Robert Morris (financier)
Robert Morris, Jr. was an English-born merchant and a Founding Father of the United States. He served as a member of the Pennsylvania legislature, the Second Continental Congress, the United States Senate, he was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the United States Constitution. From 1781 to 1784, he served as the Superintendent of Finance of the United States, becoming known as the "Financier of the Revolution." Along with Alexander Hamilton and Albert Gallatin, he is regarded as one of the founders of the financial system of the United States. Born in Liverpool, Morris migrated to the United States in his teens becoming a partner in a successful shipping firm based in Philadelphia. In the aftermath of the French and Indian War, Morris joined with other merchants in opposing British tax policies such as the 1765 Stamp Act. After the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, he helped procure arms and ammunition for the revolutionary cause, in late 1775 he was chosen as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress.
As a member of Congress, he served on the Secret Committee of Trade, which handled the procurement of supplies, the Committee of Correspondence, which handled foreign affairs, the Marine Committee, which oversaw the Continental Navy. Morris was a leading member of Congress until he resigned in 1778. Out of office, Morris refocused on his merchant career and won election to the Pennsylvania Assembly, where he became a leader of the "Republican" faction that sought alterations to the Pennsylvania Constitution. Facing a difficult financial situation in the ongoing Revolutionary War, in 1781 Congress established the position of Superintendent of Finance to oversee financial matters. Morris accepted appointment as Superintendent of Finance and served as Agent of Marine, from which he controlled the Continental Navy, he helped provide supplies to the Continental Army under General George Washington, enabling Washington's decisive victory in the Battle of Yorktown. Morris reformed government contracting and established the Bank of North America, the first bank to operate in the United States.
Morris believed that the national government would be unable to achieve financial stability without the power to levy taxes and tariffs, but he was unable to convince all thirteen states to agree to an amendment to the Articles of Confederation. Frustrated by the weakness of the national government, Morris resigned as Superintendent of Finance in 1784. In 1787, Morris was selected as a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention, which wrote and proposed a new constitution for the United States. Morris spoke during the convention, but the constitution produced by the convention reflected many of his ideas. Morris and his allies helped ensure that Pennsylvania ratified the new constitution, the document was ratified by the requisite number of states by the end of 1788; the Pennsylvania legislature subsequently elected Morris as one of its two inaugural representatives in the United States Senate. Morris declined Washington's offer to serve as the nation's first Treasury Secretary, instead suggesting Alexander Hamilton for the position.
In the Senate, Morris aligned with the Federalist Party. During and after his service in the Senate, Morris went into debt speculating on land. Unable to pay his creditors, he was confined in debtors' prison from 1798 to 1801. After being released from prison, he lived a quiet, private life in a modest home in Philadelphia until his death in 1806. Morris was born in Liverpool, England, on January 20, 1734, his parents were Robert Morris, Sr. a factor for a shipping firm, Elizabeth Murphet. Until he reached the age of thirteen, Morris was raised by his maternal grandmother in England. In 1747, Morris immigrated to Oxford, where his father had prospered in the tobacco trade. Two years Morris's father sent him to Philadelphia the most populous city in British North America, where Morris would live under the care of his father's friend, Charles Greenway. Greenway arranged for Morris to become an apprentice at the shipping and banking firm of Philadelphia merchant Charles Willing. In 1750, Robert Morris, Sr. died from an infected wound, leaving much of his substantial estate to his son.
Morris rose from a teenage trainee to become a key agent in Willing's firm. Morris traveled to Caribbean ports to expand the firm's business, he gained a knowledge of trading and the various currencies used to exchange goods, he befriended Thomas Willing, the oldest son of Charles Willing, two years older than Morris and who, like Morris, had split his life between England and British North America. Charles Willing died in 1754, in 1757 Thomas made Morris a full partner in the newly-renamed firm of Willing Morris & Company. Morris's shipping firm was just one of many such firms operating in Philadelphia, but Willing Morris & Company pursued several innovative strategies; the firm pooled with other shipping firms to insure vessels, aggressively expanded trade with India, underwrote government projects through bonds and promissory notes. Ships of the firm traded with India, the Levant, the West Indies, Spanish Cuba and Italy; the firm's business of import and general agency made it one of the most prosperous in Pennsylvania.
