New Zealand census
The New Zealand government department Statistics New Zealand conducts a census of population and dwellings every five years. The census scheduled for 2011 was cancelled due to the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, the 2013 census took place on Tuesday,5 March 2013. Since 1926, the census has always held on a Tuesday. Since 1966, the census officially occurs at midnight on a Tuesday in March and these are statistically the month and weekday on which New Zealanders are least likely to be travelling. All census forms are hand-delivered by census workers during the lead-in to the census, with one form per person, in addition, teams of census workers attempt to cover all hospitals, camp grounds and transport systems where people might be found at midnight. The smallest geographic unit used in the census for population data is the mesh block, which there are 39,300 of, with an average of 110 people in each. The 2013 Census collected data on the topics, The first full census in New Zealand was conducted in 1851.
The 1931 census was cancelled due to the effects of the Great Depression, the 1946 census was brought forward to Tuesday 25 September 1945, so that the results could be used for an electoral redistribution before the 1946 election. Results for those censuses before 1966 have been destroyed with a few exceptions, the 2006 census was held on Tuesday,7 March. For the first time, respondents had the option of completing their census form via the Internet rather than by a printed form, the 2011 census was to be held on Tuesday,8 March. However, due to the Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, for the first time ever, all 2011 census forms would have been digitally archived. On 27 May 2011 Statistics New Zealand announced that a census would take place in March 2013, the legislation required to change the census date was introduced to Parliament in August 2011. The 2013 census took place on Tuesday 5 March 2013, the next census will take place in 2018. A few people object to the census and attempt to evade it, following the 2006 Census, Statistics New Zealand prosecuted 72 people for failing to return their forms, with 41 convictions.
After the 2013 Census, they wrote to 450 people in July 2013 who had failed to return the forms, of whom 99 were prosecuted, most of those convicted faced two charges and were fined $50 to $500 per charge. Results of the 2013 census are being released over an 18-month period, Statistics New Zealand - census page New Zealand 2013 Census
It is a popular base for exploring Arthurs Pass National Park. Arthurs Pass township is about 5 km south of the pass with the same name. Its elevation is 740 metres above sea level surrounded by beech forest, the Bealey River runs through the township. The town is located 153 km from Christchurch a 2-hour drive on SH73, the township and the pass are named after Sir Arthur Dudley Dobson. Arthur Dobson had been tasked by the Chief Surveyor, Thomas Cass, in 1864, his brother Edward joined him and accompanied him into the valley of the Otira River. A West Coast Māori Chief, told Arthur of a pass that Māori hunting parties occasionally used, when Arthur returned to Christchurch, he sketched the country he had traversed and included it in a report to Cass. Arthur Dobson did not name the pass, which he found very steep on the western side, Dobson named the site that became the township Camping Flat. When the gold rush began, a committee of businessmen offered a prize for anyone who would find a better or more suitable pass from Canterbury to the West Coast.
Arthurs Pass township was reached by the railway in 1914, while the Westland section having advanced to Otira, construction of the tunnel was very slow. The tunnel was completed in 1923. The TranzAlpine Express passes through Arthurs Pass and the Otira Tunnel as part of its 223 kilometres trek from Christchurch to Greymouth, the trip is considered one of the worlds great train journeys for the scenery and views. A power station was built below the Devils Punchbowl Falls to provide electricity for the tunnel construction, in 1929 the Arthur’s Pass National Park was created, New Zealands third National Park. The Geographic Board had a policy of omitting apostrophe in place names, and this caused a great upset with the local population, and the Minister of Lands reinstated the old version with the apostrophe. Since 16 September 1975, the post office adopted the spelling with the apostrophe. The township has a DOC ranger station, which accommodates a visitor information. Visitor accommodation is provided, from ground up to hotel standard.
