Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster, it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda, as its Supreme Being. Zoroastrianism was suppressed from the 7th century onwards following the Muslim conquest of Persia of 633-654, recent estimates place the current number of Zoroastrians at around 2.6 million, with most living in India and in Iran. Besides the Zoroastrian diaspora, the older Mithraic faith Yazdânism is still practised amongst Kurds, the religious philosophy of Zoroaster divided the early Iranian gods of Proto-Indo-Iranian tradition. The most important texts of the religion are those of the Avesta, in Zoroastrianism, the creator Ahura Mazda, through the Spenta Mainyu is an all-good father of Asha, in opposition to Druj and no evil originates from him. He and his works are evident to humanity through the six primary Amesha Spentas, Spenta Mainyu adjoined unto truth oppose the Spirits opposite, Angra Mainyu and its forces born of Akəm Manah. In Zoroastrianism, the purpose in life is to be among those who renew the world. to make the progress towards perfection.
Its basic maxims include, Hukhta, which mean, Good Thoughts, Good Words, there is only one path and that is the path of Truth. Do the right thing because it is the thing to do. The full name by which Zoroaster addressed the deity is, The Lord Creator and he proclaimed that there is only one God, the singularly creative and sustaining force of the Universe. He stated that human beings are given a right of choice, Zoroasters teachings focused on responsibility, and did not introduce a devil per se. The contesting force to Ahura Mazda was called Angra Mainyu, or angry spirit, post-Zoroastrian scripture introduced the concept of Ahriman, the Devil, which was effectively a personification of Angra Mainyu. The name Zoroaster is a Greek rendering of the name Zarathustra and he is known as Zartosht and Zardosht in Persian and Zaratosht in Gujarati. The Zoroastrian name of the religion is Mazdayasna, which combines Mazda- with the Avestan language word yasna, meaning worship, in English, an adherent of the faith is commonly called a Zoroastrian or a Zarathustrian.
An older expression still used today is Behdin, meaning The best Religion | Beh < Middle Persian Weh + Din < Middle Persian dēn < Avestan Daēnā. In Zoroastrian liturgy the term is used as a title for an individual who has formally inducted into the religion in a Navjote ceremony. The term Mazdaism /ˈmæzdə. ɪzəm/ is a typical 19th century construct, taking Mazda- from the name Ahura Mazda, the March 2001 draft edition of the Oxford English Dictionary records an alternate form, perhaps derived from the French Mazdéisme, which first appeared in 1871. In older English sources, the terms Gheber and Gueber were used to refer to Zoroastrians, Zoroastrian philosophy is identified as having been known to Italian Renaissance Europe through an image of Zoroaster in Raphaels School of Athens by Giorgio Vasari in 1550. The Oxford English Dictionary records use of the term Zoroastrianism in 1874 in Archibald Sayces Principles of Comparative Philology, Zoroastrians believe that there is one universal, supreme god, Ahura Mazda, or the Wise Lord
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires. The word satrap originates ultimately from Old Persian xšaçapāvan, Sanskrit kshatrapam or kshtrapa, from xšaça, in Greek, the word was rendered as satrápēs —which borrowed into Latin as satrapes—from a Western Iranian cognate xšaθrapā. In modern Persian the descendant of xšaθrapāvan is shahrbān, but the components have undergone semantic shift so the word now means town keeper. The first large use of satrapies, or provinces, originates from the conception of the First Persian Empire under Cyrus the Great. However, provincial organization originated during the Median era from at least 648 BCE, up to the time of the conquest of Media by Cyrus the Great, emperors ruled the conquered lands, through client kings and governors. The chief difference was that in Persian culture the concept of kingship was indivisible from divinity and he was responsible for the safety of the roads, and had to put down brigands and rebels.
