Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, from the theoretical to the applied; these ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City and Cornell Tech, a graduate program that incorporates technology and creative thinking; the program moved from Google's Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.
Cornell is one of ten private land grant universities in the United States and the only one in New York. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural and human ecology colleges as well as its industrial labor relations school. Of Cornell's graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported; as a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered; as of October 2018, 58 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell University. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race.
Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 14 living billionaires. The student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 8,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 116 countries. Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty; the university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds.
Since 1894, Cornell fulfill statutory requirements. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes, it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues, civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor. Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, it has partnerships with institutions in India and the People's Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a "transnational university". On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new'Bridging the Rift Center' to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
Cornell's main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking Cayuga Lake. Since the university was founded, it has expanded to about 2,300 acres, encompassing both the hill and much of the surrounding areas. Central Campus has laboratories, administrative buildings, all of the campus' academic buildings, athletic facilities and museums. North Campus is composed of ten residence halls that house first-year students, although the Townhouse Community houses transfer students; the five main residence halls on West Campus make up the West Campus House System, along with several Gothic-style buildings, referred to as "the Gothics". Collegetown contains two upper-level residence halls and the Schwartz Performing Arts Center amid a mixed-use neighborhood of apartments and businesses; the main campus is marked by an irregular layout and eclectic architectural styles, including ornate Collegiate Gothic and Neoclassical buildings, the more spare international and modernist structures. The more ornat
North Carolina's 4th congressional district
The Fourth Congressional district of North Carolina is located in the central region of the state. The district includes part of Wake County, all of Orange County, a small sliver of southern Durham County; the district is represented by 11-term Congressman David Price, a former political science professor at Duke, first elected in 1986, ousting one-term Republican incumbent Bill Cobey. Price was reelected in 1988, 1990, 1992, but he was defeated in his bid for a fifth term in 1994 by Republican Fred Heineman, the Raleigh Police Chief, in a bad year for Democrats in North Carolina. Price came back to defeat Heineman in a rematch in 1996, has been reelected each time since by large margins with more than 60% of the vote. In 2008, Price received 63% to defeat Republican challenger B. J. Lawson, who received 37%. Before court mandated redistricting in 2016, according to research by Christopher Ingraham of the Washington Post, the district was the third most gerrymandered Congressional district in North Carolina and seventh most gerrymandered district in the United States.
In contrast, its predecessor was the most drawn of the state's 13 districts. From 2003 to 2013 it contained most of the area known as The Triangle, it included all of Durham and Orange counties, part of Wake County and a small section of Chatham County. The 4th district picked up the most Republican areas of Wake County, such as Apex and much of North Raleigh in order to help make the neighboring 13th and 2nd districts more Democratic. For instance, Barack Obama defeated John McCain in the Wake County portion of the district in 2008 by 51–48%, a difference of less than 8,000 votes in between the two candidates. In contrast, Obama won Wake County overall by a much greater margin of 56–43%, Obama swept the 4th district as a whole by 63–36%; the Republican influence in the district's Wake County portion was more than canceled out by the two Democratic strongholds of Orange and Durham counties, where Obama received 72% and 76% his two best counties in the entire state. The 4th district had a Cook PVI of D+8, which made it the most Democratic white-majority district in the entire South outside of South Florida and Northern Virginia.
The district became more Democratic as a result of 2012 redistricting, in which the more Republican areas of western and southern Wake County were removed, along with northern Orange County and most of its share of Durham County. They were replaced by Democratic portions of Alamance, Cumberland and Lee counties. Additionally, the district was pushed further into Raleigh. Like its predecessor, the district is one of the few Southern districts with a significant concentration of progressive-minded white voters—similar to areas around Atlanta, Charlotte, Nashville and Austin; the presence of the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and Duke University, as well as a large African-American population in Durham and Raleigh help contribute to the liberal nature of the 4th district. Before court mandated redistricting in 2016, the district was just contiguous. North Carolina's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Pittsboro, North Carolina
Pittsboro is a town in Chatham County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 3,743 at the 2010 census and estimated to 4,221 at the 2017 Population Estimates Program of the U. S. Census Bureau, it is the county seat of Chatham County. Pittsboro was established as a town in 1785; the Chatham County Court House was built on land belonging to Mial Scurlock. The town's trustees instead purchased adjacent land belonging to William Petty and laid out the town; that same year, Pittsboro was named the county seat. Although Chatham County is named for William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, Pittsboro is named for his son, William Pitt the Younger. Pittsboro was once considered as a potential site for both the University of North Carolina and the state capital; the university was established in Chapel Hill, beginning in 1789. The state capital was located in 34 miles to the east of Pittsboro; as the county seat, Pittsboro has been a center of trade and local government, including the courts. Many farmers would come into town on the weekend for trade.