The township provides a store, a petrol station, tea rooms. There are several good walks from here, including the Devils Punchbowl Falls, Bealey Valley, the mischievous kea can be found here
Lincoln, New Zealand
Lincoln is a town in the Selwyn District, in the Canterbury Region of New Zealands South Island. The town is located on the Canterbury Plains to the west of Banks Peninsula,22 kilometres southwest of Christchurch, the town has a population of 5,240, making it the second largest town in the Selwyn District behind nearby Rolleston. Lincoln is a town of Christchurch, at the 2006 Census. The town is home to Lincoln University, the oldest agricultural tertiary institution in the Southern Hemisphere, the site of Lincoln on the L1 River would allow for a flour mill to be built to service the growing farming district. Lincoln was laid out in a layout and FitzGerald named the four belts North, East and West. The main streets James and Gerald were names after himself. The new township steadily grew and by 1873 Lincoln had a post office, brewers, a baker and confectioner, a storekeeper who had a hotel, a wheelwright and a carpenter, and a blacksmith. The peaceful quality of Lincoln changed with the arrival of the line in 1875.
On 26 April 1875, a branch railway was opened to Lincoln from a junction with the Main South Line in Hornby. This line became the Southbridge Branch, within a few years, Lincoln became a junction itself, with the Little River Branch diverging from the Southbridge Branch in Lincoln. This branch opened to Birdlings Flat on 16 May 1882 and Little River itself on 11 March 1886, on 30 June 1962, Lincoln became a railway terminus when the Little River Branch and the Lincoln-Southbridge section of the Southbridge Branch were both closed. The railway did not last much longer in Lincoln, closing on 1 December 1967, the Little River Rail Trail is being established along the railways old route. The Prebbleton to Lincoln leg of the route was opened on 30 November 2006, the trail is used extensively for recreation. Lincoln has two schools, one primary and one secondary, Lincoln Primary School is a state full primary school. It was established in 1866 and has a roll of 530 students as of July 2016, Lincoln High School is a state secondary school.
It was established in 1959 and has a roll of 1667 students as of July 2016, a second primary school for the town, tentatively named Lincoln South School, is due to open in January 2019. Lincoln is the site of Lincoln University, as well as the university, there are a number of other research facilities in Lincoln, including AgResearch, Institute for Plant and Food Research, FAR, and Landcare Research. Over 400 people are employed at these organisations making Lincoln a busy little country village, Lincoln has a maternity hospital and golf course
New Zealand /njuːˈziːlənd/ is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, or Te Ika-a-Māui, and the South Island, or Te Waipounamu—and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, the countrys varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealands capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland, sometime between 1250 and 1300 CE, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand, in 1840, representatives of Britain and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire, the majority of New Zealands population of 4.7 million is of European descent, the indigenous Māori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders. Reflecting this, New Zealands culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers. The official languages are English, Māori and New Zealand Sign Language, New Zealand is a developed country and ranks highly in international comparisons of national performance, such as health, economic freedom and quality of life. Since the 1980s, New Zealand has transformed from an agrarian, Queen Elizabeth II is the countrys head of state and is represented by a governor-general. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes, the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau, the Cook Islands and Niue, and the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealands territorial claim in Antarctica. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Pacific Islands Forum, and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and called it Staten Landt, in 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand, Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand. It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the country before the arrival of Europeans. Māori had several names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South, in 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907, this was the accepted norm. The New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised and this set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and South Island or Te Waipounamu
The Selwyn District is a predominantly rural area in central Canterbury, on the east coast of New Zealands South Island. The district is governed by a mayor and a council of 10 members. The current mayor is Kelvin Coe who was first elected mayor in October 2007, the mayor is elected on a First Past the Post basis. The 10 councillors are elected from four wards on a multi-member First Past the Post basis,2 councillors are elected from Ellesmere ward,2 from Malvern,3 from Selwyn Central, and 3 from Springs. Malvern and Selwyn Central wards have Community Boards, which have powers delegated to them by the Council, the Selwyn District is within the Canterbury region so Canterbury Regional Council has responsibilities for regional planning, and water, air and river bed resource consents. In national politics, Selwyn is represented in the Selwyn electorate, amy Adams of the National Party is the incumbent MP. The Selwyn District lies in central Canterbury, and occupies a position in the South Island.
