Serpent River First Nation
The Serpent River First Nation, a signatory to the Robinson Huron Treaty of 1850, is an Anishinaabe First Nation in the Canadian province of Ontario, located midway between Sault Ste. Marie and Sudbury along the North Channel of Lake Huron; the First Nation's traditional territory extends from this waters of the North Channel of Lake Huron, Serpent River Basin. The Serpent River nation has a traditional land base of 5250 square kilometers, it occupies the Serpent River 7 reserve. Bonnie Devine, conceptual artist, curator and author Jesse Wente, film critic, radio personality, curator Serpent River First Nation, official website First Nation profile Serpent River CBC Profile
Pays Plat First Nation
Pays Plat First Nation is a small First Nation reserve community located near Rossport, Canada, about 175 kilometres northeast of Thunder Bay. The Pays Plat 51 Reserve is in the boundaries of the territory described in the Robinson-Superior Treaty of 1850; the community is located along Highway 17. The Ojibway people living on the North Shore of Lake Superior survived by hunting, trapping and gathering food; the area was involved in the fur trade, the ancestors living near what is now called Pays Plat were key in trapping for furs. Pays Plat was named by French traders and means flat land, named after the fact that it is flat land between two mountains. In Anishinaabemowin the community is known as PawGwaSheeng which means:. Pays Plat - Ontario Highway 11 Homepage
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Chippewas of Kettle and Stony Point First Nation
Kettle & Stony Point First Nation' comprises the Kettle Point reserve and Stony Point Reserve, both located approx. 35 kilometres northeast of Sarnia, Canada, on the southern shore of Lake Huron. The reserves serve as the land base for the Chippewas of Stony Point First Nation, they are one of 42 Anishinaabeg First Nations in Ontario that belong to the Union of Ontario Indians Grand Council. The Chippewa are an Anishinaabe-speaking indigenous nation with people within the borders of present-day Canada and the United States. Leaders Chiefs of the Band Pre-Indian Act Chiefs: Oshawnoo at Kettle Point, Whapagas at Stony Point, John Johnston, Isaac Shawnoo. Chief Councilors representing Kettle & Stony Point at the "Sarnia Band Council": John Johnston, Isaac Shawnoo, Lewis Cloud, Adam Sapah, Jeffrey Bressette, James Johnston, John Elijah, John Milliken, Caleb Shawkence Elected Chiefs since succession from Sarnia Band: Cornelius Shawnoo, John Milliken, Sam Bressette, Caleb Shawkence, Frank Bressette, Bruce Milliken, Frank Bressette, Wilfred Shawkence, Frank Bressette, Earl Bressette, David Bressette, Thomas Bressette, Charles Shawkence, Frederick F. Bressette, Charles Shawkence, Victor H. George, Milton L. George, Charles Shawkence, Yvonne Bressette, Thomas M. Bressette, Irving George, Norm Shawnoo, Thomas M. Bressette, Elizabeth Cloud, Thomas M. Bressette, Jason Henry In 1942 during World War II, the federal government appropriated land at Stony Point under the War Measures Act to build a military camp, Camp Ipperwash, after offering payment to the Chippewa of Kettle and Stony Point First Nations.
Their offer was rejected. The government had made as part of the offer a promise to return the land, but continued to use it after the war, by the 1990s as a summer training camp for cadets. Residents were evicted, moved into the Kettle Point First Nation, with unhappy consequences and social tension. In the 1990s, during rising political activism, band members of the Stony Point First Nation began occupying parts of the base in 1993; the military withdrew in 1995. On Labour Day 1995, Band members barricaded part of neighboring Ipperwash Provincial Park to promote their land claim, they said they were protecting a native burial water purification plant. During a confrontation with Ontario Provincial Police at the protest, an Ojibwe band member, Dudley George, was shot and killed. In 1997, acting Sgt. Kenneth Deane was convicted of criminal negligence causing George's death. Native groups called for an official inquiry into George's death, but none was launched until the provincial government changed in 2003.
The Ipperwash Inquiry began in 2004 and concluded in 2006. Commissioner Sidney B. Linden delivered his report in 2007. An Agreement in Principle, dated 1998, was never accepted by the First Nation, the claim is still outstanding as of 2007. Ontario returned the land to the First Nation in 2009, but they will govern it together for some time, in order to manage environmental and other issues. In 2015 a $90 million land claim was paid to both First Nations involved; the Investigation Agreement to determine the environmental impacts of the military base on the land began in 2006. The investigation will provide the basis for environmental amelioration. In addition, Environmental and UXO investigations are underway. Canada along with the First Nation are working with an independent contractor selected through the Public Works Canada-tendering process, as well as with special advisors with the necessary expertise to oversee the project; the cleanup may prove difficult. Unexploded ordnance has been found.
