Wagner Motorcycle Company
The Wagner Motorcycle Company was established in Saint Paul, Minnesota, by George Wagner as an offshoot of the former Wagner Bicycle Company. It produced 8,500 Wagner motorcycles and was one of the first manufacturers to position the engine low down, using a "loop frame" at a time when most companies were producing high-engined Indian clones; the push rod engines ranged in size from 15 cubic inches in 1904 to 29 cubic inches by 1911, had a suction intake valve and were driven by a V-belt. The vehicles had many unique features not found in other motorcycles of its time, for example, using the loop frame as part of the exhaust system. Prices ranged from $175 to $210; the curved frames had brazed bronze fittings and early models had front baskets fitted. In 1909, it produced a women's "drop frame" model which brought the company to national renown in the hands of Wagner's daughter Clara, one of the world's first documented woman motorcyclists. By 1914, sales had decreased so Wagner sold the company to the Motorcycle Accessories Company.
Winkowski, Fred. 100 Motorcycles 100 Years: The First Century of the Motorcycle. Richard E. Mancini Book Sales, 2003
Faust is a tragic play in two parts by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe known in English as Faust, Part One and Faust, Part Two. Although staged in its entirety, it is the play with the largest audience numbers on German-language stages. Faust is considered by the greatest work of German literature; the earliest forms of the work, known as the Urfaust, were developed between 1772 and 1775. Urfaust has twenty-two scenes, one in prose, two prose and the remaining 1,441 lines in rhymed verse; the manuscript is lost, but a copy was discovered in 1886. The first appearance of the work in print was Faust, a Fragment, published in 1790. Goethe completed a preliminary version of what is now known as Part One in 1806, its publication in 1808 was followed by the revised 1828–29 edition, the last to be edited by Goethe himself. Goethe finished writing Faust Part Two in 1831. In contrast to Faust Part One, the focus here is no longer on the soul of Faust, sold to the devil, but rather on social phenomena such as psychology and politics, in addition to mystical and philosophical topics.
The second part formed the principal occupation of Goethe's last years. The original 1808 German title page of Goethe's play read simply: "Faust. / Eine Tragödie". The addition of "erster Teil" was retrospectively applied by publishers when the sequel was published in 1832 with a title page which read: "Faust. / Der Tragödie zweiter Teil". The two plays have been published in English under a number of titles, are referred to as Faust, Parts One and Two; the principal characters of Faust Part One include: Heinrich Faust, a scholar, sometimes said to be based on Johann Georg Faust, or on Jacob Bidermann's dramatized account of the Legend of the Doctor of Paris, Cenodoxus. The demon Mephistopheles makes a bet with God: he says that he can lure God's favourite human being, striving to learn everything that can be known, away from righteous pursuits; the next scene takes place in Faust's study where Faust, despairing at the vanity of scientific and religious learning, turns to magic for the showering of infinite knowledge.
He suspects, that his attempts are failing. Frustrated, he ponders suicide, but rejects it as he hears the echo of nearby Easter celebrations begin, he is followed home by a stray poodle. In Faust's study, the poodle transforms into Mephistopheles. Faust makes an arrangement with him: Mephistopheles will do everything that Faust wants while he is here on Earth, in exchange Faust will serve the Devil in Hell. Faust's arrangement is that if he is pleased enough with anything Mephistopheles gives him that he wants to stay in that moment forever he will die in that moment; when Mephistopheles tells Faust to sign the pact with blood, Faust complains that Mephistopheles does not trust Faust's word of honor. In the end, Mephistopheles wins the argument and Faust signs the contract with a drop of his own blood. Faust has a few excursions and meets Margaret, he is attracted to her and with jewelry and with help from a neighbor, Mephistopheles draws Gretchen into Faust's arms. With Mephistopheles' aid, Faust seduces Gretchen.
Gretchen's mother dies from a sleeping potion, administered by Gretchen to obtain privacy so that Faust could visit her. Gretchen discovers. Gretchen's brother condemns Faust, challenges him and falls dead at the hands of Faust and Mephistopheles. Gretchen is convicted of the murder. Faust tries to save Gretchen from death by attempting to free her from prison. Finding that she refuses to escape and Mephistopheles flee the dungeon, while voices from Heaven announce that Gretchen shall be saved – "Sie ist gerettet" – this differs from the harsher ending of Urfaust – "Sie ist gerichtet!" – "she is condemned." Rich in classical allusion, in Part Two the romantic story of the first Faust is put aside, Faust wakes in a field of fairies to initiate a new cycle of adventures and purpose. The piece consists of five acts each representing a different theme. Faust goes to Heaven, for he loses only half of the bet. Angels, who arrive as messengers of divine mercy, declare at the end of Act V: "He who strives on and lives to strive/ Can earn redemption still".