But the satrap was allowed to have troops in his own service, the great satrapies were often divided into smaller districts, the governors of which were called satraps and hyparchs. The distribution of the great satrapies was changed repeatedly, and often two of them were given to the same man, as the provinces were the result of consecutive conquests, both primary and sub-satrapies were often defined by former states and/or ethno-religious identity. When his office became hereditary, the threat to the authority could not be ignored. Rebellions of satraps became frequent from the middle of the 5th century BCE, darius I struggled with widespread rebellions in the satrapies, and under Artaxerxes II occasionally the greater part of Asia Minor and Syria was in open rebellion. The last great rebellions were put down by Artaxerxes III and they would ultimately be replaced by conquering empires, especially the Parthians. In the Parthian Empire, the power rested on the support of noble families who ruled large estates.
City-states within the empire enjoyed a degree of self-government, and paid tribute to the king, shahrabs ruled both the city and the surrounding rural districts. Exceptionally, the East Roman Empire adopted the title satrap for the princes that governed one of its Armenian provinces. The Western Satraps or Kshatrapas were Saka rulers in the western and central part of the Sindh region of Pakistan, and it is used in modern times to refer to the loyal subservient lieutenants or clients of some powerful figure, in politics or business. In Portuguese and Spanish, the word not only carries the aforementioned ancient historical meaning. It can refer as well to living in luxurious and ostentatious conditions or to individuals who act astutely. The College of Pataphysics used the title Transcendent Satrap for certain of its members, including Marcel Duchamp, Jean Baudrillard, in the Serbian language, satrap is used to mock a person who displays servile tendencies to an authority figure
Alireza Shapour Shahbazi
Alireza Shapour Shahbazi was a prominent Persian archeologist, Iranologist and a world expert on Achaemenid archeology. Alireza Shahbazi got a BA degree in and an MA degree in East Asian archeology from SOAS, Shahbazi had a doctorate degree in Achaemenid archeology from University of London. Alireza Shapour Shahbazi was a lecturer in Achaemenid archeology and Iranology at Harvard University and he was a full professor of Archeology at Shiraz University and founded Achaemenid research Foundation in 1973. After the Islamic revolution, he moved to the USA and became a Full Professor of history in Eastern Oregon University. Shahbazi wrote numerous books and articles on archeology in English, French. He was transferred to Shiraz and buried in the surrounding the Tomb of Hafez. Cyrus the Great, Founder of the Persian Empire, Darius the Great, second revised version is in preparation. A Persian Prince, Cyrus the Younger, second revised edition in the press. The Irano-Lycian Monuments, The Antiquities of Xanthos and Its Region as Evidence for the Iranian Aspects of the Achaemenid Lycia, Persepolis Illustrated, second edition, third revised edition due out in April 2003.
Sharh-e Mosawwar-e Takht-e Jamshid, Tehran 1966, third revised edition in the press, the Medes and The Persians, Tehran Open University text book, Tehran. A History of Iranian Historiography to A. D.1000, Old Persian Inscriptions of Persepolis, I, Texts from the Platform Monuments, London. Persepolis IV, A comprehensive analysis of Persepolitan inscriptions and monument studied since E. F. Schmidt, ferdows, A Critical Biography, Centre for Near Eastern Studies, Harvard University. A Comprehensive and Illustrated Guide, Tehran 2000, a Political History of the Sasanian Period, Persian Heritage Series, New York. A Commentary on Tabari’s History of the Sasanian Kings, The University Press of Iran, the Authoritative Guide to Persepolis, SAFIR Publication, Tehran,200419. Rahnamaye Mostanade Takhte-Jamshid, Parsa-Pasargadae Research Foundation Publication, No, annotated ed. of P. J. Junge, Darieos I. König der Perser, Institute of Achaemenid Research Publications, No, Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. II, London 1987.
Festschrift for Professor Richard Nelson Frye = Bulletin of the Asia Institute 4, papers in Honor of Professor Ehsan Yarshater Leiden. The Splendour of Iran, Vol. I, Ancient Times, Booth-Clibborn Editions of London and The University Press of Iran, “Cyrus the Great and Croesus”, Khirad va Kushish 2, 157-74
Lydia was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir. Its population spoke an Anatolian language known as Lydian, at its greatest extent, the Kingdom of Lydia covered all of western Anatolia. Lydia was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, with Sardis as its capital, appointed by Cyrus the Great, was the first satrap. Lydia was the name of a Roman province, coins are said to have been invented in Lydia around the 7th century BC. The endonym Śfard survives in bilingual and trilingual stone-carved notices of the Achaemenid Empire and these in the Greek tradition are associated with Sardis, the capital city of King Gyges, constructed during the 7th century BC. The region of the Lydian kingdom was during the 15th-14th centuries part of the Arzawa kingdom, the Lydian language is not part of the Luwian subgroup. An Etruscan/Lydian association has long been a subject of conjecture, recent decipherment of Lydian and its classification as an Anatolian language mean that Etruscan and Lydian were not even part of the same language family.
