Ulrich Jasper Seetzen
Ulrich Jasper Seetzen was a German explorer of Arabia and Palestine from Jever, German Frisia. An alternate spelling of his name, Ulrich Iospar Sentzen, is sometimes seen in scientific publications, his father sent him to the University of Göttingen. His chief interests, were in natural history and technology, he engaged in various small manufactures, in 1802 obtained a government post in Jever, the interest which he had long felt in geographical exploration culminated in a resolution to travel. In the summer of 1802 he started down the Danube with a companion Jacobsen, who broke down at Smyrna a year later, his journey was by Constantinople, where he stayed six months, thence through Asia Minor to Smyrna again through the heart of Asia Minor to Aleppo, where he remained from November 1803 to April 1805, made himself sufficiently at home with Arabic speech and ways to travel as a native. Now began the part of his travels of which a full journal has been published, a series of most instructive journeys in Jordan and Palestine and the wilderness of Sinai, so on to Cairo and the Fayum.
His chief exploit was a tour round the Dead Sea, which he made without a companion and in the disguise of a beggar. From Egypt he went by sea to Jidda and reached Mecca as a pilgrim in October 1809. After his pilgrimage he changed his name to Hag Moses. In Arabia he made extensive journeys, ranging from Medina to Lahak and returning to Mocha, from which place his last letters to Europe were written in November 1810. In September of the following year he left Mocha with the hope of reaching Muscat, but was found dead two days apparently poisoned by his guides on orders from the imam of Sana'a, his exploits were first published in 1810 by the British Palestine Association. For the parts of Seetzen's journeys not covered by the published journal, the only printed records are a series of letters and papers in Zach's Monatliche Correspondenz and Hammer's Fundgruben. Many papers and collections never reached Europe; the collections that were saved form the Oriental museum and the chief part of the Oriental manuscripts of the ducal library in Gotha.
The American scholar Edward Robinson, writing in 1841, called Seetzen "judicious and indefatigable." Robinson, Edward. Biblical Researches in Palestine, Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea: A Journal of Travels in the year 1838. 3. Boston: Crocker & Brewster. Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper. A Brief Account of the Countries Adjoining the Lake of Tiberias, the Jordan, the Dead Sea. London: Palestine Association of London.alt.: Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper. A Brief Account of the Countries Adjoining the Lake of Tiberias, the Jordan, the Dead Sea. London: Palestine Association of London. Alt.: Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper. A Brief Account of the Countries Adjoining the Lake of Tiberias, the Jordan, the Dead Sea. London: Palestine Association of London. Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper. Ulrich Jasper Seetzen's Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan-länder, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten. 1. Berlin: G. Reimer.alt.: Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper. Ulrich Jasper Seetzen's Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan-länder, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten.
1. Berlin: G. Reimer. Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper. Ulrich Jasper Seetzen's Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan-länder, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten. 2. Berlin: G. Reimer.alt.: Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper. Ulrich Jasper Seetzen's Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan-länder, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten. 2. Berlin: G. Reimer. Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper. Ulrich Jasper Seetzen's Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan-länder, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten. 3. Berlin: G. Reimer.alt.: Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper. Ulrich Jasper Seetzen's Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan-länder, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten. 3. Berlin: G. Reimer. Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper. Ulrich Jasper Seetzen's Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan-länder, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten. 4. Berlin: G. Reimer.alt: Seetzen, Ulrich Jasper. Ulrich Jasper Seetzen's Reisen durch Syrien, Palästina, Phönicien, die Transjordan-länder, Arabia Petraea und Unter-Aegypten.