In May 2008, the resident population was 1260. As of January 2011, the band had a total of 2219 registered members, of whom 1300 live on their own reserve, 20 live on another reserve, 899 don't live on a reserve. By July 2012, the number of registered members had increased to 2337, of whom 1316 live on the reserve. Kettle Point is the site of a rare outcrop of an Upper Devonian shale called the Kettle Point Formation; this rock layer is exposed at the tip of the point near the shore of Lake Huron. A fragmentary fossil Dunkleosteus, named D. amblyodoratus or'blunt spear', was found there. Spherical or ovoid concretions of rock, locally called "kettles", weather out of the shale along the shoreline. To the local Anishinabek, the rare stones were thunderbird eggs; the concretions are now protected, but are found on nearby properties. Just off shore, below the Kettle Point formation, is a layer of the Hamilton Group of shales and limestones which contains a large amount of light-coloured, high-quality chert.
In stone tool technology, it is a prized resource. When lake levels were lower, during the retreat of the Wisconsinian ice sheets, the chert was exposed and could be mined; this made the region a site of human occupation for at least 10,000 years. Kettle Point chert was dispersed to the far reaches of the region as projectile points and other tools. CKTI-FM Kettle & Stony Point Chippewa
Nickel Centre was a town in Ontario, which existed from 1973 to 2000. It was created as part of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury. On January 1, 2001, the town and the Regional Municipality were dissolved and amalgamated into the city of Greater Sudbury; the town is now divided between Wards 7 and 9 on Greater Sudbury City Council, is represented by councillors Mike Jakubo and Deb McIntosh. In the Canada 2011 Census, the Garson-Falconbridge corridor within Nickel Centre was counted as part of the population centre of Sudbury, while the census tracts corresponding to the former boundaries of Nickel Centre had a population of 13,232. In the Canada 2016 Census, the boundaries of the Sudbury population centre were revised to retain Garson but exclude Falconbridge, while a new population centre was added for Coniston. Coniston was part of the Township of Neelon, incorporated in March 1905. Coniston was subsequently incorporated under the provisions of the Municipal Act by Ontario Municipal Board Order A4741 on January 1, 1934, remained such until the establishment of regional government.
Prior to its annexation into Nickel Centre, the town's mayors were Edgar Taylor Austin, Roy Snitch, Walter Kilimnik, William Evershed, Maurice Beauchemin and Mike Solski. Solski, the final mayor of Coniston as an independent town, won election to the mayoralty of the amalgamated town of Nickel Centre in 1972. Notable residents of Coniston have included hockey players Neal Martin, Noel Price, Toe Blake, Jim Fox, Leo Lafrance and Andy Barbe, as well as many other great hockey players. Coniston includes the smaller neighbourhood of Austin, which may be known as Old Coniston; this area is home to a baseball field. The baseball field was abandoned and decommissioned prior to 2000 when Coniston became part of Greater Sudbury; the geographic township of Falconbridge was named in the 1880s for William Glenholm Falconbridge, a justice of the High Court of Ontario. The original settlement in the township was a small lumber camp. A significant ore body was discovered in 1902 by Thomas Edison near what is now Falconbridge's Centennial Park.
The Edison Ore-Milling Company was unsuccessful in establishing a mining operation, abandoned his original claim in 1903. The claim reverted to Crown land until the Longyear Drilling Company bought it in 1911. Longyear subsequently merged with other small mining companies in the area to form the basis of what would become Falconbridge Ltd. although actual mining operations in the community did not begin until 1928, when Thayer Lindsley purchased the company for $2,500,000 and sunk the Falconbridge deposit's first mine shaft the following year. Falconbridge Ltd. built the Edison Building in 1969 to serve as its head office. Falconbridge Ltd. was taken over by Swiss mining company Xstrata in 2006. In 2007, Xstrata donated the Edison Building to the city to serve as the new home of the municipal archives. Falconbridge was incorporated as a town in 1957; the town's first and only reeve, John Franklin, served until the creation of Nickel Centre in 1973. A visual and radar UFO incident occurred in the community on November 11, 1975 reported in a press release by NORAD.
The object was tracked on radar from CFS Falconbridge and sighted in binoculars, estimated to be a 100-ft. Diameter sphere with craters. Seven OPP police officers witnessed the UFO; some explanations given for the sightings included Venus, and/or weather balloons. The community is named after the geographic township of Garson, named by the Ontario Government in the 1880s for William Garson, who represented Lincoln in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1886 to 1890; the area was first developed in 1888 as a logging camp, by the Holland and Emery Lumber Company of East Tawas, Michigan. In that year this firm constructed a narrow gauge logging railway from Wahnapitae, establishing its main operations at Headquarters Lake, near the Garson townsite. Logs from this area were driven to Lake Huron; this track was extended north into Capreol Township. The Canadian Northern Railway was built through Garson in 1908. Garson Mine, now owned by Vale Inco was first developed in 1911 by the Mond Nickel Company.