The boundaries of historical Lydia varied across the centuries and it was bounded first by Mysia, Caria and coastal Ionia. Later, the power of Alyattes II and Croesus expanded Lydia. Lydia never again shrank back into its original dimensions, the Lydian language was an Indo-European language in the Anatolian language family, related to Luwian and Hittite. It used many prefixes and grammatical particles, Lydian finally became extinct during the 1st century BC. Lydia developed after the decline of the Hittite Empire in the 12th century BC, in Hittite times, the name for the region had been Arzawa. According to Greek source, the name of the Lydian kingdom was Maionia, or Maeonia. Homer describes their capital not as Sardis but as Hyde, Hyde may have been the name of the district in which Sardis was located. Later, Herodotus adds that the Meiones were renamed Lydians after their king Lydus, son of Atys and this etiological eponym served to account for the Greek ethnic name Lydoi. During Biblical times, the Lydian warriors were famous archers, some Maeones still existed during historical times in the upland interior along the River Hermus, where a town named Maeonia existed, according to Pliny the Elder and Hierocles.
In Greek myth, Lydia had adopted the symbol, that appears in the Mycenaean civilization. Omphale, daughter of the river Iardanos, was a ruler of Lydia, all three heroic ancestors indicate a Lydian dynasty claiming Heracles as their ancestor
Hellespontine Phrygia or Lesser Phrygia was a Persian satrapy in northwestern Anatolia, directly southeast of the Hellespont. Its capital was Dascylium, and for most of its existence it was ruled by the hereditary Persian Pharnacid dynasty, together with Greater Phrygia, it made up the administrative provinces of the Phrygia region. It was ruled by a hereditary Iranian dynasty, that of the Pharnacids, after Alexanders death in 323, the satrapy was awarded to Leonnatus, who was killed in action in the Lamian War. The region was seized by Lysimachus, was added to the Seleucid Empire after the Battle of Corupedium, and was finally integrated in the Bithynian kingdom. Artabazos I of Phrygia - r.477 -455 Pharnabazus I - r.455 - before 430 Pharnaces II - r. before 430 - after 422 Pharnabazus II - r. before 413 -387 Ariobarzanes of Phrygia - r, a Companion to the Classical Greek World. Lyons, Justin D. Alexander the Great and Hernán Cortés, James M. Paul and the Nations, The Old Testament and Jewish Background of Pauls Mission to the Nations with Special Reference to the Destination of Galatians
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes was a Hellenistic Greek king of the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great and his original name was Mithradates, he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne. Notable events during the reign of Antiochus IV include his near-conquest of Egypt, his persecution of the Jews of Judea and Samaria, and these epithets included Θεὸς Ἐπιφανής manifest god, after his defeat of Egypt, Νικηφόρος bringer of victory. His older brother Seleucus IV followed his father onto the throne in 187 BC, King Seleucus was assassinated by the usurper Heliodorus in 175 BC, but Antiochus in turn ousted him. To avoid alarming Rome, Antiochus allowed Ptolemy VI to continue ruling as a puppet king, upon Antiochus withdrawal, the city of Alexandria chose a new king, one of Ptolemys brothers, named Ptolemy. The Ptolemy brothers agreed to rule Egypt jointly instead of fighting a civil war, in 168 BC, Antiochus led a second attack on Egypt and sent a fleet to capture Cyprus.