In 1881, a new county courthouse and jail were built in Pittsboro. The area did not have large plantations, but farmers depended on slave labor. In 1860, nearly one-third of the county population was made up of enslaved African Americans. After the Civil War and emancipation, whites used violence and other means to enforce white supremacy and suppress the freedmen's vote; the Ku Klux Klan and other supremacist groups were active in the county. In 1885, Pittsboro was the scene of a notorious mass lynching of four African Americans, including a woman, that earned statewide condemnation, they were tenant farmers. A masked mob took Jerry Finch, his wife Harriet, Lee Tyson from jail, where they were being held after arrest as suspects in a robbery/murder case. Harriet Finch was one of four black women to be lynched in the state, they took and hanged John Pattishall, awaiting trial for two other unrelated robbery/murders. Violence continued during the stress of economic hard times at the end of the century and into the early 20th century, when the state disenfranchised most blacks.
This political exclusion lasted until after passage of the Voting Rights Act. During the previous decade, textile mills in the north central area of the county along the Haw River, Rocky River and Deep River provided new manufacturing jobs to workers who had lost farmholdings due to economic depressions of the 1870s and early 1880s, it was the beginning of industrialization around Pittsboro. In 2002 some citizens of Pittsboro revitalized a local form of currency called the PLENTY. In 2009, it was being exchanged at a local bank at the rate of $9 for every $10 of PLENTY; the currency is no longer used. On March 25, 2010, the Chatham County Courthouse, while undergoing a $415,000 exterior renovation, caught fire. Smoke was first reported in the area around 4:15 p.m.. By 5 p.m. smoke was reported to be rising from out of the clock tower, surrounded by scaffolds. The building was evacuated safely; the building suffered severe damage to the third floor. It was reported that the fire had destroyed all the computers and records, but there are offsite copies and the information should be recoverable.
On March 26, 2010, at 1:30 a.m. the clock tower collapsed onto the main building, but the building as whole was damaged only on the second floor. Damage in the rest of the building was from smoke effects. Overall 11 fire departments participated in the fire efforts; the fire marshal's investigation into the fire determined that it was caused by a soldering torch that ignited wood near the soffit. Workers were unsuccessful. On Wednesday, March 31, 2010, the Chatham County Commissioners voted in favor of rebuilding the courthouse; the courthouse reopened on April 20, 2013. The mayor of Pittsboro is elected at-large; the current one is Cindy S. Perry; the town's five members of the Board of Commissioners are elected from single-member districts. They are Pamela Baldwin, J. A. Farrell, Bett Wilson Foley, John Bonitz, Michael A. Fiocco; the Board of Commissioners hires a town manager to administer daily operations of the city. Pittsboro Police is directed by Chief Percy Crutchfield. Serving the 3000 residents of Pittsboro, the department consists of 8 patrolmen, 1 community police officer, 1 lead investigator and 1 lieutenant.
The town is served by four local schools and a Central Carolina Community College campus: Pittsboro Elementary School Horton Middle School Margaret B. Pollard Middle School Northwood High School Central Carolina Community College, Chatham County Campus NewspapersChatham JournalNetwork televisionWTVD WRAL-TV WRAZ WNCN County Resource for Life in ChathamChatham County Events Pittsboro is located east of the center of Chatham County at 35°43′13″N 79°10′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.2 square miles, of which 4.1 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.86%, is water. U. S. Highways 15 and 501 run concurrently through the center of the town as Hillsboro Street and Sanford Road, leading north 17 miles to the center of Chapel Hill and the University of North Carolina, south 17 miles to Sanford. U. S. Route 64 bypasses Pittsboro to the north and leads east 34 miles to Raleigh and west 16 miles to Siler City. U
William Peace University
William Peace University is a small liberal arts college in downtown Raleigh, North Carolina, United States. It is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church, offers undergraduate degrees in 26 majors; the institution adopted its current name in 2012, concurrent with its decision to begin admitting men to its day program. The institution that became William Peace University was founded in 1857 as Peace Institute by a group of men within the Presbyterian Synod of North Carolina; the leading donation of $10,000 came from William Peace, a prominent local merchant and a founding member of the First Presbyterian Church of Raleigh. Peace is believed to have been in the first class of the University of North Carolina, was a longtime proponent of education as a benefactor of Raleigh Academy, a school for boys. Additionally, Peace donated 8 acres for the campus site. Main Building, a red brick, white-columned Greek revival building was built between 1859–1862, but was commandeered by the Confederate States government early in the Civil War to be used as an army hospital.