4. Berlin: G. Reimer
New Kingdom of Egypt
The New Kingdom referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the 18th, 19th, 20th dynasties of Egypt. Radiocarbon dating places the exact beginning of the New Kingdom between 1570 BC and 1544 BC; the New Kingdom followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period. It marked the peak of its power; the part of this period, under the 19th and 20th Dynasties, is known as the Ramesside period. It is named after the 11 Pharaohs that took the name Ramesses, after Ramesses I, the founder of the 19th Dynasty; as a result of the foreign rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period, the New Kingdom saw Egypt attempt to create a buffer between the Levant and Egypt proper, during this time Egypt attained its greatest territorial extent. In response to successful 17th century attacks during the Second Intermediate Period by the powerful Kingdom of Kush, the rulers of the New Kingdom felt compelled to expand far south into Nubia and to hold wide territories in the Near East.
In the north, Egyptian armies fought Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria. The 18th Dynasty included some of Egypt's most famous Pharaohs, including Ahmose I, Thutmose III, Amenhotep III, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun. Queen Hatshepsut concentrated on expanding Egypt's external trade by sending a commercial expedition to the land of Punt. Thutmose III expanded Egypt's army and wielded it with great success to consolidate the empire created by his predecessors; this resulted in a peak in Egypt's power and wealth during the reign of Amenhotep III. During the reign of Thutmose III, the term Pharaoh referring to the king's palace, became a form of address for the person, king. One of the best-known 18th Dynasty pharaohs is Amenhotep IV, who changed his name to Akhenaten in honor of the Aten, a representation of the Egyptian god, Ra, his exclusive worship of the Aten is interpreted as history's first instance of monotheism. Akhenaten's wife, contributed a great deal to his new take on the Egyptian religion.
Nefertiti was bold enough to perform rituals to Aten. Akhenaten's religious fervor is cited as the reason why he and his wife were subsequently written out of Egyptian history. Under his reign, in the 14th century BC, Egyptian art flourished in a distinctive new style. By the end of the 18th Dynasty, Egypt's status had changed radically. Aided by Akhenaten's apparent lack of interest in international affairs, the Hittites had extended their influence into Phoenicia and Canaan to become a major power in international politics — a power that both Seti I and his son Ramesses II would confront during the 19th Dynasty; the Nineteenth Dynasty was founded by the Vizier Ramesses I, whom the last ruler of the 18th dynasty, Pharaoh Horemheb, had chosen as his successor. His brief reign marked a transition period between the reign of Horemheb and the powerful pharaohs of this dynasty, in particular, his son Seti I and grandson Ramesses II, who would bring Egypt to new heights of imperial power. Ramesses II sought to recover territories in the Levant, held by the 18th Dynasty.
His campaigns of reconquest culminated in the Battle of Kadesh, where he led Egyptian armies against those of the Hittite king Muwatalli II. Ramesses was caught in history's first recorded military ambush, although he was able to rally his troops and turn the tide of battle against the Hittites thanks to the arrival of the Ne'arin; the outcome of the battle was undecided, with both sides claiming victory at their home front, resulting in a peace treaty between the two nations. Egypt was able to obtain stability under Ramesses' rule of over half a century, his immediate successors continued the military campaigns, although an troubled court—which at one point put a usurper on the throne—made it difficult for a pharaoh to retain control of the territories. Ramesses II was famed for the huge number of children he sired by his various wives and concubines; the last "great" pharaoh from the New Kingdom is considered to be Ramesses III, a 20th Dynasty pharaoh who reigned several decades after Ramesses II.
In the eighth year of his reign the Sea Peoples invaded Egypt by sea. Ramesses III defeated them in two great sea battles, he incorporated them as subject peoples and settled them in Southern Canaan although there is evidence that they forced their way into Canaan. Their presence in Canaan may have contributed to the formation of new states, such as Philistia, in this region after the collapse of the Egyptian Empire, he was compelled to fight invading Libyan tribesmen in two major campaigns in Egypt's Western Delta in his sixth year and eleventh year respectively. The heavy cost of this warfare drained Egypt's treasury and contributed to the gradual decline of the Egyptian Empire in Asia; the severity of the difficulties is indicated by the fact that the first known labor strike in recorded history occurred during the 29th year of Ramesses III's reign, when the food rations for Egypt's favored and elite royal tomb-builders and artisans in the village of Deir el Medina could not be provisioned.