The defunct Kirkwood Mine was located in Garson. Skead is located 25 kilometres northeast of downtown Sudbury, situated on south shore of Lake Wanapitei. Home to over 600 year round residents, Skead was settled about 1921 as a sawmill community, when the Spanish River Lumber Company relocated there from its original mill site, near the mouth of the Spanish River, it was named by the firm's general manager W. J. Bell, in honour of his late father-in-law, Canadian Senator James Skead. Skead's address and telephone service includes the smaller neighbourhood of Boland's Bay, a dispersed rural community and unincorporated place, on the eponymous bay at the southwestern tip of Lake Wanapitei; the community was known as Bowlands Bay and the bay as Bowland Bay until 1975 when the present spellings were adopted. However, the old spelling continues on the local street Bowlands Bay Road; the community takes its name from the Wanapitei River, which flows through Wahnapitae, whose name in turn comes from the Ojibwe word waanabidebiing, which means "concave-tooth water" and describes the shape of Lake Wanapitei.
The correct spelling of the community's name should not be confused with the correct spelling for the water bodies. The community of Wahnapitae is located east of Sudbury along Highway 17, it was the first settlement to be established in Nickel Centre and was supposed to be the main com
Wiikwemkoong First Nation
The Wiikwemkoong First Nation is a First Nation on Manitoulin Island in northern Ontario. The Wiikwemkoong Unceded Reserve is the First Nation reserve in the north-eastern section of Manitoulin Island in Manitoulin District, Canada. Wiikwemkoong is an unceded Indian reserve in Canada, which means that it has not "relinquished title to its land to the government by treaty or otherwise." The local Ojibwe placename is wiikwemkong with the locative -ong form of wiikwemik'bay with a sloping bottom'. The spelling Wikwemikong is from dialects spoken elsewhere; the initial element wiikwe- occurs in other forms as'bay'. It can be identified as a variant of the medial element aamik- that appears, for example, in Southwestern Ojibwe minaamikaa'there are breakers, banks', which has initial min-'islandlike'; the plus or minus of aa- is found in several medial elements in Ojibwe and other Algonquian languages. The reserve's former name was Manitoulin Unceded Indian Reserve; the reserve is occupied by Ojibwa and Potawatomi peoples, under the Council of Three Fires.
The current band chief is Duke Peltier. Wiikwemkoong occupies a large peninsula on the eastern end of Manitoulin Island, connected to the rest of the island by an isthmus separating South Bay from Manitowaning Bay; the reserve's primary access is via Wiikwemkoong Way, which continues off the reserve as Cardwell Street and connects to Highway 6 at Manitowaning. The reserve is the fifth-largest Indian reserve in Canada by area, it is bordered on its west by Assiginack township, by which the peninsula is connected to the rest of Manitoulin Island. The vast majority of the reserve's border is, however, a water boundary with Northeastern Manitoulin and the Islands, by which it is nearly surrounded except for its border with Assiginack; the Point Grondine Park, located on the mainland near Killarney belongs to the Wiikwemkoong band. This area, unpopulated since the Point Grondine band moved to Wiikwemkoong proper in the 1940s, remained unoccupied and unused by the band until the park was established in 2015.
From 1836 to 1862, a considerable portion of Manitoulin Island was set aside as the "Manitoulin Island Indian Reserve" under the Bond Head Treaty. The most important of the pre-confederation treaties were the Robinson Treaties because all subsequent treaties were modeled after these. In 1850, William B. Robinson, a government negotiator and former fur trader, proposed that First Nations reserves be created on the Crown Land acquired through treaties; these Reserves were intended to be the answer to what the immigrant settlers needed for land settlement. First Nation peoples would be set apart on reserves from the new settlers; the Robinson-Huron and Robinson-Superior treaties were signed in September 1850 for large territories north of the two Great Lakes. According to written records, Lake Huron and Lake Superior area leaders surrendered nearly 15 000 000 hectares of land and the islands in exchange for the establishment of 24 reserves and a payment of $10 000 to be followed by additional annual payment of $2700.
In 1862, most of the islands were again ceded to the government of Canada under the MacDougall Treaty for new settlement by non-natives, resulting in the creation of new reserves at West Bay, Sheshegwaning, Cockburn Island and Sucker Creek. However, two bands which occupied the land that now comprises Wiikwemkoong claimed that the bands that signed the Treaty did not represent them, thus continued to exist as a remnant of the Manitoulin Island Indian Reserve. In 1968, an amalgamation took place among three bands: Manitoulin Island Unceded Indian Reserve, Point Grondine and South Bay; this amalgamation created the Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve. The band filed a claim with the canadian government on the issue of the juridiction of the Wikwemikong islands in 1984, but the government denied that the band had any right to these islands in 1997; the two parties restarted negotiations in 2007. As of 2012, the claim is still ongoing. In 2014 the Constitution – Wiikwemkoong G'chi Naaknigewin was ratified, subsequently changing the name to Wiikwemkoong Unceded Territory.