In 1784, with other investors, underwrote the voyage of the ship Empress of China, the first American vessel to visit the Chinese mainland. Morris's partnership with Willing was forged just after the beginning of the Seven Years' War hindered attracting the usual supply of new indentured servants to the colony. Pot
Shot is a collective term for small balls or pellets made of lead. These were the original projectiles for shotguns and are still fired from shotguns and less from riot guns and grenade launchers, although shot shells are available in many pistol calibers in a configuration called "bird shot", "rat-shot", or "snake shot". Lead shot is used for a variety of other purposes such as filling cavities with dense material for weight/balance; some versions may be plated with other metals. Lead shot was made by pouring molten lead through screens into water, forming what was known as "swan shot", more economically mass-produced at higher quality using a shot tower; the Bliemeister method has supplanted the shot tower method since the early 1960s. Producing lead shot from a shot tower was pioneered by William Watts of Bristol who adapted his house on Redcliffe Way by adding a three-storey tower and digging a shaft under the house through the caves underneath to achieve the required drop; the process was patented in 1782.
The process was brought above ground through the building of shot towers. Molten lead would be dropped from the top of the tower. Like most liquids, surface tension makes drops of molten lead become near-spherical; when the tower is high enough, the lead droplets will solidify while still dropping and thus will retain their spherical form. Water is placed at the bottom of the tower, causing the lead to be cooled after dropping. Roundness of manufactured shot produced from the shot tower process is graded by forcing the newly produced shot to roll down inclined planes. Unround shot will roll to the side, for collection; the unround shot was either re-processed in another attempt to make round shot using the shot tower again, or used for applications which did not require round shot. The hardness of lead shot is controlled through adding variable amounts of tin and arsenic, forming alloys; this affects its melting point. Hardness is controlled by the rate of cooling, used in manufacturing lead shot.
The Bliemeister method, named after inventor Louis W. Bliemeister of Los Angeles, California, is a process for making lead shot in small sizes from about #7 to about #9. In this process, molten lead is dripped from small orifices and dropped 1 inch into a hot liquid, where it is rolled along an incline and dropped another 3 feet; the temperature of the liquid controls the cooling rate of the lead, while the surface tension of the liquid and the inclined surface work together to bring the small droplets of lead into regular balls of lead in spherical form. The size of the lead shot, produced is determined by the diameter of the orifice used to drip the lead, ranging from 0.018 inches for #9 lead shot to about 0.025 inches for #6 or #7.0 shot, while depending on the specific lead alloy, used. The roundness of the lead shot depends on the angle of the inclined surfaces as well as the temperature of the liquid coolant. Various coolants have been used, ranging from diesel fuel to antifreeze and water-soluble oil.
After the lead shot cools, it is washed dried, small amounts of graphite are added to prevent clumping of the lead shot. Lead shot larger than about #5 tends to clump badly when fed through tubes when graphite is used, whereas lead shot smaller than about #6 tends not to clump when fed through tubes when graphite is used. Lead shot dropped into liquid cooling baths when being produced from molten lead is known as "chilled lead shot", in contrast to "soft lead shot", produced by molten lead not being dropped as into a liquid cooling bath; the process of chilling lead shot during its manufacturing process causes the shot to become harder than it would otherwise be if allowed to cool more slowly. Hence, chilled lead shot, being harder and less to deform during firing, is preferred by shotgunners for improving shot pattern densities at longer ranges, whereas soft lead shot, being softer and more to deform during firing, is preferred for improving shot pattern densities at close ranges as the softer and now deformed shot scatters more when fired.
Soft lead shot is more deformed during the firing process by the effects of chokes. The manufacture of non-lead shot differs from that of lead, with compression molding used to create some alloys. Shot is available in many sizes for different applications; the size of numbered shot decreases. In hunting, some sizes are traditionally used for certain game, or certain shooting situations, although there is overlap and subjective preference; the range at which game is encountered and the penetration needed to assure a clean kill must both be considered. Local hunting regulations may specify a size range for certain game. Shot loses its velocity quickly due to its low sectional density and ballistic coefficient. Larger shot carries farther, does not spread out as much as smaller shot. Buckshot is shot formed to larger diameters so that it can be used against bigger game such as deer. Sizes range in ascending order from size #B to Tri-Ball, it is referred by the size, followed by "buck", e.g. "#000" is referred to as "triple-aught buck" in America or "triple o buck" in other English speaking countries.