Air pollutants prevented much sunlight from reaching the ground and arrested global tree growth for two full decades until 1140 BC. On
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
Sanakht was an ancient Egyptian king of the Third Dynasty during the Old Kingdom. His chronological position is uncertain, it is unclear under which Hellenized name the ancient historian Manetho could have listed him. Many Egyptologists connect Sanakht with the Ramesside cartouche name Nebka. However, this remains disputable, because no further royal title of that king was found. There are two relief fragments depicting Sanakht that once originated from the Wadi Maghareh on the Sinai Peninsula. Sanakht's identity and position in the third Dynasty is not clear and remains the subject of debates. While Sanakht's existence is attested by seal fragments from mastaba K2 at Beit Khallaf and a graffito, his position as the founder of the Third Dynasty, as recorded by Manetho and the Turin Canon, has been undermined by recent archaeological discoveries at Abydos; these discoveries establish that it was Djoser who helped bury—and thus succeed—Khasekhemwy, rather than Sanakht. This is determined from seals found at the entrance to the latter's tomb bearing Djoser's name.
Proponents of the theory that Sanakht was nonetheless the founder of the dynasty object that the presence of Djoser's seals in Khasekhemwy's tomb only shows that Djoser conducted cultural rituals in honor of this king, does not imply that Djoser was Khasekhemwy's immediate successor. Sanakht could have married Queen Nimaethap, with Nimaethap being the daughter of Khasekhemwy rather than his wife. Together with Sanakht, they could be the parents of Djoser. Alternatively, some have considered Sanakht to be Djoser's elder brother. Presently, the dominant theory is that Sanakht's reign dates to the Third Dynasty, after Djoser. Egyptologists Toby Wilkinson, Stephan Seidlmayer, Kenneth Kitchen and Rainer Stadelmann equate Sanakht with "Nebka", a name appearing in Ramesside king lists. In support of this theory is a clay seal fragment on which the lower part of a cartouche appears. In this cartouche Wilkinson and Stadelmann see traces of a Ka-sign, the end of the name "Nebka". Dietrich Wildung favors equating Nebka with Sanakht, although he questions the validity of the seal as evidence given that it is too badly damaged to read the inscription within the cartouche "Nebka" with any certainty.
John D. Degreef, Nabil Swelim and Wolfgang Helck are against equating Nebka with Sanakht, they refer to the fact that the name "Nebka" is not attested on any monument nor in any document dating to before Djoser. Instead, Nabil Swelim identifies Nebka with the Horus name Khaba, he further identifies Sanakht with a king Mesochris mentioned by Manetho, regarding this as a Hellenized form of the throne name of Sanakht. He dated Sanakht's reign to between the eighth king of the 3rd dynasty. Jürgen von Beckerath, Wolfgang Helck, Dietrich Wildung and Peter Kaplony proposed that Sanakht's horus name is that of the shadowy Horus Sa, seeing the name "Sa" as a short form of "Sanakht". From this Wolfgang Helck holds. King Weneg however, is hold to have ruled during the 2nd Dynasty and Helck's theory has been greeted with skepticism. Sanakht's name was once read "Hen Nekht" by Egyptologists such as Ernest Wallis Budge. Today, this reading is not in use anymore; the exact duration of Sanakht's time on the throne is unknown.
Unlike Djoser, few relics survive from his reign, which casts serious doubts on the traditional figure of 18 years of reign for this king, as given by both Manetho and the Turin Canon. It must be stressed that the Turin Canon and Manetho were more than one and two thousand years removed from the time of Egypt's third dynasty, would be expected to contain some inaccurate or unreliable data; the Turin Canon, for instance, was transcribed on papyri that dates to the reign of the New Kingdom king, Ramesses II, who ruled Egypt from 1279-1213 BC. Little is known of Sanakht's activities during his reign; the presence of reliefs depicting him in the Sinai at Wadi Maghareh together with those of Djoser and Sekhemkhet suggest an important Egyptian presence there at the time of the Third Dynasty. Expeditions were launched in particular turquoise; the location of Sanakht's tomb is not known with certainty. It was long thought that Sanakht's tomb was the large mastaba K2 at Beit Khallaf as excavations there yielded relief fragments bearing his name.
