Limousin is a former administrative region of France. On 1 January 2016, it became part of the new region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, it comprised three departments: Corrèze, Haute-Vienne. Situated in the south central French Massif Central, Limousin had 742,770 inhabitants spread out on nearly 17,000 km², making it the least populated region of metropolitan France. Forming part of the southwest of the country, Limousin is bordered by the regions of Centre-Val de Loire to the north, Poitou-Charentes and Aquitaine to the west, Midi-Pyrénées to the south and Auvergne to the east. Limousin is part of the larger Occitania region; the modern region of Limousin is composed of two historical French provinces: Limousin: the department of Corrèze in its entirety and the central and southeastern part of Haute-Vienne. The entire old province of Limousin is contained within the modern Limousin. Marche: most of the department of Creuse and the north of Haute-Vienne; the old province of Marche is entirely contained within the modern region of Limousin, with only a small part of Marche now belonging to the region of Centre.
Beside these two main provinces, Limousin is composed of small parts of other former provinces: Angoumois: extreme south-west of Haute-Vienne Poitou: extreme west of Haute-Vienne Auvergne: extreme east of Creuse Berry: extreme north of CreuseToday the province of Limousin is the most populous part of the Limousin region. Limoges, the historical capital and largest city of the province of Limousin, is the capital of the Limousin administrative region. With a rising population of just under 750,000, Limousin is the second-least populous region in Metropolitan France after Corsica; the population of Limousin is aging and, until 1999, was declining. The department of Creuse has the oldest population of any in France. Between 1999 and 2004 the population of Limousin increased reversing a decline for the first time in decades. Brive-la-Gaillarde Guéret Limoges Panazol Saint-Junien Tulle Ussel Limousin is an rural region. Famed for some of the best beef farming in the world, herds of Limousin cattle—a distinctive chestnut red—are a common sight in the region.
The region is a major timber producing area. Due to its rural locality, it is famed for its groves of French Oak, so prized for its distinct characters and flavors in wine fermentation that vintner Rémy Martin has exclusive rights to its oak groves, it is a partnership, over 100 years old. The regional capital, was once an industrial power base, world-renowned for its porcelain and still a leader and innovator in electric equipment factories. However, large factories are now few in number. Limousin is the poorest region in Metropolitan France; some of the rivers belonging to the Loire basin run through the north and east of the region, waterways belonging to that of the Dordogne through the south. The region is crossed by three major rivers: the Dordogne and the Charente; the region is well known for offering first-rate fishing. The Limousin region is entirely an upland area; the lowest land is in the northwest of the region and the highest land is in the southeast. However, the greater part of the region is above 350 m.
Limousin is one of the traditional provinces of France. Its name is derived from the name of a Celtic tribe, the Lemovices which capital was in Saint-Denis-des-Murs and which main sanctuary was found in Tintignac, a site which became a major site for the Celtics studies thanks to unique objects which were found such as the carnyces, unique in the whole Celtic world. Aimar V of Limoges was a notable ruler of the region; until the 1970s, Occitan was the primary language of rural areas. There remain several different Occitan dialects in use in Limousin, although their use is declining; these are: Limousin dialect Auvergnat dialect in the East/North-East Languedocien in the Southern fringe of Corrèze in the North, the Crescent transition area between Occitan and French is sometimes considered as a separate dialect called Marchois. Pâté aux pommes de terre is one of the specialties of Limousin, as well as of the neighbouring department of Allier. Clafoutis is a local dessert. Due to its rural character, Limousin has maintained a strong tradition of traditional music, with ancient instruments such as the bagpipe and hurdy-gurdy remaining popular.
