A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Wailua Falls is a 173 foot waterfall located near Lihue that feeds into the Wailua River. The waterfall is prominently featured on the opening credits of the television series Fantasy Island. There are paths to the bottom of the falls; the "trail" further from the parking lot is less steep than the closer one. In ancient times, Hawaiian men would jump from the top of the falls to prove their manhood; some people still leap off the top of the falls, though it is illegal. In 2016, a man jumped from the falls and was knocked unconscious but narrowly avoided death when someone swam out into the pool to save him; the pool is great for swimming. There is another waterfall nearby named'Opaeka'a Falls.'Opaeka'a Falls More, Kathy. Kauaʻi Trails: Walks and Treks on the Garden Island. Wilderness Press. ISBN 0-89997-305-1
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
Water skiing is a surface water sport in which an individual is pulled behind a boat or a cable ski installation over a body of water, skimming the surface on two skis or one ski. The sport requires sufficient area on a smooth stretch of water, one or two skis, a tow boat with tow rope, three people, a personal flotation device. In addition, the skier must have adequate upper and lower body strength, muscular endurance, good balance. There are water ski participants around the world, in Asia and Australia, Europe and the Americas. In the United States alone, there are 11 million water skiers and over 900 sanctioned water ski competitions every year. Australia boasts 1.3 million water skiers. There are many options for competitive water skiers; these include speed skiing, trick skiing, show skiing, jumping, barefoot skiing and wakeski. Similar, related sports are wakeboarding, discing and sit-down hydrofoil. Water skiers can start their ski set in one of two ways: wet is the most common, but dry is possible.
Water skiing begins with a deep water start. The skier enters the water with their skis on or they jump in without the skis on their feet, have the skis floated to them, put them on while in the water. Most times it can be easier to put the skis on. Once the skier has their skis on they will be thrown a tow rope from the boat, which they position between their skis. In the deep water start, the skier crouches down in the water while holding onto the ski rope; the skier can perform a "dry start" by standing on the shore or a pier. When the skier is ready, the driver accelerates the boat; as the boat accelerates and takes up the slack on the rope, the skier allows the boat to pull him/her out of the water by applying some muscle strength to get him/her into an upright body position. By leaning back and keeping the legs bent, the skis will plane out and the skier will start to glide over the water; the skier turns by shifting weight right. The skier's body weight should be balanced between the balls of the heels.
While being towed, the skier's arms should be relaxed but still extended so as to reduce stress on the arms. The handle can be held vertically or horizontally, depending on whichever position is more comfortable for the skier. In addition to the driver and the skier, a third person known as the spotter or the observer should be present; the spotter's job is to inform the driver if the skier falls. The spotter sits in a chair on the boat facing backwards to see the skier; the skier and the boat's occupants communicate using hand signals. Water skiing can take place on any type of water – such as a river, lake, or ocean – but calmer waters are ideal for recreational skiing. There should be a 60-metre-wide skiing space and the water should be at least 1.5 to 1.8 metres deep. There must be enough space for the water skier to safely "get up", or be in the upright skiing position. Skiers and their boat drivers must have sufficient room to avoid hazards. Younger skiers start out on children's skis, which consist of two skis tied together at their back and front.
These connections mean. Sometimes these skis can come with a handle to help balance the skier as well. Children's skis are short – 110–150 centimetres long – reflecting the skier's smaller size. Once a person is strong enough to hold the skis together themselves there are various options depending upon their skill level and weight. Water skiers can use one ski; the heavier the person, the bigger the skis will be. Length will vary based on the type of water skiing being performed. A trick ski is around 40 inches and wider than combo skis. Again the skier rides it with her dominant foot in front, it has no fins. Competition skiing uses designed towboats. Most towboats have a small hull and a flat bottom to minimize wake. A true tournament ski boat will have a direct drive motor shaft that centers the weight in the boat for an optimal wake shape. However, some recreational ski boats will have the motor placed in the back of the boat, which creates a bigger wake. Permitted towboats used for tournament water skiing are the Mastercraft ProStar 197, MasterCraft ProStar 190, Nautique 200, Malibu Response TXi, Centurion Carbon Pro.