However, some Egyptologists now regard this mastaba as the burial of a high official, prince or queen rather than that of a pharaoh, while others continue to support the first hypothesis. In the mastaba were found the skeletal remains of a man over 1.87 m tall. According to Charles S. Myers, this stature was higher than the 1.67 m average of and prehistoric Egyptians. The specimen's skull was large and capacious. Although his cranial index was unusually broad and brachycephalic, the proportions of his long bones were tropically adapted like those of most other ancient Egyptians, his overall cranial features, were closer to those of dynastic period Egyptian skulls. The mastaba has been associated with an anecdote related by Manetho who tells of a late 2nd dynasty king, called Sesochris, which he describes as being tall; the egyptologist Wolfgang Helck proposed another hypothesis. While the case of Sanakht would resurface in the medical literature as a potential case of pituitary disease, no definitive consensus has existed for many years on w
Thoth is one of the ancient Egyptian deities. In art, he was depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon, animals sacred to him, his feminine counterpart was Seshat, his wife was Ma'at. Thoth's chief temple was located in the city of Ancient Egyptian: ḫmnw χaˈmaːnaw, Egyptological pronunciation: "An Egyptian god called Khemenu", Coptic: Ϣⲙⲟⲩⲛ Shmun, known as Ἑρμοῦ πόλις Hermoû pólis "The City of Hermes", or in Latin as Hermopolis Magna, during the Hellenistic period through the interpretatio graeca that Thoth was Hermes. Known el-Ashmunein in Egyptian Arabic, it was destroyed in 1826. In Hermopolis, Thoth led "the Ogdoad", a pantheon of eight principal deities, his spouse was Nehmetawy, he had numerous shrines in other cities. Thoth played many vital and prominent roles in Egyptian mythology, such as maintaining the universe, being one of the two deities who stood on either side of Ra's solar barge. In the history of ancient Egypt, Thoth became associated with the arbitration of godly disputes, the arts of magic, the system of writing, the development of science, the judgment of the dead.
The Egyptian pronunciation of ḏḥwty is not known, but may be reconstructed as *ḏiḥautī pronounced * or *. This reconstruction is based on the Ancient Greek borrowing Thōth or Theut and the fact that the name was transliterated into Sahidic Coptic variously as ⲑⲟⲟⲩⲧ Thoout, ⲑⲱⲑ Thōth, ⲑⲟⲟⲧ Thoot, ⲑⲁⲩⲧ Thaut, as well as Bohairic Coptic ⲑⲱⲟⲩⲧ Thōout; these spellings reflect known sound changes from earlier Egyptian such as the loss of ḏ palatalization and merger of ḥ with h i.e. initial ḏḥ > th > tʰ. The loss of pre-Coptic final y/j is common. Following Egyptological convention, which eschews vowel reconstruction, the consonant skeleton ḏḥwty would be rendered "Djehuti" and the god is sometimes found under this name. However, the Greek form "Thoth" is more common. According to Theodor Hopfner, Thoth's Egyptian name written as ḏḥwty originated from ḏḥw, claimed to be the oldest known name for the ibis written as hbj; the addition of - ty denotes. Hence Thoth's name would mean "He, like the ibis", according to this interpretation.