Festival 1001 Notes, music festival in Haute-Vienne, August Festival de La Vezere, music festival in Corrèze July–August Festival du Haut Limousin, music festival in Haute-Vienne, July–August La Borie en Limousin, foundation of music in Haute-Vienne Limousin, a breed of beef cattle bred in the Limousin region and recognisable by their chestnut red coloring. Limousin, the Occitan dialect of the region. TER Limousin Limousin: the “château d'eau” - Official French website Limousin regional council website, with a presentation video in English. Art in the Limousin region History and Geography
The Franks were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. The term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine, they imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, still they were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire. Although the Frankish name does not appear until the 3rd century, at least some of the original Frankish tribes had long been known to the Romans under their own names, both as allies providing soldiers and as enemies; the new name first appears when their allies were losing control of the Rhine region. The Franks were first reported as working together to raid Roman territory, but from the beginning these raids were associated with attacks upon them from outside their frontier area, by the Saxons, for example, with the desire of frontier tribes to move into Roman territory with which they had had centuries of close contact.
Frankish peoples inside Rome's frontier on the Rhine river were the Salian Franks who from their first appearance were permitted to live in Roman territory, the Ripuarian or Rhineland Franks who, after many attempts conquered the Roman frontier city of Cologne and took control of the left bank of the Rhine. In a period of factional conflict in the 450s and 460s, Childeric I, a Frank, was one of several military leaders commanding Roman forces with various ethnic affiliations in Roman Gaul. Childeric and his son Clovis I faced competition from the Roman Aegidius as competitor for the "kingship" of the Franks associated with the Roman Loire forces; this new type of kingship inspired by Alaric I, represents the start of the Merovingian dynasty, which succeeded in conquering most of Gaul in the 6th century, as well as establishing its leadership over all the Frankish kingdoms on the Rhine frontier. It was on the basis of this Merovingian empire that the resurgent Carolingians came to be seen as the new Emperors of Western Europe in 800.
In the Middle Ages, the term Frank came to be used as a synonym for Western European, as the Carolingian Franks were rulers of most of Western Europe, established a political order, the basis of the European ancien regime that only ended with the French revolution. Western Europeans shared their allegiance to the Roman Catholic church and worked as allies in the Crusades beyond Europe in the Levant, where they still referred to themselves and the Principalities they established as Frankish; this has had a lasting impact on names for Western Europeans in many languages. From the beginning the Frankish kingdoms were politically and divided between an eastern Frankish and Germanic part, the western part that the Merovingians had founded on Roman soil; the eastern Frankish kingdom came to be seen as the new "Holy Roman Empire", was from early times called "Germany". Within "Frankish" Western Europe itself, it was the original Merovingian or "Salian" Western Frankish kingdom, founded in Roman Gaul and speaking Romance languages, which has continued until today to be referred to as "France" - a name derived directly from the Franks.
The name Franci was not a tribal name, but within a few centuries it had eclipsed the names of the original peoples who constituted it. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the English adjective "frank" meaning "free". There have been proposals that Frank comes from the Germanic word for "javelin". Words in other Germanic languages meaning "fierce", "bold" or "insolent", may be significant. Eumenius addressed the Franks in the matter of the execution of Frankish prisoners in the circus at Trier by Constantine I in 306 and certain other measures: Latin: Ubi nunc est illa ferocia? Ubi semper infida mobilitas?. Latin: Feroces was used to describe the Franks. Contemporary definitions of Frankish ethnicity vary both by point of view. A formulary written by Marculf about 700 AD described a continuation of national identities within a mixed population when it stated that "all the peoples who dwell, Romans and those of other nations, live... according to their law and their custom."