Boundaries, On the Canterbury Plains, the Waimakariri River forms the northern boundary, the eastern boundary comprises the city of Christchurch, Banks Peninsula, and the South Pacific Ocean. The southern boundary is the Rakaia River, beyond which lies Ashburton District, the western boundary is the main divide of the Southern Alps. Geographical features, Selwyn District contains within it two distinct regions, the plains and the high country, the plains, where most of the population lives and the majority of activity takes place, form an expanse of low-lying and comparatively dry grassland. The extreme south-east is dominated by Lake Ellesmere, an expanse of water surrounded by marshes, the tributaries of the Selwyn River include the Waianiwaniwa River, the Hororata River and the Hawkins River. The high country is a region, mainly consisting of hill and mountain ranges. Most of the country is grassland, including some tussocklands, areas of beech forest remain within the Craigieburn Forest Park.
Population, The total population of Selwyn District was 44,595 in the 2013 Census,2013 Census information confirmed that Selwyn District is the fastest growing area of New Zealand. Selwyn’s population grew from 33,642 to 44,595 between 2006 and 2013, a 33% increase, the average growth for New Zealand as a whole during that period was 5. 3%. Approximately half the population lives in the towns and villages in the district. 95% of the live on the plains. The largest towns are Darfield, Lincoln, Prebbleton and Rolleston which is the home of the Councils main office, the towns of Springfield and Sheffield are on State Highway 73, where the foothills start to rise from the Canterbury Plains
Lake Coleridge is located in inland Canterbury, in New Zealands South Island. Located 35 kilometres to the northwest of Methven, it has an area of 47 square kilometres. The lake is situated in a valley formed by a glacier over 20,000 years ago in the Pleistocene era. It currently has no natural outflows, there is a little settlement at the lake. The lake is located to the north of the Rakaia River, the project makes use of the difference in altitude between the lake and river. Both the Harper and Wilberforce Rivers have had some of their flow diverted into the lake, the Lake was named by the chief surveyor of the Canterbury Association, Joseph Thomas, on a sketch map prepared in early 1849. It commemorates Edward Coleridge and William Coleridge, who were first cousins and both nephews of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, two early members of the Canterbury Association. Two further members of the Coleridge family joined the Canterbury Association in June 1851, i. e. after the lake had been named, John Taylor Coleridge, the lake was the epicentre for the 6.5 magnitude earthquake that struck on 26 June 1946.
Lakes of New Zealand List of lakes of New Zealand Details about the Lake Coleridge Power Station Map of Lake Coleridge 1849 sketch map by Thomas
New Zealand State Highway 73
State Highway 73 is a major east-west South Island state highway in New Zealand connecting Christchurch on the east coast with Cass/Hokitika via the Southern Alps. It is mostly two lane, with some single-lane bridges north of Springfield but is mostly dual carriageway in Christchurch, the fourth and fifth-highest points of New Zealands state highway network are on this road at Porters and Arthurs Pass respectively. The route connecting the West and East coasts of the South Island via the Southern Alps were known for hundreds of years by the Māori people, the Europeans were informed of the route by a local chief in the mid-19th century but was not used during his lifetime. In 1864, Arthur Dudley Dobson traversed from the east to the west coast from the Waimakariri River, a route connecting Christchurch to Hokitika was fully completed in 1866, with the first Cobb & Co coach began operating that same year for the burgeoning gold rush. Construction of a link had started in 1890, and the Midland Line between Canterbury and the West Coast was finally completed on 4 August 1923, with the opening of the Otira Tunnel.
This signalled the end of the Cobb & Co coach in New Zealand, the road between Arthurs Pass and Otira in particular was amongst the most dangerous in the country, due to the road located on scree slopes which frequently gave way. As a result, numerous studies were conducted into alternative options for fixing the road around Candys Bend, Starvation Point, construction of the Otira Viaduct and the protective roofs from slips began in 1997 and opened in 1999. As of May 2016, this is the current route of the highway, State Highway 73 begins 11 km south of Greymouth at Kumara Junction. The highway passes through undulating farmland and forest as it passes through the settlements of Kumara, the road veers sharply to the left as it approaches the mountains to the front of the road. The road hugs the Taramakau River as it proceeds down the valley, at Jacksons, the Midland Line crosses the river and begins to run parallel to the road. Just before Aickens at the confuence of the Taramakau and Otira Rivers, beyond Otira, the road breaks with the railway line and crosses the river before climbing up towards the Otira Viaduct and Arthurs Pass.