Other forms of the name ḏḥwty using older transcriptions include Jehuti, Tahuti, Zehuti, Techu, or Tetu. Multiple titles for Thoth, similar to the pharaonic titulary, are known, including A, Lord of Khemennu, Khenti, Hab, A'an. In addition, Thoth was known by specific aspects of himself, for instance the moon god Iah-Djehuty, representing the Moon for the entire month; the Greeks related Thoth to their god Hermes due to functions. One of Thoth's titles, "Thrice great" was translated to the Greek τρισμέγιστος, making Hermes Trismegistus. Thoth has been depicted in many ways depending on the era and on the aspect the artist wished to convey, he is depicted in his human form with the head of an ibis. In this form, he can be represented as the reckoner of times and seasons by a headdress of the lunar disk sitting on top of a crescent moon resting on his head; when depicted as a form of Shu or Ankher, he was depicted to be wearing the respective god's headdress. Sometimes he was seen in art to be wearing the Atef crown or the United Crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt.
When not depicted in this common form, he sometimes takes the form of the ibis directly. He appears as a dog-faced baboon or a man with the head of a baboon when he is A'an, the god of equilibrium. In the form of A'ah-Djehuty he took a more human-looking form; these forms are metaphors for Thoth's attributes. The Egyptians did not believe these gods looked like humans with animal heads. For example, Ma'at is depicted with an ostrich feather, "the feather of truth," on her head, or with a feather for a head. Thoth's roles in Egyptian mythology were many, he served as scribe of the gods, credited with the invention of writing and Egyptian hieroglyphs. In the underworld, Duat, he appeared as an ape, the god of equilibrium, who reported when the scales weighing the deceased's heart against the feather, representing the principle of Maat, was even; the ancient Egyptians regarded Thoth as One, self-begotten, self-produced. He was the master of both physical and moral law, making proper use of Ma'at, he is credited with making the calculations for the establishment of the heavens, stars and everything in them.
The Egyptians credited him as the author of all works of science, religion and magic. The Greeks further declared him the inventor of astronomy, the science of numbers, geometry, medicine, theology, civilized government, the alphabet, reading and oratory, they further claimed he was the true author of every work of every branch of knowledge and divine. Thoth has played a prominent role in many of the Egyptian myths. In the Osiris myth, being of great aid to Isis. After Isis gathered together the pieces of Osiris's dismembered body, he gave her the words to resurrect him so she could be impregnated and bring forth Horus. After a battle between Horus and Set in which the latter plucked out Horus' eye, Thoth's counsel provided him the wisdom he needed to recover it; this mythology credits him with the creation of the 365-day calendar. According to the myth, the year was only 360 days long and Nut was sterile during these days, unable to bear children. Thoth gambled with the Moon for
Nyuserre Ini was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the sixth ruler of the Fifth Dynasty during the Old Kingdom period. He is credited with a reign of 24 to 35 years depending on the scholar, lived in the second half of the 25th century BCE. Nyuserre was the younger son of Neferirkare Kakai and queen Khentkaus II, the brother of the short-lived king Neferefre, he may have succeeded his brother directly, as indicated by much historical sources. Alternatively, Shepseskare may have reigned between the two as advocated by Miroslav Verner, albeit only for a few weeks or months at the most; the relation of Shepseskare with Neferefre and Nyuserre remains uncertain. Nyuserre was in turn succeeded by Menkauhor Kaiu, who could have been his nephew and a son of Neferefre. Nyuserre was the most prolific builder of his dynasty, having built three pyramids for himself and his queens and a further three for his father and brother, all in the necropolis of Abusir, he built the largest surviving temple to the sun god Ra constructed during the Old Kingdom, named Shesepibre or "Joy of the heart of Ra".