Buckshot is traditionally cast. The Bliemeister method does not work for shot larger than #5, works progressively poorly fo
A projectile is any object thrown into space by the exertion of a force. Although any object in motion through space may be called a projectile, the term more refers to a ranged weapon. Mathematical equations of motion are used to analyze projectile trajectory. An object projected at an angle to the horizontal has both the vertical and horizontal components of velocity; the vertical component of the velocity on the y-axis given as Vy=USin while the horizontal component of the velocity Vx=UCos. There are various terms used in projectiles at specific angle teta 1. Time to reach maximum height, it is symbolized as, the time taken for the projectile to reach the maximum height from the plane of projection. Mathematically, it is give as t=USin/g Where g=acceleration due to gravity U= initial velocity teta= angle made by the projectile with the horizontal axis. 2. Time of flight: this is the total time taken for the projectile to fall back to the same plane from which it was projected. Mathematically it is given as T=2USin/g 3.
Maximum Height: this is the maximum height attained by the projectile OR the maximum displacement on the vertical axis covered by the projectile. It is given as H= U²Sin²/2g 4. Range: The Range of a projectile is the horizontal distance covered by the projectile. Mathematically, R= U²Sin2/g; the Range is maximum when angle teta= 45° I.e Sin2=1. Blowguns and pneumatic rifles use compressed gases, while most other guns and cannons utilize expanding gases liberated by sudden chemical reactions. Light-gas guns use a combination of these mechanisms. Railguns utilize electromagnetic fields to provide a constant acceleration along the entire length of the device increasing the muzzle velocity; some projectiles provide propulsion during flight by means of a rocket jet engine. In military terminology, a rocket is unguided. Note the two meanings of "rocket": an ICBM is a guided missile with a rocket engine. An explosion, whether or not by a weapon, causes the debris to act as multiple high velocity projectiles.
An explosive weapon, or device may be designed to produce many high velocity projectiles by the break-up of its casing, these are termed fragments. Many projectiles, e.g. shells, may carry an explosive charge or another chemical or biological substance. Aside from explosive payload, a projectile can be designed to cause special damage, e.g. fire, or poisoning. In projectile motion the most important force applied to the ‘projectile’ is the propelling force, in this case the propelling forces are the muscles that act upon the ball to make it move, the stronger the force applied, the more propelling force, which means the projectile will travel farther. See pitching, bowling. A projectile that does not contain an explosive charge or any other kind of payload is termed a kinetic projectile, kinetic energy weapon, kinetic energy warhead, kinetic warhead or kinetic penetrator. Typical kinetic energy weapons are blunt projectiles such as rocks and round shots, pointed ones such as arrows, somewhat pointed ones such as bullets.
Among projectiles that do not contain explosives are those launched from railguns and mass drivers, as well as kinetic energy penetrators. All of these weapons work by attaining a high muzzle velocity, or initial velocity up to, collide with their targets, converting their kinetic energy into destructive shock waves and heat. Other types of kinetic weapons are accelerated over time by gravity. In either case, it is the kinetic energy of the projectile; some kinetic weapons for targeting objects in spaceflight are anti-satellite weapons and anti-ballistic missiles. Since in order to reach an object in orbit it is necessary to attain an high velocity, their released kinetic energy alone is enough to destroy their target. For example: the energy of TNT is 4.6 MJ/kg, the energy of a kinetic kill vehicle with a closing speed of 10 km/s is of 50 MJ/kg. This saves costly weight and there is no detonation to be timed; this method, requires direct contact with the target, which requires a more accurate trajectory.
Some hit-to-kill warheads are additionally equipped with an explosive directional warhead to enhance the kill probability. With regard to anti-missile weapons, the Arrow missile and MIM-104 Patriot PAC-2 have explosives, while the Kinetic Energy Interceptor, Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile, THAAD do not. A kinetic projectile can be dropped from aircraft; this is applied by replacing the explosives of a regular bomb with a non-explosive material, for a precision hit with less collateral damage. A typical bomb has a speed of impact of 800 km/h, it is applied for training the act of dropping a bomb with explosives. This method has been used in Operation Iraqi Freedom and the subsequent military operations in Iraq by mating concrete-filled training bombs with JDAM GPS guidance kits, to attack vehicles and other "soft" targets located too close to civilian structures for the use of conventional high explosive bombs. A Prompt Global Strike may use a kinetic weapon. A kinetic bombardment may involve a projectile dropped from Earth orbit.