This implied Rome would declare war if the King stepped out of the circle without committing to leave Egypt immediately, weighing his options, Antiochus decided to withdraw. Only did Popillius agree to shake hands with him, the Seleucids, like the Ptolemies before them, held a mild suzerainty over Judea, they respected Jewish culture and protected Jewish institutions. This policy was reversed by Antiochus IV, resulting in harsh persecutions and a revolt against his rule. According to the authors of the Books of Maccabees, while Antiochus was busy in Egypt, in Judea, the deposed High Priest Jason gathered a force of 1,000 soldiers and made a surprise attack on the city of Jerusalem. Menelaus, the High Priest appointed by Antiochus, was forced to flee Jerusalem during a riot, King Antiochus returned from Egypt in 167 BC, enraged by his defeat, he attacked Jerusalem and restored Menelaus, executed many Jews. When these happenings were reported to the king, he thought that Judea was in revolt, raging like a wild animal, he set out from Egypt and took Jerusalem by storm.
He ordered his soldiers to cut down without mercy those whom they met, there was a massacre of young and old, a killing of women and children, a slaughter of virgins and infants. In the space of three days, eighty thousand were lost, forty thousand meeting a violent death, and the number being sold into slavery. Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews in order to consolidate his empire and he outlawed Jewish religious rites and traditions kept by observant Jews and ordered the worship of Zeus as the supreme god. This was anathema to the Jews and they refused, so Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree, the city of Jerusalem was destroyed because of the resistance, many were slaughtered, and Antiochus established a military Greek citadel called the Acra. Traditionally, as expressed in the First and Second Books of the Maccabees, in modern times, scholars have argued that the king was instead intervening in a civil war between the traditionalist Jews in the country and the Hellenized Jews in Jerusalem.
It seems that the traditionalists, with Hebrew/Aramaic names such as Onias, contested with the Hellenizers, with Greek names such as Jason and Menelaus, over who would be the High Priest
Seleucus received Babylonia and, from there, expanded his dominions to include much of Alexanders near eastern territories. At the height of its power, it included central Anatolia, the Levant and what is now Kuwait and parts of Pakistan and Turkmenistan. The Seleucid Empire was a center of Hellenistic culture that maintained the preeminence of Greek customs where a Greek political elite dominated. The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by immigration from Greece, Seleucid expansion into Anatolia and Greece was abruptly halted after decisive defeats at the hands of the Roman army. Their attempts to defeat their old enemy Ptolemaic Egypt were frustrated by Roman demands, contemporary sources, such as a loyalist degree from Ilium, in Greek language define the Seleucid state both as an empire and as a kingdom. Similarly, Seleucid rulers were described as kings in Babylonia and he refers to either Alexander Balas or Alexander II Zabinas as a ruler. Alexander, who conquered the Persian Empire under its last Achaemenid dynast, Darius III, died young in 323 BC.
Alexanders generals jostled for supremacy over parts of his empire, Ptolemy, a former general and the satrap of Egypt, was the first to challenge the new system, this led to the demise of Perdiccas. Ptolemys revolt led to a new subdivision of the empire with the Partition of Triparadisus in 320 BC, who had been Commander-in-Chief of the Companion cavalry and appointed first or court chiliarch received Babylonia and, from that point, continued to expand his dominions ruthlessly. Seleucus established himself in Babylon in 312 BC, the used as the foundation date of the Seleucid Empire. The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, and received in return five hundred elephants. Following his and Lysimachus victory over Antigonus Monophthalmus at the decisive Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, Seleucus took control over eastern Anatolia, in the latter area, he founded a new capital at Antioch on the Orontes, a city he named after his father.
An alternative capital was established at Seleucia on the Tigris, north of Babylon, Seleucuss empire reached its greatest extent following his defeat of his erstwhile ally, Lysimachus, at Corupedion in 281 BC, after which Seleucus expanded his control to encompass western Anatolia. He hoped further to take control of Lysimachuss lands in Europe – primarily Thrace and even Macedonia itself, even before Seleucus death, it was difficult to assert control over the vast eastern domains of the Seleucids. Seleucus invaded the Punjab region of India in 305 BC, confronting Chandragupta Maurya and it is said that Chandragupta fielded an army of 600,000 men and 9,000 war elephants. Archaeologically, concrete indications of Mauryan rule, such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka, are known as far as Kandahar in southern Afghanistan and it is generally thought that Chandragupta married Seleucuss daughter, or a Macedonian princess, a gift from Seleucus to formalize an alliance. In a return gesture, Chandragupta sent 500 war elephants, an asset which would play a decisive role at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC.