He completed the Nekhenre, the Sun temple of Userkaf in Abu Gorab, the valley temple of Menkaure in Giza. In doing so, he was the first king since Shepseskaf, last ruler of the Fourth Dynasty, to pay attention to the Giza necropolis, a move which may have been an attempt to legitimise his rule following the troubled times surrounding the unexpected death of his brother Neferefre. There is little evidence for military action during Nyuserre's reign. Nyuserre's reign saw the growth of the administration, the effective birth of the nomarchs, provincial governors who, for the first time, were sent to live in the provinces they administered rather than at the pharaoh's court; as with other Old Kingdom pharaohs, Nyuserre benefited from a funerary cult established at his death. In Nyuserre's case, this official state-sponsored cult existed for centuries, surviving the chaotic First Intermediate Period and lasting until the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom. In parallel, a spontaneous popular cult appeared, with people venerating Nyuserre under his birth name "Iny".
In this cult, Nyuserre played a role similar to that of a saint, being invoked as an intercessor between the believer and the gods. It left little archaeological evidence and seems to have continued until the New Kingdom, nearly 1000 years after his death. Nyuserre Ini is well attested in sources contemporaneous with his reign, for example in the tombs of some of his contemporaries including Nyuserre's manicurists Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum, the high officials Khufukhaf II, Ty, Neferefre-ankh and Khabawptah, the priests of his funerary cult Nimaatsed and Kaemnefert. Nyuserre is attested in three ancient Egyptian king lists; the earliest of these is the Karnak king list, commissioned by Thutmose III to honour some of his forebears and which mentions Nyuserre in the fourth entry, which shows his birth name "Iny" in a cartouche. Nyuserre's prenomen occupies the 30th entry of the Abydos King List, written nearly 200 years during the reign of Seti I. Nyuserre's prenomen was most also given on the Turin canon, dating to the reign of Ramses II, but it has since been lost in a large lacuna affecting the document.
Fragments of his reign length are still visible on the papyrus, indicating a reign of somewhere between 11 and 34 years. Nyuserre is the only Fifth Dynasty king absent from the Saqqara Tablet. Nyuserre was mentioned in the Aegyptiaca, a history of Egypt written in the 3rd century BC during the reign of Ptolemy II by the Egyptian priest Manetho. Though no copies of the text survive, it is known through writings by Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius. In particular, Africanus relates that the Aegyptiaca mentioned a pharaoh ´Ραθούρης, "Rathurês", reigning for forty-four years as the sixth king of the Fifth Dynasty. "Rathurês" is believed to be the Hellenised form of Nyuserre. Two competing hypotheses exist in Egyptology to describe the succession of events running from the death of Neferirkare Kakai, the third king of the Fifth Dynasty, to the coronation of Nyuserre Ini, the sixth ruler of the dynasty. Relying on historical sources, where Nyuserre is said to have directly succeeded Neferefre, many Egyptologists such as Jürgen von Beckerath and Hartwig Altenmüller have traditionally believed that the following succession took place: Neferirkare Kakai → Shepseskare → Neferefre → Nyuserre Ini.
In this scenario, Neferefre is the father of Nyuserre, who would have become pharaoh after Neferefre's unexpected death. Neferefre would be the successor of Shepseskare, credited with seven years of reign, as indicated in Manetho's Aegyptiaca; this view was challenged, most notably by Miroslav Verner in 2000 and 2001, following excavations of the Abusir necropolis, which indicated that Neferefre's purported predecessor Shepseskare most reigned for only a few months between Neferefre and Nyuserre Ini. Verner proposes that the royal succession was Neferirkare Kakai → Neferefre → Shepseskare → Nyuserre Ini. In support of this hypothesis is Verner's observation that Neferefre and Nyuserre were likely full brothers, both sons of Neferirkare Kakai, There is evidence that Neferefre was Neferirkare's eldest son and in his early twenties at the death of his father, thus would have been to inherit the throne; these observations, in addition to further archaeological evid
Ordnance Survey is the national mapping agency of the United Kingdom which covers the island of Great Britain. Since 1 April 2015 part of Ordnance Survey has operated as Ordnance Survey Ltd, a government-owned company, 100% in public ownership; the Ordnance Survey Board remains accountable to the Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. It is a member of the Public Data Group; the agency's name indicates its original military purpose, to map Scotland in the wake of the Jacobite rising of 1745. There was a more general and nationwide need in light of the potential threat of invasion during the Napoleonic Wars. Ordnance Survey mapping is classified as either "large-scale" or "small-scale"; the Survey's large-scale mapping comprises 1:2,500 maps for 1:10,000 more generally. These large scale maps are used in professional land-use contexts and were available as sheets until the 1980s, when they were digitised. Small-scale mapping for leisure use includes the 1:25,000 "Explorer" series, the 1:50,000 "Landranger" series and the 1:250,000 road maps.