In addition to the primary settlement at Wiikwemkoong, smaller settlements on the reserve include Buzwah, Murray Hill, South Bay, Two O'Clock and Wikwemikonsing. The reserve is served by four churches: Buzwah Church Kaboni Catholic Church South Bay Catholic Church There are two elementary school, Wasse Abin Junior School and Wasse Abin Pontiac School and Wasse Abin High School. Two health clinics provide basic services: Nadmadwin Mental Health Clinic Wiikwemkoong Health Centre Wiikwemkoong Way is the key route in the communities and connects with Ontario Highway 6; the closest airport is Manitowaning/Manitoulin East Municipal Airport in Ontario. The reserve is home to the Wiikwemkoong Cultural Festival, held annually every Civic Holiday weekend; this annual event is touted as the oldest pow-wow in Eastern Canada. Considered to be one of the major pow wows in North America, it is attended by many aboriginal dancers who participate in competition of all age ranges, demonstrating traditional, grass and fancy dancing.
Capreol is a community in the Ontario city of Greater Sudbury. Situated on the Vermilion River, Capreol is the city's northernmost populated area. From 1918 to 2000, Capreol existed as an independent town. However, on January 1, 2001, the towns and cities of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury were amalgamated into the single-tier city of Greater Sudbury. Capreol formed around the Capreol railway station, a major divisional point on the Canadian National Railway line, its name comes from Frederick Chase Capreol, the original promoter of the Northern Railway of Canada. The first family to move into Capreol was Adolph and Margaret Sawyer, both of whom pioneered in farming. Although the town was an independent community with its own thriving economy, it became a satellite community to the more growing city of Sudbury 40 kilometres to the south. In 1916, there were thirty families in town, by 1919, sixty houses had been built, it was decided that Capreol would build its own YMCA. In 1920, the construction of the YMCA was in progress, but was damaged by fire, to the extent of $40,000.
The YMCA was rebuilt at double the cost and opened in 1921. In 1973, the boundaries of the town of Capreol were expanded to include the nearby villages of Sellwood and Milnet, the town was incorporated into the Regional Municipality of Sudbury. However, despite its status as part of the regional municipality, during this era Statistics Canada did not include the town in Sudbury's Census Metropolitan Area. On January 1, 2001, Capreol and the other cities and towns of the regional municipality were amalgamated into the city of Greater Sudbury. In the Canada 2011 Census, Capreol was listed for the first time as one of six distinct population centres within the city, with a population of 3,276 and a population density of 537.7 km2. The community is part of Ward 7 on Greater Sudbury City Council, is represented by councillor Mike Jakubo. Capreol is the location of the Northern Ontario Railroad Museum, a heritage attraction located in the former CN and CNoR superintendent's home and Prescott Park, taking up a large portion of the town's downtown core parallel to the railroad tracks.
From 1978 to 1986, Capreol had a Northern Ontario Junior Hockey League team called the Capreol Hawks, who won the league title in 1980-81. The former villages of Milnet and Sellwood, located within the area annexed by Capreol in 1973, are both now ghost towns. Milnet began as a stop along the Canadian Northern Railway. In 1917, after the railway was laid down, the Marshay Lumber Company built a mill and began a 22-year process of cutting trees from the area. Men from logging camps upstream would let the Vermilion River carry the logs to the mill in Milnet. From there the men at the mill would cut the wood on the blade and move it along to the planar mill. An open pit mine now stands. P. Kilgour - 1927-1928 B. M. Robinson - 1931 Willam Gibson - 1932-1935 James E. Coyne - 1936-1943 Willam Gibson - 1944-1946 Alistair MacLean - 1947-1952 William Gibson - 1953-1954 Harold Prescott - 1955-1969 Norman Fawcett - 1969-1973 Harold Prescott - 1973-1975 Frank Mazzuca Sr. - 1975-1997 Dave Kilgour - 1997-2000 Julian T.
Howe - 2000-2003 Jean Robert Beaulé, politician Fred Boimistruck, NHL hockey player Joffre Desilets, NHL hockey player Norman Fawcett, politician Pete Horeck, NHL hockey player Elie Martel, politician Rob MacDonald, mixed martial artist Shelley Martel, politician Frank Mazzuca Sr. politician Mike Miron, lacrosse player Doug Mohns, NHL hockey player Allan Patterson, politician Donald Bartlett Reid, politician Barbara Tyson, actress Capreol Online Capreol's Information Pages Ontario Abandoned Places: Milnet History of Capreol at Greater Sudbury Heritage Museums