The Main Building was designed and built by the Holt Brothers and Jacob, who were notable builders from nearby Warrenton, NC. The Civil War and Reconstruction Era delayed the opening of the school, but Peace Institute opened in January 1872; the first president was assisted by his son Robert. The Burwells, his successor, James Dinwiddie, served the school until 1910, were strong Presbyterians and descendants of old Virginia families; the name of the school changed from Peace Institute to "Peace College" in 1943. A member of the Women's College Coalition, Peace College was one of the oldest institutions of higher education for women in the United States, it was the second-oldest in North Carolina, predated only by Salem College. The school began admitting men in the fall of 2012. Initial announcements of the change included a controversial promise to "offer select single-gender courses in targeted disciplines, where research shows that women and men learn differently and that each benefit from a single-gender classroom," a plan that critics believe may run afoul of equal opportunity laws such as Title IX, Concurrent with its announcement that it will begin admitting men, Peace College changed its name to "William Peace University" in 2011, but the class years of 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 will have the option to receive diplomas from Peace College or William Peace University.
The college has always educated women, with the only exception being the admittance of some boys in primary grades from its opening years through the 1920s when the school served levels from Kindergarten through junior college years. Today, the college maintains records of nearly 10,000 living alumnae, including many who were pioneers in public service. In the 1930s, Gertrude Dills McKee, a graduate of the 1890s, became the first woman elected to the North Carolina Senate. Lilly Morehead Mebane was one of the first woman elected to the North Carolina House of Representatives. Jane Simpson McKimmon became the youngest graduate of Peace College, when she finished the 2-year college program at age 16. McKimmon became a leader in "home economics" and advanced the state agriculture department's home extension service. NC State University's conference and continuing education center is named for her and the chair of Peace's Leadership Studies program is named for McKimmon. Addie Worth Bagley Daniels, the spouse of Raleigh News & Observer publisher, Josephus Daniels, served for many years during the first half of the 20th century on the Peace College Board of Trustees, a rare role for women in that era.
The administration announced it plans to begin admitting male students at the start of the fall 2012 semester. The college determined this transition would make them a more attractive option for potential applicants, stating that only 2% of female applicants are to consider applying to a women's college, whereas 98% would only consider attending coeducational institutions; as an undergraduate college, Peace offers only Bachelor's degrees. The most popular majors at the college are in the field of communications, where one quarter of all students focus their studies. Peace offers an honors program for academically-advanced students. All Bachelor of Arts candidates must complete an internship; the college encourages study abroad, paying 15% of all costs for qualified students who want to study outside of the United States. U. S. News & World Report, placed Peace 36th out of the 53 colleges in its "Comprehensive Colleges-Bachelor's" category in their America's Best Colleges rankings for 2006. William Peace competes in the USA South Athletic Conference as a Division III school in the NCAA.
Teams are fielded in basketball, cross country, soccer, volleyball, swimming and field, starting in 2018-19, lacrosse. William Peace fields men's sports in baseball, cross country, lacrosse, swimming and track and field. Peace has been a full member of the NCAA since 2002, after having been granted provisional membership in 1995. Prior to that, Peace had competed in Region X of the NJCAA dating back on 1973. USA South membership was granted in 2003, making it the first women's college in the state to join a co-educational conference. Official website Official Athletics website
UNC Kenan–Flagler Business School
The Kenan–Flagler Business School is the undergraduate and graduate business school at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The school offers a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Master of Business Administration, MBA for Executives, Master of Accounting, Ph. D. a business certificate program, as well as many executive education programs. Established in 1919 as the Department of Commerce of UNC Chapel Hill's College of Arts, the School was renamed the Kenan–Flagler Business School in 1991 to honor two American business families and benefactors of the School: philanthropist Mary Lily Kenan Flagler and her husband, Henry Morrison Flagler; the renaming was in recognition of a generous gift from Frank Hawkins Kenan, another Kenan family member and benefactor of the School's Frank Hawkins Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise. In 1997, the McColl Building opened at Kenan-Flagler to complete today's campus. With 191,000 square feet, the McColl Building has more than tripled the space that the school occupied at Carroll Hall.