Throughout Part One, Faust remains unsatisfied. The first part takes place in Faust's own local, temporal milieu. In contrast, Part Two takes place in macrocosmos. In 1821, a partial English verse translation of Faust was published anonymously by the London publisher Thomas Boosey and Sons, with illustrations by the German engraver Moritz Retzsch; this translation was attributed to the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge by Frederick Burwick and James C. McKusick in their 2007 Oxford University Press edition, Faustus: From the German of Goethe, Translated by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. In a letter dated 4 September 1820, Goethe wrote to his son August that Coleridge was translating Faust. However, this attribution is c
Wagner Manufacturing Company
The Wagner Manufacturing Company was a family-owned manufacturer of cast iron and aluminum products based in Sidney, Ohio, US. It made products for domestic use such as frying pans, casseroles and baking trays, made metal products other than cookware. Wagner was active between 1891 and 1952, at one time dominated the cookware market, selling in Europe and the US; the purchasers of the company in 1952 continued the brand, Wagner products are still manufactured today. The original items are prized by collectors; the Wagner Manufacturing Company was founded by the brothers Milton M. and Bernard P. Wagner in Sidney, Shelby County, Ohio; the architect Joseph Altenbach started construction of the Wagner manufacturing complex in 1890. He was a friend of the family head Mathias Wagner, was responsible for many of the major buildings in Sidney during that period; the company was incorporated in 1891. The principal owners were Bernard, Milton and William Wagner; the brothers were joined by R. O. Bingham, who had in the past worked at the Marion Stove Works and the Sidney Manufacturing Company, who became superintendent of the company.
At first producing only cast-iron products, the company added nickel-plated ware in 1892. In 1894 Wagner was one of the first to make aluminum cookware; the company acquired their competitor Sidney Hollow Ware from Phillip Smith in 1897. A third brother, William H. Wagner, joined the company to run this operation. In 1903 Sidney Hollow Ware was sold back to Smith. By 1913 Wagner was distributing its products globally; the company said in its early advertisements: We do not strive to manufacture hollow ware as cheaply as possible, but as good as it can be made. We can not afford to put on the market ware; the name ‘Wagner’ is cast on the bottom of each piece of ware. Wagner grew into a major manufacturer of cast iron and aluminum products, selling in the US and Europe. In addition to cookware it manufactured furnace grates, feed troughs, rubbish burners and chemists' mortars; the company won many awards, at one point had a 60% market share in cookware. Brand names included Wagner Ware, Long Life and Ward's Cast Iron.
The "Magnalite" line of cast aluminum products was introduced in the early 1930s, made from a patented aluminum alloy. The company employed the industrial designer John Gordon Rideout to overhaul the design of Wagner's products in an effort to counter falling sales during the Great Depression. In 1933 Rideout and his partner Harold Van Doren designed a Magnalite teakettle with varying thickness to maximize heat conductivity, in 1934 they designed an Magnalite aluminum covered casserole for Wagner. Starting in 1946 the heirs of the founding Wagner brothers divested their holdings in the company; the Randall Company of Cincinnati, Ohio, a car parts manufacturer, bought the Wagner Manufacturing Company in 1952. In 1957 Randall's Wagner division acquired Griswold Manufacturing from McGraw-Edison. In 1959 Randall was itself acquired by Textron. Textron sold the Wagner and Griswold lines to General Housewares Corporation in 1969. In 1996 GHC sold rights to the Griswold lines to Slyman Group. After being allowed to fall into receivership, the Wagner factory and Wagner and Griswold trademarks were bought by the American Culinary Corporation of Willoughby, Ohio.
As of 2014 American Culinary continued to market products branded Wagner, Wagnerware and Griswold. The Wagner and Griswold brands are valued by collectors
The Wagner Group known as PMC Wagner, ChVK Wagner, or CHVK Vagner, is a Russian paramilitary organization. Some have described it as a private military company, whose contractors have taken part in various conflicts, including operations in the Syrian Civil War on the side of the Syrian government as well as, from 2014 until 2015, in the War in Donbass in Ukraine aiding the separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics. Others are of the opinion that ChVK Wagner is a unit of the Russian Ministry of Defence in disguise, used by the Russian government in conflicts where deniability is called for; the founder of the company is reported to be Dmitriy Valeryevich Utkin, born in Kirovohrad Oblast in 1970. According to the Security Service of Ukraine's statement in September 2017, Dmitriy Utkin used to be a Ukrainian citizen. Up until 2013, he was a lieutenant colonel and brigade commander of a special forces unit of Russia's Main Intelligence Directorate, he retired in 2013 and began working for the private company Moran Security Group founded by Russian military veterans.