These are still available in traditional sheet form. Ordnance Survey maps remain in copyright for fifty years after their publication; some of the Copyright Libraries hold complete or near-complete collections of pre-digital OS mapping. The origins of the Ordnance Survey lie in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745, defeated by forces loyal to the government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Prince William, Duke of Cumberland realised that the British Army did not have a good map of the Scottish Highlands to locate Jacobite dissenters such as Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat so that they could be put on trial. In 1747, Lieutenant-Colonel David Watson proposed the compilation of a map of the Highlands to help to subjugate the clans. In response, King George II charged Watson with making a military survey of the Highlands under the command of the Duke of Cumberland. Among Watson's assistants were William Roy, Paul Sandby and John Manson; the survey was produced at a scale of 1 inch to 1000 yards and included "the Duke of Cumberland's Map", now held in the British Library.
Roy had an illustrious career in the Royal Engineers, rising to the rank of General, he was responsible for the British share of the work in determining the relative positions of the French and British royal observatories. This work was the starting point of the Principal Triangulation of Great Britain, led to the creation of the Ordnance Survey itself. Roy's technical skills and leadership set the high standard. Work was begun in earnest in 1790 under Roy's supervision, when the Board of Ordnance began a national military survey starting with the south coast of England. Roy's birthplace near Carluke in South Lanarkshire is today marked by a memorial in the form of a large OS trig point. By 1791 the Board received the newer Ramsden theodolite, work began on mapping southern Great Britain using a five-mile baseline on Hounslow Heath that Roy himself had measured. In 1991 Royal Mail marked the bicentenary by issuing a set of postage stamps featuring maps of the Kentish village of Hamstreet. In 1801 the first one-inch-to-the-mile map was published, detailing the county of Kent, with Essex following shortly afterwards.
The Kent map was published and stopped at the county border, while the Essex maps were published by Ordnance Survey and ignore the county border, setting the trend for future Ordnance Survey maps. In the next 20 years about a third of England and Wales was mapped at the same scale under the direction of William Mudge, as other military matters took precedence, it took until 1823 to re-establish a relationship with the French survey made by Roy in 1787. By 1810 one inch to the mile maps of most of the south of England were completed, but they were withdrawn from sale between 1811 and 1816 because of security fears. By 1840 the one-inch survey had covered all of Wales and all but the six northernmost counties of England, it was hard work: Major Thomas Colby, the longest-serving Director General of Ordnance Survey, walked 586 miles in 22 days on a reconnaissance in 1819. In 1824, Colby and most of his staff moved to Ireland to work on a six-inches-to-the-mile valuation survey; the survey of Ireland, county by county, was completed in 1846.
The suspicions and tensions it caused in rural Ireland are the subject of Brian Friel's play Translations. Colby was not only involved in the design of specialist measuring equipment, he established a systematic collection of place names, reorganised the map-making process to produce clear, accurate plans. Place names were recorded in "Name Books", a system first used in Ireland; the instructions for their use were: The persons employed on the survey are to endeavour to obtain the correct orthography of the names of places by diligently consulting the best authorities within their reach. The name of each place is to be inserted as it is spelt, in the first column of the name book and the various modes of spelling it used in books, writings &c. are to be inserted in the second column, with the authority placed in the third column opposite to each. Whilst these procedures produced excellent results, mistakes were made: for instance, the Pilgrims Way in the North Downs labelled the wrong route