Kodiak Island along Cook Inlet to latitude 62° 30° N. southeast in southeast Alaska and British Columbia to the forested areas of Washington and Oregon, to the mountains in southern California and northern Baja California.
It is found inland on the west side of the Rocky Mountains, in British Columbia, western Alberta, western Montana, northern Idaho. Scattered small populations have been noted in southeastern Alberta, eastern Montana, western North Dakota, western Wyoming and Nevada, it grows up to elevations of 2100 m. Populus trichocarpa has been one of the most successful introductions of trees to the otherwise treeless Faroe Islands; the species was imported from Alaska to Iceland in 1944 and has since become one of the most widespread trees in the country. It is grown as an ornamental tree, valued for its fast growth and scented foliage in spring, detectable from over 100 m distance; the roots are however invasive, it can damage the foundations of buildings on shrinkable clay soils if planted nearby. Branches can be added to potted plants to stimulate rooting. Populus trichocarpa has several qualities which makes it a good model species for trees: Model genome size Rapid growth Reaches reproductive maturity 4–6 years Economically important It re
The rainbow trout is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The steelhead is an anadromous form of the coastal rainbow trout or Columbia River redband trout that returns to fresh water to spawn after living two to three years in the ocean. Freshwater forms that have been introduced into the Great Lakes and migrate into tributaries to spawn are called steelhead. Adult freshwater stream rainbow trout average between 1 and 5 lb, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb. Coloration varies based on subspecies and habitat. Adult fish are distinguished by a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, most vivid in breeding males. Wild-caught and hatchery-reared forms of this species have been transplanted and introduced for food or sport in at least 45 countries and every continent except Antarctica. Introductions to locations outside their native range in the United States, Southern Europe, New Zealand and South America have damaged native fish species.
Introduced populations may affect native species by preying on them, out-competing them, transmitting contagious diseases, or hybridizing with related species and subspecies, thus reducing genetic purity. The rainbow trout is included in the list of the top 100 globally invasive species. Nonetheless, other introductions into waters devoid of any fish species or with depleted stocks of native fish have created sport fisheries such as the Great Lakes and Wyoming's Firehole River; some local populations of specific subspecies, or in the case of steelhead, distinct population segments, are listed as either threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. The steelhead is the official state fish of Washington; the scientific name of the rainbow trout is Oncorhynchus mykiss. The species was named by German naturalist and taxonomist Johann Julius Walbaum in 1792 based on type specimens from the Kamchatka Peninsula in Siberia. Walbaum's original species name, was derived from the local Kamchatkan name used for the fish, mykizha.
The name of the genus is from the Greek onkos and rynchos, in reference to the hooked jaws of males in the mating season. Sir John Richardson, a Scottish naturalist, named a specimen of this species Salmo gairdneri in 1836 to honor Meredith Gairdner, a Hudson's Bay Company surgeon at Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River who provided Richardson with specimens. In 1855, William P. Gibbons, the curator of Geology and Mineralogy at the California Academy of Sciences, found a population and named it Salmo iridia corrected to Salmo irideus; these names faded once it was determined that Walbaum's description of type specimens was conspecific and therefore had precedence. In 1989, morphological and genetic studies indicated that trout of the Pacific basin were genetically closer to Pacific salmon than to the Salmos – brown trout or Atlantic salmon of the Atlantic basin. Thus, in 1989, taxonomic authorities moved the rainbow and other Pacific basin trout into the genus Oncorhynchus. Walbaum's name had precedence, so the species name Oncorhynchus mykiss became the scientific name of the rainbow trout.
The previous species names irideus and gairdneri were adopted as subspecies names for the coastal rainbow and Columbia River redband trout, respectively. Anadromous forms of the coastal rainbow trout or redband trout are known as steelhead. Subspecies of Oncorhynchus mykiss are listed below as described by fisheries biologist Robert J. Behnke. Resident freshwater rainbow trout adults average between 1 and 5 lb in riverine environments, while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb. Coloration varies between regions and subspecies. Adult freshwater forms are blue-green or olive green with heavy black spotting over the length of the body. Adult fish have a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, most pronounced in breeding males; the caudal fin is only mildly forked. Lake-dwelling and anadromous forms are more silvery in color with the reddish stripe completely gone. Juvenile rainbow trout display parr marks typical of most salmonid juveniles. In some redband and golden trout forms parr marks are retained into adulthood.
Some coastal rainbow trout and Columbia River redband trout populations and cutbow hybrids may display reddish or pink throat markings similar to cutthroat trout. In many regions, hatchery-bred trout can be distinguished from native trout via fin clips. Fin clipping the adipose fin is a management tool used to identify hatchery-reared fish. Rainbow trout, including steelhead forms spawn in early to late spring when water temperatures reach at least 42 to 44 °F; the maximum recorded lifespan for a rainbow trout is 11 years. Freshwater resident rainbow trout inhabit and spawn in small to moderately large, well oxygenated, shallow rivers with gravel bottoms, they are native to the alluvial or freestone streams that are typical tributaries of the Pacific basin, but introduced rainbow trout have established wild, self-sustaining populations in other river types such as bedrock and spring creeks. Lake resident rainbow trout are found in moderately deep, cool lakes with
Alnus rhombifolia, the white alder, is an alder tree native to western North America, from British Columbia and Washington east to western Montana, southeast to the Sierra Nevada, south through the Peninsular Ranges and Colorado Desert oases in Southern California. It occurs in riparian zone habitats at an altitudes range of 100–2,400 metres. While not reported in northern Baja California, it has been predicted on the basis of its climatic adaptation to occur there also. Alnus rhombifolia is found in the chaparral and woodlands and temperate forests ecoregions. Alnus rhombifolia is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 15–25 metres tall, with pale gray bark, smooth on young trees, becoming scaly on old trees; the leaves are alternate, rhombic to narrow elliptic, 4–10 centimetres long and 2–5 centimetres broad, with a finely serrated margin and a rounded to acute apex. The flowers are produced in catkins; the male catkins are pendulous, slender, 3–10 centimetres long and produced in clusters of two to seven.
The female catkins are ovoid, when mature in autumn 10–22 millimetres long and 7–10 millimetres broad, on a 1–10 millimetres stem, superficially resembling a small conifer cone. The small winged seeds disperse through the winter, leaving the old woody, blackish'cones' on the tree for up to a year after; the white alder is related to the red alder, differing in the leaf margins being flat, not curled under. Like other alders, it is able to fix nitrogen, tolerates infertile soils; some Plateau Indian tribes used white alder for female health treatment needs. Jepson Manual treatment- Alnus rhombifolia USDA: Alnus rhombifolia - data and range maps Alnus rhombifolia - Photo gallery