Mary Lily's brother, William R. Kenan, Jr. discovered acetylene gas, which led to the creation of Union Carbide. Her husband, Henry Morrison Flagler, co-founded the Standard Oil Co. with John D. Rockefeller and is responsible for the development of Florida's eastern coast. Prior to his arrival in Florida, the state was inaccessible except by ship. Flagler founded what became known as the Flagler System Companies made up of railroad, real estate, hotel development and utility companies; the system's flagship was the Breakers Hotel in Palm Beach. In the 1790s, Mary Lily's great-great-grandfather, James Kenan, served on UNC's first board of trustees and contributed to the construction of Old East, the oldest public university building in the United States. Mary Lily's maternal great-great-grandfather, Christopher Barbee, donated more than 200 acres of his Orange County farm to the University about one-fifth of the campus. Gifts to the University by the Kenan family total some $50 million to date and include such buildings as Kenan Stadium and the Kenan Center.
The William R. Kenan Jr. Charitable Trust contributed $10 million to the Bicentennial Campaign for UNC to be used for the Kenan–Flagler Business School's new state-of-the-art building, $10 million for the Paul J. Rizzo Conference Center at Meadowmont, $1 million for the Center for Entrepreneurship and Technology Venturing. MBA Full-time Program Rankings US News and World Report 7th in undergraduate business The Vault's Ranking of Best MBA programs16th in the United States Beyond Grey Pinstripes 7th in the United States PrivateEquityBlogger.com 5th of the best business schools for private equity Princeton Review and Entrepreneur 11th for graduate programs in entrepreneurshipMBA for Executives Programs The Wall Street Journal ranked the Weekend Program: 10 Bloomberg BusinessWeek for the Weekend Program: 11 Financial Times ranked OneMBA 29th in 2016MBA@UNC Online The U. S. News & World Report ranked the MBA@UNC Online Program #1 in 2015MAC Program Public of Accounting Report: 7Executive Development Financial Times: 9 for custom programs: Bloomberg BusinessWeek: 14 for executive education: UNC Kenan-Flagler’s MBA degree program requires 63.0 credit hours and leverages a variety of learning environments and methodologies, including: Case-study method Interactive lecture Small group activities Live simulation Real-world business partnershipsA number of different MBA program are available, including full-time and evening/weekend offerings.
MBA@UNC delivers the same MBA program but in a virtual environment. The online MBA program can be completed in 18–36 months. MBA@UNC started in 2012 and includes concentrations in Data-Analytics and Decision Making, Finance and Strategy and Consulting. MBA@UNC has been ranked a top online MBA program by numerous publications; the curriculum lays a broad business foundation with an emphasis on strategic leadership. UNC MBA students represent an array of races, geography and lifestyles, they enroll with a broad range of functional and industry experience and pursue careers across a wide spectrum of opportunity. UNC Kenan-Flagler participates in many organizations and events to recruit minority and female students; these efforts include membership to: Consortium for Graduate Study in Management Management Leadership for Tomorrow Forté FoundationKenan-Flagler organizes and/or participates in the following events and organizations: Inside Kenan-Flagler Minority-themed online chats and discussion groups Minority-themed CRM email campaign National Black MBA Association National Society of Hispanic MBAs Collaboration with UNC Kenan-Flagler student organizations Sponsor of Forté Career Lab for undergraduate women Robert S. Adler, Consumer Advocate Howard Aldrich, Sociologist Richard A. Bettis Paolo Fulghieri, Financial Economist Rajdeep Grewal James H. Johnson Jr. Arne L. Kalleberg, Sociologist Jan-Benedict Steenkamp, expert on global marketing Valarie Zeithaml, Services marketing pioneer.
Hugh McColl Jr. Former Chairman and CEO, Bank of America Corporation Julian Robertson, Tiger Management Erskine Bowles, former president, University of North Carolina System.
United States Army Reserve
The United States Army Reserve is the reserve force of the United States Army. Together, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard constitute the Army element of the Reserve components of the United States Armed Forces. On 30 June 2016, Lieutenant General Charles D. Luckey became the 33rd Chief of Army Reserve, Commanding General, United States Army Reserve Command. On 2 November 2012, Command Sergeant Major James Lambert was sworn in as the Interim Command Sergeant Major of the Army Reserve, serving as the Chief of the Army Reserve's senior advisor on all enlisted soldier matters areas affecting training, leader development, employer support, family readiness and support, quality of life. On 23 April 1908 Congress created the Medical Reserve Corps, the official predecessor of the Army Reserve. After World War I, under the National Defense Act of 1920, Congress reorganized the U. S. land forces by authorizing a Regular Army, a National Guard, an Organized Reserve of unrestricted size, which became the Army Reserve.