A hypothetical kinetic weapon that travels at a significant fraction of the speed of light found in science fiction, is termed a relativistic kill vehicle (RKV
A muzzleloader is any firearm into which the projectile and the propellant charge is loaded from the muzzle of the gun. This is distinct from the more popular modern designs of breech-loading firearms; the term "muzzleloader" applies to both rifled and smoothbore type muzzleloaders, may refer to the marksman who specializes in the shooting of such firearms. The firing methods and mechanism further divide both categories as do caliber. Modern muzzleloading firearms range from reproductions of sidelock and percussion long guns, to in-line rifles that use modern inventions such as a closed breech, sealed primer and fast rifling to allow for considerable accuracy at long ranges. Modern mortars use a shell with the propelling primer attached at the base. Unlike older muzzleloading mortars, which were loaded the same way as muzzleloading cannon, the modern mortar is fired by dropping the shell down the barrel where a pin fires the primer, igniting the main propelling charge. Both the modern mortar and the older mortar were used for high angle fire.
However, the fact that the mortar is not loaded in separate steps may make its definition as a muzzleloader a matter of opinion. Muzzleloading can apply to anything from cannons to pistols but in modern parlance the term most applies to black powder small arms, it but not always, involves the use of a loose propellant and projectile, as well as a separate method of ignition or priming. In general, the sequence of loading is to put in first gunpowder, by pouring in a measured amount of loose powder mostly by using a powder flask, or by inserting a pre-measured bag or paper packet of gunpowder or by inserting solid propellant pellets; the gunpowder used is black powder or black powder substitutes like Pyrodex. Sometimes two types of gunpowder were used consisting of finer priming powder for the flash pan and coarser powder for the main charge behind the ball; this was the case with earlier muzzleloaders like matchlocks but appear to have been less common with flintlocks and was irrelevant with percussion locks since they used percussion caps rather than priming powder.
Wadding is made from felt, cloth or card and has several different uses. In shotguns, a card wad or other secure wadding is used between the powder and the shot charge to prevent pellets from dropping into the powder charge and on top of the shot charge to hold it in place in the barrel. In smooth bore muskets and most rifles used prior to cartridges being introduced in the mid-to late nineteenth century, wadding was used to hold the powder in place. On most naval cannons, one piece of wadding was used to hold the powder in place and served the purpose of creating a better seal around the shot. Another was used to act as a plug to stop the shot rolling out because of the swaying of the ship; the use of cartridges with both gunpowder charge and ball, made up in batches by the shooter or a servant, was known from early on, but until around 1800 loading using a powder flask and a bag of balls was more common outside of the military. The measuring stage for the barrel charge of gunpowder could be avoided by carrying a number of pre-measured charges in small containers of wood, metal or cloth carried on a bandolier.
These were known by various names, including "chargers" or "apostles" as 12 were carried. For most of the time muzzleloaders were in use, a round ball and pre-measured powder charge could be carried in a paper or cloth wrapping; the shooter would bite off the end of the paper cartridge with his teeth and pour the powder into the barrel followed by the ball encased in the paper wrapping. The projectiles and wads were pushed down into the breech with a ramrod until they were seated on the propellant charge. Priming powder could be carried in a separate priming flask and poured into the priming pan or a little powder from the cartridge was used, the frizzen was pushed down to hold the priming powder in place. After the gunpowder and projectile or shot charge were placed in the barrel a ramrod was used to pack everything down at the base of the barrel. Either a priming charge was placed in the priming pan or a percussion cap was placed on the nipple, the firing mechanism initiated. Muzzleloading firearms use round balls, cylindrical conical projectiles, shot charges.