The same year, senior Moran Security Group managers were involved in setting up a Hong Kong-based organization Slavonic Corps that headhunted contractors to "protect oil fields and pipelines" in Syria. Utkin survived its disastrous mission; the Wagner Group itself first showed up in 2014, along with Utkin in the Luhansk region of Ukraine. The company's name comes from Utkin's own call sign, which he chose due to a passion for the Third Reich. Radio Liberty cited insiders as saying that the Slavic Native Faith is a faith favored by the leadership of the Wagner Group. In August 2017, the Turkish newspaper Yeni Şafak speculated that Utkin was just a figurehead for the company, while the real head of Wagner was someone else. In December 2016, Dmitriy Utkin was photographed with Russian President Vladimir Putin at a Kremlin reception given to decorated servicepeople to mark the Day of Heroes of the Fatherland — along with three persons, Alexander Kuznetsov, Andrey Bogatov and Andrey Troshev. Kuznetsov was said to be the commander of Wagner's first reconnaissance and assault company, Bogatov was the commander of the fourth reconnaissance and assault company, Troshev served as the company's "executive director".
A few days after, the Kremlin spokesman confirmed the presence of Dmitry Utkin at the reception, organised for those, awarded the Order of Courage and the title Hero of the Russian Federation. Besides confirming his presence, the spokesman could only say Utkin was from the Novgorod Region and that he indeed received the award, but could not say for what except that it was for courage. Peskov stated. In early 2016, Wagner had a membership of 1,000, which rose to 5,000 by August 2017, 6,000 by December 2017; the organization was said to be registered in Argentina and has offices in Saint Petersburg and Hong Kong. The company trains its members at a Russian MoD facility Molkino near the village of Molkin, Krasnodar Krai; the PMCs' barracks at the base are not linked to the Russian MoD in court documents and instead they are designated as a children’s vacation camp. According to a report published by Russian monthly Sovershenno Sekretno, the organisation that hired personnel for Wagner did not have a permanent name and had a legal address near the military settlement Pavshino in Krasnogorsk, near Moscow.
The pay of Wagner private military contractors, who are retired regular Russian servicemen aged between 35 and 55, is estimated to be between 80,000 and 250,000 Russian rubles a month. One source stated the pay was as high as 300,000; when new PMC recruits arrive at the training camp, they are no longer allowed to use social network services and other Internet resources. Company employees are not allowed to post photos, texts and video recordings or any other information on the Internet, obtained during their training, they are not allowed to tell anyone their location, whether they are in Russia or another country. Mobile phones and other means of communication are left with the company and issued at a certain time with the permission of their commander. Passports and other documents are surrendered and in return company employees receive a nameless dog tag with a personal number; the company only accepts new recruits if a 10-year confidentiality agreement is established and in case of a breach of the confidentiality the company reserves the right to terminate the employee's contract without paying a fee.
According to the Security Service of Ukraine, Russian military officers are assigned the role of drill instructors for the recruits. During their training, the PMCs receive. Wagner is believed to have a Serbian unit, until at least April 2016 under the command of Davor Savičić, a Bosnian Serb, a member of the Serb Volunteer Guard during the Bosnian War and Serbia's Special Operations Unit during the Kosovo War, his call sign in Bosnia was "Elvis". Savičić was only three days in the Luhansk region when a BTR armored personnel carrier fired at his
Odin Sphere is an action role-playing game developed by Vanillaware for the PlayStation 2. It was published by Atlus in 2007, by Square Enix in 2008. A remake, titled Odin Sphere Leifthrasir, was released on PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation Vita in 2016: Atlus handled publishing duties in Japan and North America, while NIS America published the title in PAL territories. Using a two-dimensional side-scrolling perspective, gameplay focuses on a beat em up-style fighting system while incorporating role-playing elements — Leifthrasir expands upon and refines these elements; the story, shared between both versions, follows five characters on the fantasy continent of Erion during a war between the nations of Ragnanival and Ringford over a weapon called the Crystallization Cauldron, their roles in the Armageddon, a catastrophe which will destroy Erion. The game was conceived by George Kamitani as first a sequel and a spiritual successor to the 1997 Sega Saturn title Princess Crown. Development began in 2004 after the official formation of Vanillaware.