In addition to this treaty, Seleucus dispatched an ambassador, Megasthenes, to Chandragupta, Megasthenes wrote detailed descriptions of India and Chandraguptas reign, which have been partly preserved to us through Diodorus Siculus
The Achaemenid Empire, called the Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. The empires successes inspired similar systems in empires and it is noted in Western history as the antagonist of the Greek city-states during the Greco-Persian Wars and for the emancipation of the Jewish exiles in Babylon. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was built in a Hellenistic style in the empire as well. By the 7th century BC, the Persians had settled in the portion of the Iranian Plateau in the region of Persis. From this region, Cyrus the Great advanced to defeat the Medes, Alexander, an avid admirer of Cyrus the Great, conquered the empire in its entirety by 330 BC. Upon his death, most of the former territory came under the rule of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire. The Persian population of the central plateau reclaimed power by the second century BC under the Parthian Empire, the historical mark of the Achaemenid Empire went far beyond its territorial and military influences and included cultural, social and religious influences as well.
Many Athenians adopted Achaemenid customs in their lives in a reciprocal cultural exchange. The impact of Cyruss edict is mentioned in Judeo-Christian texts, the empire set the tone for the politics and history of modern Iran. Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details Due to the duration of their reigns, Xerxes II. The Persian nation contains a number of tribes as listed here, the Pasargadae and Maspii, upon which all the other tribes are dependent. Of these, the Pasargadae are the most distinguished, they contain the clan of the Achaemenids from which spring the Perseid kings. Other tribes are the Panthialaei, Germanii, all of which are attached to the soil, the Achaemenid Empire was created by nomadic Persians. The Achaemenid Empire was not the first Iranian empire, as by 6th century BC another group of ancient Iranian peoples had established the short lived Median Empire. The Iranian peoples had arrived in the region of what is today Iran c.1000 BC and had for a number of centuries fallen under the domination of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, based in northern Mesopotamia.
However, the Medes and Persians, Cimmerians and Chaldeans played a role in the overthrow of the Assyrian empire. The term Achaemenid means of the family of the Achaemenis/Achaemenes, despite the derivation of the name, Achaemenes was himself a minor seventh-century ruler of the Anshan in southwestern Iran, and a vassal of Assyria. At some point in 550 BC, Cyrus rose in rebellion against the Medes, eventually conquering the Medes and creating the first Persian empire
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia. Despite having varying definitions within different academic circles, the term was applied to the maximum extent of the Ottoman Empire. The term has fallen into disuse in English and has replaced by the terms Middle East. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations defines the region similarly, but includes Afghanistan while excluding the countries of North Africa and the Palestinian territories. Up until 1912 the Ottomans retained a band of territory including Albania and Southern Thrace, the Ottoman Empire, believed to be about to collapse, was portrayed in the press as the sick man of Europe. The Balkan states, with the exception of Bosnia and Albania, were primarily Christian. Starting in 1894 the Ottomans struck at the Armenians on the grounds that they were a non-Muslim people. The Hamidian Massacres aroused the indignation of the entire Christian world, in the United States the now aging Julia Ward Howe, author of the Battle Hymn of the Republic, leaped into the war of words and joined the Red Cross.
Relations of minorities within the Ottoman Empire and the disposition of former Ottoman lands became known as the Eastern Question and it now became relevant to define the east of the eastern question. In about the middle of the 19th century Near East came into use to describe part of the east closest to Europe. The term Far East appeared contemporaneously meaning Japan, Korea, near East applied to what had been mainly known as the Levant, which was in the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Porte, or government. Those who used the term had little choice about its meaning and they could not set foot on most of the shores of the southern and central Mediterranean from the Gulf of Sidra to Albania without permits from the Ottoman Empire. Some regions beyond the Ottoman Porte were included, one was North Africa west of Egypt. It was occupied by piratical kingdoms of the Barbary Coast, de facto independent since the 18th century, formerly part of the empire at its apogee. Iran was included because it could not easily be reached except through the Ottoman Empire or neighboring Russia, in the 1890s the term tended to focus on the conflicts in the Balkan states and Armenia.