In some types of rifles firing round ball, a lubricated patch of fabric is wrapped around a ball, smaller than the barrel diameter. In other types of round ball firing rifles, a ramrod and hammer is used to force the round ball down through the rifling; when fired, either the lead ball or the wrapping grips the rifling and imparts spin to the ball which gives improved accuracy. In rifles firing Minié balls, the patch the paper wrapping from the cartridge, is used as an initial seal and to hold powder in place during loading; the Minié ball replaced the round ball in most firearms military, in the 1830s and 1840s. It has a hollow base; the combination of the spinning Minié ball and the consistent velocity provided by the improved seal gave far better accuracy than the smoothbore muzzleloaders that it replaced. When aiming for great accuracy, muzzle-loaders are cleaned before reloading, so that there is no residue left in the barrel to reduce accuracy, though in competitions run by the international governing body, the MLAIC, this is pr
Battle of the Nile
The Battle of the Nile was a major naval battle fought between the British Royal Navy and the Navy of the French Republic at Aboukir Bay on the Mediterranean coast off the Nile Delta of Egypt from the 1st to the 3rd of August 1798. The battle was the climax of a naval campaign that had raged across the Mediterranean during the previous three months, as a large French convoy sailed from Toulon to Alexandria carrying an expeditionary force under General Napoleon Bonaparte; the British fleet was led in the battle by Rear-Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson. Bonaparte sought to invade Egypt as the first step in a campaign against British India, part of a greater effort to drive Britain out of the French Revolutionary Wars; as Bonaparte's fleet crossed the Mediterranean, it was pursued by a British force under Nelson, sent from the British fleet in the Tagus to learn the purpose of the French expedition and to defeat it. He chased the French for more than two months, on several occasions missing them only by a matter of hours.
Bonaparte was aware of Nelson's pursuit and enforced absolute secrecy about his destination. He was able to capture Malta and land in Egypt without interception by the British naval forces. With the French army ashore, the French fleet anchored in Aboukir Bay, 20 miles northeast of Alexandria. Commander Vice-Admiral François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers believed that he had established a formidable defensive position; the British fleet arrived off Egypt on 1 August and discovered Brueys's dispositions, Nelson ordered an immediate attack. His ships advanced on split into two divisions as they approached. One cut across the head of the line and passed between the anchored French and the shore, while the other engaged the seaward side of the French fleet. Trapped in a crossfire, the leading French warships were battered into surrender during a fierce three-hour battle, while the centre succeeded in repelling the initial British attack; as British reinforcements arrived, the centre came under renewed assault and, at 22:00, the French flagship Orient exploded.
The rear division of the French fleet attempted to break out of the bay, with Brueys dead and his vanguard and centre defeated, but only two ships of the line and two frigates escaped from a total of 17 ships engaged. The battle reversed the strategic situation between the two nations' forces in the Mediterranean and entrenched the Royal Navy in the dominant position that it retained for the rest of the war, it encouraged other European countries to turn against France, was a factor in the outbreak of the War of the Second Coalition. Bonaparte's army was trapped in Egypt, Royal Navy dominance off the Syrian coast contributed to the French defeat at the Siege of Acre in 1799 which preceded Bonaparte's return to Europe. Nelson had been wounded in the battle, he was proclaimed a hero across Europe and was subsequently made Baron Nelson—although he was dissatisfied with his rewards, his captains were highly praised and went on to form the nucleus of the legendary Nelson's Band of Brothers. The legend of the battle has remained prominent in the popular consciousness, with the best-known representation being Felicia Hemans' 1826 poem Casabianca.
Napoleon Bonaparte's victories in northern Italy over the Austrian Empire helped secure victory for the French in the War of the First Coalition in 1797, Great Britain remained the only major European power still at war with the French Republic. The French Directory investigated a number of strategic options to counter British opposition, including projected invasions of Ireland and Britain and the expansion of the French Navy to challenge the Royal Navy at sea. Despite significant efforts, British control of Northern European waters rendered these ambitions impractical in the short term, the Royal Navy remained in control of the Atlantic Ocean. However, the French navy was dominant in the Mediterranean, following the withdrawal of the British fleet after the outbreak of war between Britain and Spain in 1796; this allowed Bonaparte to propose an invasion of Egypt as an alternative to confronting Britain directly, believing that the British would be too distracted by an imminent Irish uprising to intervene in the Mediterranean.
Bonaparte believed that, by establishing a permanent presence in Egypt, the French would obtain a staging point for future operations against British India in conjunction with the Tipu Sultan of Seringapatam, that might drive the British out of the war. The campaign would sever the chain of communication that connected Britain with India, an essential part of the British Empire whose trade generated the wealth that Britain required to prosecute the war successfully; the French Directory agreed with Bonaparte's plans, although a major factor in their decision was a desire to see the politically ambitious Bonaparte and the fiercely loyal veterans of his Italian campaigns travel as far from France as possible. During the spring of 1798, Bonaparte assembled more than 35,000 soldiers in Mediterranean France and Italy and developed a powerful fleet at Toulon, he formed the Commission des Sciences et des Arts, a body of scientists and engineers intended to establish a French colony in Egypt. Napoleon kept the destination of the expedition top secret—most of the army's officers did not know of its target, Bonaparte did not publicly reveal his goal until the first stage of the expedition was complete.