These boats have ability to pull skiers for trick skiing and slalom. Recreational boats can serve as water skiing platforms as well as other purposes such as cruising and fishing. Popular boat types include bowriders, cuddy cabins, jetboats; the towboat must be capable of maintaining the proper speed. Speeds vary with the skier's weight, experience level, comfort level, type of skiing. For example, a child on two skis would require speeds of 21–26 km/h, whereas an adult on one ski might require as high as 58 km/h. Barefoot skiing requires speeds of 72 km/h. Competition spee
Fern Grotto is a fern covered, lava rock grotto located on the south fork of the Wailua River, on the eastern side of Kauai in the Hawaiian archipelago. Several boat companies give river tours; this attraction is known as the most romantic spot on the island of Kauai, the area can be rented for weddings. Wailua river flows past the Wailua Complex of Heiau, a gathering place for the island's chiefs. Pu'uhonua or places of refuge, are located near by as well, along with stones marking the births of new chiefs; the ferns that the grotto is known for began growing during the plantation era. A basin for storm runoff was built right above the grotto, water that leaked through encouraged the growth of maidenhair and Boston sword ferns. Fern Grotto's decline began when it was hit by Hurricane Iwa in 1982, it was nearly destroyed Kauai was hit by Hurricane Iniki in 1992. Most of the ferns hanging from the grotto were torn from the rocks and, though much of the plant life has rebounded, the grotto has had a difficult time recovering.
In spite of the damage, it remains one of the most popular spots on the island. On April 24, 2006, the grotto was closed by the Hawaii State Department of Land and Natural Resources for safety reasons. Heavy rains in March, 2006, caused a number of rocks and boulders to fall from the ceiling of the grotto onto the viewing area below, it was re-opened in 2007 following reinforcement of the rock walls and installation of ramps to access to the grotto. Prior to the 2006 flooding, visitors were allowed to enter the grotto, but today the grotto may only be viewed from the designated observation deck. Access to the Grotto is by boat on the Wailua River as part of the Wailua River State Park. Tour boats ply the waters of the park and the Grotto has long been a popular stop on the tour. Weddings were performed within the grotto, but now they take place on the observation deck facing the grotto
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land, surrounded by water. Small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines. An island may be described despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; some places may retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is not considered an island.
There are two main types of islands in the sea: oceanic. There are artificial islands; the word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland. However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula. Old English ieg is a cognate of Swedish ö and German Aue, related to Latin aqua. Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km2, while Australia, the world's smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km2, but there is no standard of size that distinguishes islands from continents, or from islets. There is a difference between continents in terms of geology. Continents are the largest landmass of a particular continental plate. By contrast, islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust, or belong to a continental plate containing a larger landmass. Continental islands are bodies of land.
Examples are Borneo, Sumatra, Sakhalin and Hainan off Asia. A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, some of the Seychelles. Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity; this includes: barrier islands, which are accumulations of sand deposited by sea currents on the continental shelves fluvial or alluvial islands formed in river deltas or midstream within large rivers. While some are transitory and may disappear if the volume or speed of the current changes, others are stable and long-lived. Islets are small islands. Oceanic islands are islands; the vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface.
Examples are Saint Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island in the Pacific. One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc; these islands arise from volcanoes. Examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean; the only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands. Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs. There are two examples: Iceland, the world's second largest volcanic island, Jan Mayen. Both are in the Atlantic. A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts.
Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu. Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hotspot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, formed in 1963. An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island; the reef forms a new island. Atolls are ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples are the Line Islands
Kauaʻi, anglicized as Kauai, is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. With an area of 562.3 square miles, it is the fourth-largest of these islands and the 21st largest island in the United States. Known as the "Garden Isle", Kauaʻi lies 105 miles across the Kauaʻi Channel, northwest of Oʻahu; this island is the site of Waimea Canyon State Park. The United States Census Bureau defines Kauaʻi as census tracts 401 through 409 of Kauai County, Hawaiʻi, which comprises all of the county except for the islands of Kaʻula, Lehua and Niʻihau; the 2010 United States Census population of the island was 67,091. The most populous town was Kapaʻa. In 1778, Captain James Cook arrived at Waimea Bay, the first European known to have reached the Hawaiʻian islands, he named the archipelago after his patron the 6th Earl of George Montagu. During the reign of King Kamehameha, the islands of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau were the last Hawaiʻian Islands to join his Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, their ruler, Kaumualiʻi, resisted Kamehameha for years.