This organization provided a peacetime pool of trained Reserve officers and enlisted men for use in war. The Organized Reserve included the Officers Reserve Corps, Enlisted Reserve Corps, Reserve Officers' Training Corps; the Organized Reserve infantry divisions raised after World War I continued the lineage and geographic area distribution of National Army divisions that had served in the war. They were maintained on paper with one-third of their enlisted men. Units in other arms of the Army besides infantry, most notably cavalry, field artillery and engineers were formed. Organized Reserve units, depending upon their geographic area, maintained relationships with one or several colleges or universities, which populated them with officers through the ROTC. In the event of war, Organized Reserve officers and enlisted men would be called to duty to form the cores of the divisions they were assigned to, be moved to other parts of the Army that needed officers. Service in the Organized Reserve during the interwar period was not as appealing as the Army expected.
Most divisions reached their full complement of officers, but had less than 100 enlisted men, since there was no incentive for them to serve. The 101st Infantry Division was designated a division of the Organized Reserve after World War I and assigned to the state of Wisconsin. A tentative troop basis for the Organized Reserve Corps, prepared in March 1946, outlined 25 divisions: three armored, five airborne, 17 infantry; these divisions and all other Organized Reserve Corps units were to be maintained in one of three strength categories, labeled Class A, Class B, Class C. Class A units were divided into two groups, one for combat and one for service, units were to be at required table of organization strength; the troop basis listed nine divisions as Class A, nine as Class B, seven as Class C. Major General Ray E. Porter therefore proposed reclassification of all Class A divisions as Class B units; the War Department agreed and made the appropriate changes. Although the dispute over Class A units lasted several months, the War Department proceeded with the reorganization of the Organized Reserve Corps divisions during the summer of 1946.
That all divisions were to begin as Class C units, progressing to the other categories as men and equipment became available, undoubtedly influenced the decision. The War Department wanted to take advantage of the pool of trained reserve officers and enlisted men from World War II. By that time Army Ground Forces had been reorganized as an army group headquarters that commanded six geographic armies; the armies replaced the nine corps areas of the prewar era, the army commanders were tasked to organize and train both Regular Army and Organized Reserve Corps units. The plan the army commanders received called for twenty-five Organized Reserve Corps divisions, but the divisions activated between September 1946 and November 1947 differed somewhat from the original plans; the First United States Army declined to support an airborne division, the 98th Infantry Division replaced the 98th Airborne Division. After the change, the Organized Reserve Corps had four airborne, three armored, eighteen infantry divisions.
The Second Army insisted upon the number 80 for its airborne unit because the division was to be raised in the prewar 80th Division's area, not that of the 99th. The 103rd Infantry Division, organized in 1921 in New Mexico and Arizona, was moved to Iowa, South Dakota, North Dakota in the Fifth United States Army area; the Seventh Army, allotted the 15th Airborne Division, refused the designation, the adjutant general replaced it by constituting the 108th Airborne Division, which fell within that component's list of infantry and airborne divisional numbers. Thus the final tally of divisions formed after World War II appears to have been the 19th, 21st, 22d Armored Divisions. A major problem in forming divisions and other units in the Organized Reserve Corps was adequate housing. While many National Guard units owned their own armories, some dating back to the nineteenth century, the Organiz
Law enforcement is any system by which some members of society act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, rehabilitating, or punishing people who violate the rules and norms governing that society. Although the term may encompass entities such as courts and prisons, it is most applied to those who directly engage in patrols or surveillance to dissuade and discover criminal activity, those who investigate crimes and apprehend offenders, a task carried out by the police or another law enforcement organisation. Furthermore, although law enforcement may be most concerned with the prevention and punishment of crimes, organizations exist to discourage a wide variety of non-criminal violations of rules and norms, effected through the imposition of less severe consequences. Most law enforcement is conducted by some type of law enforcement agency, with the most typical agency fulfilling this role being the police. Social investment in enforcement through such organizations can be massive, both in terms of the resources invested in the activity, in the number of people professionally engaged to perform those functions.
Law enforcement agencies tend to be limited to operating within a specified jurisdiction. In some cases, jurisdiction may overlap inbetween organizations. Various specialized segments of society may have their own internal law enforcement arrangements. For example, military organizations may have military police. Law enforcement portal Outline of law enforcement – structured list of topics related to law enforcement, organized by subject area Criminal law Superhero