Bonaparte's armada sailed from Toulon on 19 May 1798, making rapid progress through the Ligurian Sea and collecting more ships at Geno
A sabot is a structural device used in firearm or cannon ammunition to keep a sub-caliber flight projectile, such as a small bullet or arrow-type projectile, in the center of the barrel when fired, if the bullet has a smaller diameter than the bore diameter of the weapon used. The sabot component in projectile design is more than the thin and deformable seal known as a driving band or obturation ring needed to trap propellant gases behind a projectile, keep the projectile centered in the barrel, when the outer shell of the projectile is only smaller in diameter than the caliber of the barrel. Driving bands and obturators are used to seal these full-bore projectiles in the barrel because of manufacturing tolerances. Driving bands and obturator rings are made from material that will deform and seal the barrel as the projectile is forced from the chamber into the barrel. Small caliber jacketed bullets do not employ driving bands or obturators because the jacket material, for example copper or gilding metal, is deformable enough to serve that function, the bullet is made larger than the barrel for that purpose.
Sabots use driving bands and obturators, because the same manufacturing tolerance issues exist when sealing the saboted projectile in the barrel, but the sabot itself is a more substantial structural component of the in-bore projectile configuration. Refer to the two APFSDS pictures on the right to see the substantial material nature of a sabot to fill the bore diameter around the sub-caliber arrow-type flight projectile, compared to the small gap sealed by a driving band or obturator to mitigate what is known classically as windage. More detailed cutaways of the internal structural complexity of advanced APFSDS saboted long rod penetrator projectiles can be found at reference 2; the function of a sabot is to provide a larger bulkhead structure that fills the entire bore area between an intentionally designed sub-caliber flight projectile and the barrel, giving a larger surface area for propellant gasses to act upon than just the base of the smaller flight projectile. Efficient aerodynamic design of a flight projectile does not always accommodate efficient interior ballistic design to achieve high muzzle velocity.
This is true for arrow-type projectiles, which are long and thin for low drag efficiency, but too thin to shoot from a gun barrel of equal diameter to achieve high muzzle velocity. The physics of interior ballistics demonstrates why the use of a sabot is advantageous to achieve higher muzzle velocity with an arrow-type projectile. Propellant gasses generate high pressure, the larger the base area that pressure acts upon the greater the net force on that surface. Force, pressure times area, provides an acceleration to the mass of the projectile. Therefore, for a given pressure and barrel diameter, a lighter projectile can be driven from a barrel to a higher muzzle velocity than a heavier projectile. However, a lighter projectile may not fit in the barrel. To make up this difference in diameter, a properly designed sabot provides less parasitic mass than if the flight projectile were made full-bore, in particular providing dramatic improvement in muzzle velocity for APDS and APFSDS ammunition.
Seminal research on two important sabot configurations for long rod penetrators used in APFSDS ammunition, namely the "saddle-back" and "double-ramp" sabot was performed by the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory during the development and improvement of modern 105mm and 120mm kinetic energy APFSDS penetrators, permitted by the significant recent advancement in the computerized Finite element method in structural mechanics at that time. Upon muzzle exit, the sabot is discarded, the smaller flight projectile flies to the target with less drag resistance than a full-bore projectile. In this manner high velocity and slender, low drag projectiles can be fired more efficiently; the weight of the sabot represents parasitic mass that must be accelerated to muzzle velocity, but does not contribute to the terminal ballistics of the flight projectile. For this reason, great emphasis is placed on selecting strong yet lightweight structural materials for the sabot, configuring the sabot geometry to efficiently employ these parasitic materials at minimum weight penalty.