The story was based around the concept of a Valkyrie princess. The scenario and world design incorporated Norse mythology, the works of William Shakespeare, fairy tales and early video games. 2D graphics were chosen over 3D graphics as Kamitani felt the style was stagnating, which necessitated presenting cutscenes as if on a stage rather than using traditional cinematography. Leifthrasir began development in 2013 as a means of addressing the issues both players and staff had with the original game while keeping the story intact; the music for both versions was composed by a team from Basiscape, led by company founder Hitoshi Sakimoto. Prior to Atlus picking up the title, Vanillaware had encountered difficulties finding a publisher due to Kamitani's sparse record as a developer. Completed in 2006, Odin Sphere was delayed into the following year so it would not compete with Atlus' own titles; the localization was handled by Atlus USA, proved challenging in multiple areas. Upon release, it garnered a positive reception from video game journalists: praise was given to its story and old-school gameplay, with criticism focused on its inventory system and framerate issues.
Leifthrasir was praised for its improved reworked mechanics. The game was a commercial success. Odin Sphere is a two-dimensional side-scrolling action role-playing game where the player takes control of five different characters across six playable scenarios. Areas within levels are circular stages allowing movement left or right with exits leading to other areas. Combat—which uses a beat em up-style battle system—takes place within these areas, revolves around the player character using a combination of physical attacks and Psypher skills, skills tied to each character's magical weapon. Combination attacks are triggered by attacking enemies continuously. Jumping can be used to reach airborne enemies within stages. At the end of each battle, grades are awarded based on the battle time, damage taken from enemies, the amount of damage dealt; the amount of in-game currency the player receives as a reward after each battle depends on the battle grade. Rather than the typical experience point-driven character growth of most role-playing games, each characters' abilities is linked to their Psyphers, the amount of damage characters can inflict depends upon the strength of their Psypher.
These two elements are upgraded by collecting spirit energy released from defeated enemies. Phozons fill a magic meter, used to trigger special skills. All physical attacks drain a character's POW gauge, if depleted the character must rest until the gauge refills. Tied to Phozons and leveling is a farming system, where seeds planted and fueled with Phozons provide meals which raise a character's level, boosting their health and abilities. Food can be grown in the wild using seeds, but two restaurants are available where prepared meals can be eaten. Various elements, such as food and material, can be used together using an Alchemy system which allows for the creation of potions with various effects, from dealing damage to healing the main character. Leifthrasir augments the existing features; these include new battle arenas, new vertical areas within environments to create platforming segments. Characters now have exclusive abilities and elemental affinities, such as Gwendolyn having access to ice attacks.
Battle rankings now depend upon skills used and time taken rather than a quick clearing of arenas, with items as well as money being awarded for high scores. The POW system is redesigned so that only special attacks consume POW with the exception of one character; some special attacks consumes portion of phozons collected in battle. Each character possesses skill and ability trees, which are unlocked with Phozons stored during and after battles. While skill trees are unlocked with Phozons, abilities are upgraded with Ability Points; the food and growing systems remain similar, while the Alchemy system is streamlined. Leifthrasir includes a "Classic" mode, which switches from the redesigned look of Leifthrasir to the original version. Odin Sphere is set on the fictional continent of Erion, divided into multiple nations scattered across the land; the two main nations are the warrior land of Ragnanival, the forest-bound Fairy Kingdom of Ringford, separated by a wasteland, once the kingdom of Valentine.
At the game's opening, Ragnanival is ruled by the Demon Lord Odin, Ringford is ruled by the Fairy Queen Elfaria with help from her
Wilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director and conductor, chiefly known for his operas. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Carl Maria von Weber and Giacomo Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk, by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama, he described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852. Wagner realised these ideas most in the first half of the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen, his compositions those of his period, are notable for their complex textures, rich harmonies and orchestration, the elaborate use of leitmotifs—musical phrases associated with individual characters, ideas, or plot elements. His advances in musical language, such as extreme chromaticism and shifting tonal centres influenced the development of classical music.
His Tristan und Isolde is sometimes described as marking the start of modern music. Wagner had his own opera house built, the Bayreuth Festspielhaus, which embodied many novel design features; the Ring and Parsifal were premiered here and his most important stage works continue to be performed at the annual Bayreuth Festival, run by his descendants. His thoughts on the relative contributions of music and drama in opera were to change again, he reintroduced some traditional forms into his last few stage works, including Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg; until his final years, Wagner's life was characterised by political exile, turbulent love affairs and repeated flight from his creditors. His controversial writings on music and politics have attracted extensive comment, since the late 20th century, where they express antisemitic sentiments; the effect of his ideas can be traced in many of the arts throughout the 20th century. Richard Wagner was born to an ethnic German family in Leipzig, who lived at No 3, the Brühl in the Jewish quarter.