The demise of the man of Europe left considerable confusion as to what was to be meant by Near East. It is now used only in historical contexts, to describe the countries of Western Asia from the Mediterranean to Iran. There is, in short, no universally understood fixed inventory of nations and they appear together in the journals of the mid-19th century
Ada of Caria
Ada of Caria was a member of the House of Hecatomnus and ruler of Caria in the 4th century BC, first as Persian Satrap and as Queen under the auspices of Alexander III of Macedon. Ada was the daughter of Hecatomnus, satrap of Caria, and sister of Mausolus, Artemisia and she was married to her brother Idrieus, who succeeded Artemisia in 351 BC and died in 344 BC. On the death of her husband Ada became satrap of Caria, Ada fled to the fortress of Alinda, where she maintained her rule in exile. When Alexander the Great entered Caria in 334 BC, Ada adopted Alexander as her son, in return, Alexander accepted the offer and gave Ada formal command of the Siege of Halicarnassus. After the fall of Halicarnassus, Alexander returned Alinda and made Ada queen of the whole of Caria, adas popularity with the populace in turn ensured the Carians loyalty to Alexander. According to Turkish archaeologists, the tomb of Ada has been discovered and her remains are on display in the archaeological museum of Bodrum.
Carney and Dunasteia in Caria, American Journal of Philology 126, turkey beyond the Maeander ISBN 0-87471-038-3. Wiki Classical Dictionary, Ada Livius, Ada by Jona Lendering Ada from Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Photos of Halicarnassus Includes a picture of the skeleton of Ada
Characene, known as Mesene or Meshan, was a kingdom within the Parthian Empire located at the head of the Persian Gulf. Its capital, Charax Spasinou, was an important port for trade between Mesopotamia and India, and provided facilities for the city of Susa further up the Karun River. Characene was part of the Sassanid Empire and was located primarily within the part of present-day Iraq. At one point Characene included Tylos, the country of Bahrain. Characene was founded around 127 BC under Aspasine, known in classical writings as Hyspaosines, after the Parthian conquest, Characene remained a semi-autonomous country with its own kings. Its tenure as a kingdom ended with the fall of the Parthian Empire. The kings of Characene are known mainly by their coins, consisting mainly of silver tetradrachms with Greek and these coins are dated after the Seleucid era, providing a secure framework for chronological succession. Charax, the capital of Characene, was founded by Alexander the Great, the city was constructed on an artificial mound to protect the site from the floodwaters of the nearby rivers.
The new town served as a commercial port for the eastern capital of Babylon. Charax flourished under the Seleucid Empire, controlling the trade in the Persian Gulf and it was a center for pearl diving. The Roman emperor Trajan visited Charax in 116 AD during his invasion of Parthia, after it was destroyed by a flood, Charax was rebuilt by Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great and was briefly called Antiochia. After the Parthian invasion of Mesopotamia in 141 AD, Charax became independent, the state kept its independence and sometimes joined the Romans in their struggle against the common enemy, the Parthian king. In his Natural History, Pliny the Elder praises the port of Charax, The embankments extend in length a distance of nearly 4½ kilometers and it stood at first at a distance of 1¾ km from the shore, and even had a harbor of its own. A famous Characenian, a man named Isidore, was the author of a treatise on Parthian trade routes, the inhabitants of Palmyra had a permanent trading station in Characene.
In 221-22 AD, an ethnic Persian, Ardašēr, who was satrap of Fars, led a revolt against the Parthians, according to Arab histories, he defeated Characene forces, killed its last ruler, rebuilt the town, and renamed it Astarābād-Ardašīr. The area around Charax that had been the Characene state was known by the Aramaic/Syriac name Maysān. Charax continued, under the name Maysān, with Persian texts making various mention of governors throughout the fifth century, a Nestorian Church was mentioned there in the sixth century. The Charax mint appears to have continued throughout the Sassanid empire and into the Umayyad empire, minting coins as late as AD715