The purpose of the sabot is to allow a smaller diameter flight projectile to be launched at greater muzzle velocity than if the flight projectile alone were fired from a gun of equal caliber. Firing a smaller-sized projectile wrapped in a sabot raises the muzzle velocity of the projectile. Made of some lightweight material; the sabot consists of several longitudinal pieces held in place by the cart
A gun is a ranged weapon designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles that are solid but can be liquid or charged particles and may be free-flying or tethered. The means of projectile propulsion vary according to designs, but are traditionally effected by a high gas pressure contained within a shooting tube, produced either through the rapid combustion of propellants, or by mechanical compression; the high-pressure gas is introduced behind the projectile, accelerating it down the length of the tube, imparting sufficient launch velocity to sustain its further travel towards the target once the propelling gas ceases acting upon it at the end of the tube. Alternatively, acceleration via electromagnetic field generation may be employed, in which case the shooting tube may be substituted by guide rails or wrapped with magnetic coils; the first devices identified as guns appeared in China from around CE 1000. By the 12th century, the technology was spreading through the rest of Asia, into Europe by the 13th century.
The origin of the English word gun is considered to derive from the name given to a particular historical weapon. Domina Gunilda was the name given to a remarkably large ballista, a mechanical bolt throwing weapon of enormous size, mounted at Windsor Castle during the 14th century; this name in turn may have derived from the Old Norse woman's proper name Gunnhildr which combines two Norse words referring to battle. In any case the term gonne or gunne was applied to early hand-held firearms by the late 14th or early 15th century; the first device identified as a gun, a bamboo tube that used gunpowder to fire a spear, appeared in China around AD 1000. The Chinese had invented gunpowder in the 9th century. An early type of firearm is the fire lance, a black-powder–filled tube attached to the end of a spear and used as a flamethrower; the earliest depiction of a gunpowder weapon is the illustration of a fire-lance on a mid-10th century silk banner from Dunhuang. The De'an Shoucheng Lu, an account of the siege of De'an in 1132, records that Song forces used fire-lances against the Jurchens.
In due course, the proportion of saltpeter in the propellant was increased to maximise its explosive power. To better withstand that explosive power, the paper and bamboo of which fire-lance barrels were made came to be replaced by metal, and to take full advantage of that power, the shrapnel came to be replaced by projectiles whose size and shape filled the barrel more closely. With this, we have the three basic features of the gun: a barrel made of metal, high-nitrate gunpowder, a projectile which occludes the muzzle so that the powder charge exerts its full potential in propellant effect. Breech-loading guns called cetbang were used by the Majapahit Empire during the conquest of Nusantara in 1336–1350; the knowledge of making powder weapons in Java is thought to have originated from the Mongol invasion in 1293. These swivel guns mounted on various vessels of the Majapahit navy were used to great effect against traditional boarding-style warfare of other kingdoms in the archipelago. One theory of how gunpowder came to Europe is that it made its way along the Silk Road through the Middle East.
English Privy Wardrobe accounts list "ribaldis", a type of cannon, in the 1340s, siege guns were used by the English at Calais in 1346. The earliest surviving firearm in Europe has been found from Otepää, Estonia and it dates to at least 1396. Around the late 14th century in Europe and portable hand-held cannons were developed, creating in effect the first smooth-bore personal firearm. In the late 15th century the Ottoman empire used firearms as part of its regular infantry; the first successful rapid-fire firearm is the Gatling Gun, invented by Richard Gatling and fielded by the Union forces during the American Civil War in the 1860s. The world's first sub-machine gun able to be maneuvered by a single soldier is the MP18.1, invented by Theodor Bergmann. It was introduced into service in 1918 by the German Army during World War I as the primary weapon of the Stosstruppen; the first assault rifle was introduced during World War II by the Germans, known as the StG44. It was the first firearm which bridges the gap between long range rifles, machine guns, short range sub-machine guns.
Since the mid-20th century guns that fire beams of energy rather than solid projectiles have been developed, guns that can be fired by means other than the use of gunpowder. Most guns use compressed gas confined by the barrel to propel the bullet up to high speed, though devices operating in other ways are sometimes called guns. In firearms the high-pressure gas is generated by combustion of gunpowder; this principle is similar to that of internal combustion engines, except that the bullet leaves the barrel, while the piston transfers its motion to other parts and returns down the cylinder. As in an internal combustion engine, the combustion propagates by deflagration rather than by detonation, the optimal gunpowder, like the optimal motor fuel, is resistant to detonation; this is because much of the energy generated in detonation is in the form of a shock wave, which can propagate from the gas to the solid structure and heat or damage the structure, rathe