Writing in 2009, Professor Christopher Wickham pointed out that "the word'Frankish' ceased to have an exclusive ethnic connotation. North of the River Loire everyone seems to have been considered a Frank by the mid-7th century at the latest. Apart from the more respected History of the Franks by Gregory of Tours, two more colourful early sources that describe the origin of the Franks are a 7th-century work known as the Chronicle of Fredegar and the anonymous Liber Historiae Francorum, written a century later; the author of the Chronicle of Fredegar claimed that the Franks came from Troy and quoted the works of Vergil and Hieronymous, the Franks are mentioned in those works, by Hieronymous. The chronicle describes Priam as a Frankish king whose people migrated to Macedonia after the fall of Troy. In Macedonia, the Franks divided; the Eur
History of Auvergne
The history of the Auvergne dates back to the early Middle Ages, when it was a historic province in south central France. It was the feudal domain of the Counts of Auvergne. Auvergne was a province of France deriving its name from the Arverni, a Gallic tribe who once occupied the area, well known for its fierce resistance, led by Vercingetorix, to conquest by the Roman Empire. Christianized by Saint Austremoine, Auvergne was quite prosperous during the Roman period. After a short time under the Visigoths, it was conquered by the Franks in 507. During the earlier medieval period, Auvergne was a county within the duchy of Aquitaine and as such part of the "Angevin Empire" until the 13th century. In 1225, Louis VIII of France granted Auvergne to his third son Alfonso. On Alfonso's death in 1271, along with the County of Toulouse and the Comtat Venaissin, reverted to the royal domain; the Middle Ages the 10th to 13th centuries, were a period of great development for Auvergne, with the building of famous abbeys and churches in a Romanesque style.
In 1095, the historic Council of Clermont was held to rally support for the First Crusade. Its wide autonomy was ended by King Philippe-Auguste of France, who linked it to the royal possessions. Hardly impacted by the Hundred Years' War, the religion wars and epidemics, integrated to the kingdom of France, it turned itself more and more into an agricultural province, although reputed for its products. In 1790, the historical province was divided into the modern-day départements of Puy-de-Dôme, Haute-Loire, Allier, although Haute-Loire and Allier include some land from the historical provinces of Bourbonnais and Velay; the region is famed for its charcuterie, celebrated in "La Mangona" festivals in many Auvergnat villages, for its cheeses, for its mineral waters. Michelin tires are produced there. Auvergne is the site of several major hydroelectric projects located on the Dordogne, Cère, Truyère rivers; the region is quite touristic, thanks to its landscapes. Auvergnat, a variety of the Occitan language, was spoken in the Auvergne.
It is still spoken there. Aubrac oxen, a rare breed, are raised in the Aubrac hills; the Auvergne emigrants, together with other Aveyron and Italian emigrants influenced the Parisian Bal-musette music. Composer Joseph Canteloube based Songs of the Auvergne, his well-known piece for voice and orchestra, on folk music and songs from the Auvergne. Singer-songwriter Georges Brassens composed Chanson pour l'Auvergnat. Composer Camille Saint-Saëns composed Rhapsodie d'Auvergne in 1884, based upon folk songs from the Auvergne. Vercingetorix, King of the Arverni, leader of the Gallic resistance against Julius Caesar. Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, born in Auvergne, was a national hero in both France and the United States for his roles in the American Revolutionary War and the French Revolution. Pierre-Andre Coffinhal, Jacobin leader and vice-president of the Revolutionary Tribunal, was born in Auvergne. A close friend of Robespierre, he was executed following the events of the 9 Thermidor. Jean-Baptiste Carrier was a French Revolutionary born at Yolet in Auvergne.
He was famous for his brutality towards his enemies. In 1794, he was guillotined upon the conviction of the National Convention. Sylvester II, pope and scholar, born Gerbert of Aurillac, a significant player in the transition from the Carolingians to the Capetians; the Dalfi d'Alvernha or Dauphin d'Auvergne and patron of troubadours, Count of Clermont and Montferrand Joseph Canteloube, French composer. Guy Debord and leader of the Situationist International, acquired a country house in the region in 1975, where he lived until committing suicide there in 1994. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, President of France, although not born in the Auvergne, was educated in Clermont-Ferrand and represented it in the National Assembly. Pierre Laval, Prime Minister of France and of the Vichy French regime, was born near Clermont-Ferrand, although he made his political career in Paris. Blaise Pascal, inventor, Christian apologist Audrey Tautou, internationally successful French actress, was born and raised in Auvergne: her surname is Occitan.
Lestat de Lioncourt Gabrielle de Lioncourt Nicolas de Lenfent Philippe Charboneau Philip Kent.