King Kamehameha twice prepared a huge armada of ships and canoes to take the islands by force, twice failed. In the face of the threat of a further invasion, Kaumualiʻi decided to join the kingdom without bloodshed, became Kamehameha's vassal in 1810, he ceded the island to the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi upon his death in 1824. In 1815, a ship from the Russian-American Company was wrecked on the island. In 1816, an agreement was signed by Kaumualiʻi to allow the Russians to build Fort Elizabeth, it was an attempt by Kaumuali’i to gain support from the Russians against Kamehameha I. Construction was begun in 1817, but in July of that year under mounting resistance of Native Hawaiians and American traders the Russians were expelled; the settlement on Kauai has been considered an abrupt instance of a Pacific outpost of the Russian Empire per se. Valdemar Emil Knudsen was a Norwegian plantation pioneer who arrived on Kauai in 1857. Knudsen, or "Kanuka" arrived in Koloa where he managed Grove Farm, but sought a warmer land and purchased the leases to Mana and Kekaha, where he became a successful sugarcane plantation owner.
Knudsen settled in Waiawa, between Mana and Kekaha across the channel from Niʻihau Island. His son, Eric Alfred Knudsen, was born in Waiawa. Knudsen was appointed land administrator by King Kamehameha for an area covering 400 km2, was given the title konohiki as well as a position as a nobility under the king. Knudsen, who spoke fluent Hawaiian became an elected representative and an influential politician on the island. Knudsen lends his name to the Knudsen Gap, a narrow pass between the Kahili Ridge, its primary function was as a sugar farm planted by the Knudsen family. In 1835, Old Koloa Town opened a sugar mill. From 1906 to 1934 the office of County Clerk was held by John Mahiʻai Kāneakua, active in attempts to restore Queen Liliuokalani to the throne after the United States takeover of Hawaiʻi in 1893. Hawaiian narrative locates the name's origin in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the Polynesian navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiʻian Islands; the story relates. Another possible translation is "food season".
Kauaʻi was known for its distinct dialect of the Hawaiian language. While the standard language today adopts the dialect of Hawaiʻi island, which has the sound, the Kauaʻi dialect was known for pronouncing this as. In effect, Kauaʻi dialect retained the old pan-Polynesian /t/, while "standard" Hawaiʻi dialect has changed it to the. Therefore, the native name for Kauaʻi was said as Tauaʻi, the major settlement of Kapaʻa would have been pronounced as Tapaʻa. Kauaʻi's origins are volcanic, the island having been formed by the passage of the Pacific Plate over the Hawaii hotspot. At five million years old, it is the oldest of the main islands; the highest peak on this mountainous island is Kawaikini at 5,243 feet. The second highest peak is Mount Waiʻaleʻale near the center of the island, 5,148 ft above sea level. One of the wettest spots on earth, with an annual average rainfall of 460 inches, is located on the east side of Mount Waiʻaleʻale; the high annual rainfall has eroded deep valleys in the central mountains, carving out canyons with many scenic waterfalls.
On the west side of the island, Waimea town is located at the mouth of the Waimea River, whose flow formed Waimea Canyon, one of the world's most scenic canyons, part of Waimea Canyon State Park. At three thousand feet deep, Waimea Canyon is referred to as "The Grand Canyon of the Pacific". Kokeo Point lies on the south side of the island; the Na Pali Coast is a center for recreation in a wild setting, including kayaking past the beaches, or hiking on the trail along the coastal cliffs. The headland, Kuahonu Point, is on the south-east of the island. Kauaʻi’s climate is tropical, with humid and stable conditions year round, although weather phenomena and infrequent storms have caused instances of extreme weather. At the lower elevations the annual precipitation varies from an average of about 50 inches on the windward shore, to less than 20 inches on the leeward side of the island. Average temperature in Lihu'e, the county seat, ranges from 78 °F in February to 85 °F in August and September. Kauaʻi’s mountainous regions offer cooler temperatures and provide a pleasant contrast to the warm coastal areas.
At the Kōkeʻe state park, 3,200–4,200 ft (980–1