He was baptized at St. Thomas Church, he was the ninth child of Carl Friedrich Wagner, a clerk in the Leipzig police service, his wife, Johanna Rosine, the daughter of a baker. Wagner's father Carl died of typhus six months after Richard's birth. Afterwards his mother Johanna lived with the actor and playwright Ludwig Geyer. In August 1814 Johanna and Geyer married—although no documentation of this has been found in the Leipzig church registers, she and her family moved to Geyer's residence in Dresden. Until he was fourteen, Wagner was known as Wilhelm Richard Geyer, he certainly thought that Geyer was his biological father. Geyer's love of the theatre came to be shared by his stepson, Wagner took part in his performances. In his autobiography Mein Leben Wagner recalled once playing the part of an angel. In late 1820, Wagner was enrolled at Pastor Wetzel's school at Possendorf, near Dresden, where he received some piano instruction from his Latin teacher, he struggled to play a proper scale at preferred playing theatre overtures by ear.
Following Geyer's death in 1821, Richard was sent to the Kreuzschule, the boarding school of the Dresdner Kreuzchor, at the expense of Geyer's brother. At the age of nine he was hugely impressed by the Gothic elements of Carl Maria von Weber's opera Der Freischütz, which he saw Weber conduct. At this period Wagner entertained ambitions as a playwright, his first creative effort, listed in the Wagner-Werk-Verzeichnis as WWV 1, was a tragedy called Leubald. Begun when he was in school in 1826, the play was influenced by Shakespeare and Goethe. Wagner was determined to set it to music, persuaded his family to allow him music lessons. By 1827, the family had returned to Leipzig. Wagner's first lessons in harmony were taken during 1828–31 with Christian Gottlieb Müller. In January 1828 he first heard Beethoven's 7th Symphony and in March, the same composer's 9th Symphony. Beethoven became a major inspiration, Wagner wrote a piano transcription of the 9th Symphony, he was greatly impressed by a performance of Mozart's Requiem.
Wagner's early piano sonatas and his first attempts at orchestral overtures date from this period. In 1829 he saw a performance by dramatic soprano Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient, she became his ideal of the fusion of drama and music in opera. In Mein Leben, Wagner wrote, "When I look back across my entire life I find no event to place beside this in the impression it produced on me," and claimed that the "profoundly human and ecstatic performance of this incomparable artist" kindled in him an "almost demonic fire."In 1831, Wagner enrolled at the Leipzig University, where he became a member of the Saxon student fraternity. He took composition lessons with the Thomaskantor Theodor Weinlig. Weinlig was so impressed with Wagner's musical ability, he arranged for his pupil's Piano Sonata in B-flat major to be published as Wagner's Op. 1. A year Wagner composed his Symphony in C major, a Beethovenesque work performed in Prague in 1832 and at the Leipzig Gewandhaus in 1833, he began to work on an opera, Die Hochzeit, which he never
Wagner's law, known as the law of increasing state spending, is a principle named after the German economist Adolph Wagner. He first observed it for his own country and for other countries; the theory holds that for any country, that public expenditure rises as income growth expands. The law predicts that the development of an industrial economy will be accompanied by an increased share of public expenditure in gross national product: Wagner's law suggests that a welfare state evolves from free market capitalism due to the population voting for ever-increasing social services as general income levels grow across broad spectrums of the economy. In spite of some ambiguity, Wagner's statement in formal terms has been interpreted by Richard Musgrave as follows: As progressive nations industrialize, the share of the public sector in the national economy grows continually; the increase in State Expenditure is needed because of three main reasons. Wagner himself identified these as social activities of the state and protective actions, welfare functions.
The material below is an much more generous interpretation of Wagner's original premise. Socio-political, i.e. the state social functions expand over time: retirement insurance, natural disaster aid, environmental protection programs, etc. Economic: science and technology advance there is an increase of state assignments into the sciences and various investment projects, etc. Historical: the state resorts to government loans for covering contingencies, thus the sum of government debt and interest amount grow; as per the study on public expenditure for the period 1891–1955 in U. K. conducted by Peacock and Wiseman based on Wagner’s Law, it was found to be still applicable. It was further stated that there has been considerable increase in revenue to the governments due to the economic developments over the years, thereby leading to a boost in public expenditure; this is known as the displacement effect. Such'displacement effect' is created when the earlier lower tax and expenditure levels are displaced by new and higher budgetary levels.
But it remains the same after the war as people