At 920 metres, Arthurs Pass is the second highest pass on the road and is one of the three passes connecting the east and west coasts. After peaking, the road descends into Arthurs Pass village with the railway line emerging from the Otira Tunnel nearby, before Cass, the road runs along a bluff and turns right to proceed past some more farmland as well as Lakes Grasmere and Pearson. After cresting, the road descends into the Kowai River valley, after Springfield, the road emerges onto the Canterbury Plains and runs straight through the settlements of Annat and Waddington before arriving at Darfield. The road passes through the settlements of Kirwee and West Melton as well as dairy, the road passes by Paparua Prison and arrives in Christchurch via Yaldhurst. As Yaldhurst Road, the proceeds in a direction towards Riccarton. The road widens to four lanes at Avonhead, but by Curletts Road/Peer Street, as Curletts Road, the road temporarily reverts to two lanes divided by a flush median. After Blenheim Road, however the road again, crosses over the Main South Line
The South Island or Te Waipounamu is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the smaller but more populous North Island. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, the South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres and has a temperate climate. In the early stages of European settlement of the country, the South Island had the majority of the European population, in prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite article. Charcoal drawings can be found on rock shelters in the centre of the South Island. The drawings are estimated to be between 500 and 800 years old, and portray animals and fantastic creatures, possibly stylised reptiles, some of the birds pictured are long extinct, including moa and Haasts eagles. They were drawn by early Māori, but by the time Europeans arrived, early inhabitants of the South Island were the Waitaha. They were largely absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāti Mamoe in the 16th century, Kāti Mamoe were in turn largely absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāi Tahu who migrated south in the 17th century.
While today there is no distinct Kāti Mamoe organisation, many Kāi Tahu have Kāti Mamoe links in their whakapapa and, a notable feature of the Moriori culture, an emphasis on pacifism, proved disadvantageous when Māori warriors arrived in the 1830s aboard a chartered European ship. In the early 18th century, Kāi Tahu, a Māori tribe who originated on the east coast of the North Island, There they and Kāti Mamoe fought Ngāi Tara and Rangitāne in the Wairau Valley. Ngāti Māmoe ceded the east coast regions north of the Clarence River to Kāi Tahu, Kāi Tahu continued to push south, conquering Kaikoura. By the 1730s, Kāi Tahu had settled in Canterbury, including Banks Peninsula, from there they spread further south and into the West Coast. In 1827-1828 Ngāti Toa under the leadership of Te Rauparaha successfully attacked Kāi Tahu at Kaikoura, Ngāti Toa visited Kaiapoi, ostensibly to trade. When they attacked their hosts, the well-prepared Kāi Tahu killed all the leading Ngāti Toa chiefs except Te Rauparaha, Te Rauparaha returned to his Kapiti Island stronghold.
After destroying Te Maiharanuis village they took their captives to Kapiti, John Stewart, though arrested and sent to trial in Sydney as an accomplice to murder, nevertheless escaped conviction. In the summer of 1831–32 Te Rauparaha attacked the Kaiapoi pā, Kaiapoi was engaged in a three-month siege by Te Rauparaha, during which his men successfully sapped the pā. They attacked Kāi Tahu on Banks Peninsula and took the pā at Onawe, in 1832-33 Kāi Tahu retaliated under the leadership of Tūhawaiki and others, attacking Ngāti Toa at Lake Grassmere. Kāi Tahu prevailed, and killed many Ngāti Toa, although Te Rauparaha again escaped, fighting continued for a year or so, with Kāi Tahu maintaining the upper hand. Ngāti Toa never again made an incursion into Kāi Tahu territory
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Sheffield, New Zealand
Sheffield is a small village located in the Selwyn District of the Canterbury region of New Zealands South Island, near the Waimakariri Gorge. Sheffield has an association with its neighbouring village Waddington, which is 1 kilometre further south-east along State Highway 73. The two villages share a community committee, the towns were settled in the 19th century by farmers attracted to the area for sheep grazing. Sheffield has a station and was once a railway junction. The first railway reached the town in the late 1870s from a junction in Darfield with the Whitecliffs Branch. This line, known as the Malvern Branch line, grew to become the Midland Line between Christchurch and the West Coast, on 28 July 1884, the Oxford Branch was extended over the Waimakariri River to Sheffield, making the town a railway junction