The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The dynasty consolidated its power in the 8th century making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary, becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the Merovingian throne. In 751 the Merovingian dynasty which had ruled the Germanic Franks was overthrown with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, a Carolingian Pepin the Short was crowned King of the Franks; the Carolingian dynasty reached its peak in 800 with the crowning of Charlemagne as the first Emperor of Romans in the West in over three centuries. His death in 814 began an extended period of fragmentation of the Carolingian empire and decline that would lead to the evolution of the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire; the Carolingian dynasty takes its name from Carolus, the Latinised name of Charles Martel, de facto ruler of Francia from 718 until his death.
The name "Carolingian" or "the family of Charles." Traditional historiography has seen the Carolingian assumption of the Frank kingship as the product of a long rise to power, punctuated by a premature attempt to seize the throne through Childebert the Adopted. This picture, however, is not accepted today. Rather, the coronation of 751 is seen as a product of the aspirations of one man, whose father, dynastic founder Charles Martel, had been a Frankish high court official military commander, of the Roman Catholic Church, always looking for powerful secular protectors and for the extension of its spiritual and temporal influence; the greatest Carolingian monarch was Pepin's son. Charlemagne was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III at Rome in 800, his empire, ostensibly a continuation of the Western Roman Empire, is referred to historiographically as the Carolingian Empire. The Carolingian rulers did not give up the traditional Frankish practice of dividing inheritances among heirs, though the concept of the indivisibility of the Empire was accepted.
The Carolingians had the practice of making their sons minor kings in the various regions of the Empire, which they would inherit on the death of their father, which Charlemagne and his son Louis the Pious both did for their sons. Following the death of the Emperor Louis the Pious in 840, his surviving adult sons, Lothair I and Louis the German, along with their adolescent brother Charles the Bald, fought a three-year civil war ending only in the Treaty of Verdun in 843, which divided the empire into three regna while according imperial status and a nominal lordship to Lothair who at 48, was the eldest; the Carolingians differed markedly from the Merovingians in that they disallowed inheritance to illegitimate offspring in an effort to prevent infighting among heirs and assure a limit to the division of the realm. In the late ninth century, the lack of suitable adults among the Carolingians necessitated the rise of Arnulf of Carinthia as the king of East Francia, a bastard child of a legitimate Carolingian king, Carloman of Bavaria, himself a son of the First King of the Eastern division of the Frankish kingdom Louis the German.
It was after Charlemagne's death that the dynasty began to crumble. His kingdom would end up splitting into three, each being ruled over by one of his grandsons. Only the kingdoms of the eastern and western portions survived, would go on to become the countries known today as Germany and France; the Carolingians were displaced in most of the regna of the Empire by 888. They ruled in East Francia until 911 and held the throne of West Francia intermittently until 987. Carolingian cadet branches continued to rule in Vermandois and Lower Lorraine after the last king died in 987, but they never sought thrones of principalities and made peace with the new ruling families. One chronicler of Sens dates the end of Carolingian rule with the coronation of Robert II of France as junior co-ruler with his father, Hugh Capet, thus beginning the Capetian dynasty; the dynasty became extinct in the male line with the death of Count of Vermandois. His sister Adelaide, the last Carolingian, died in 1122; the Carolingian dynasty has five distinct branches: The Lombard branch, or Vermandois branch, or Herbertians, descended from Pepin of Italy, son of Charlemagne.
Though he did not outlive his father, his son Bernard was allowed to retain Italy. Bernard rebelled against his uncle Louis the Pious, lost both his kingdom and his life. Deprived of the royal title, the members of this branch settled in France, became counts of Vermandois, Valois and Troyes; the counts of Vermandois perpetuated the Carolingian line until the 12th century. The Counts of Chiny and the lords of Mellier, Neufchâteau and Falkenstein are branches of the Herbertians. With the descendants of the counts of Chiny, there would have been Herbertian Carolingians to the early 14th century; the Lotharingian branch, descended from Emperor Lothair, eldest son of Louis the Pious. At his death Middle Francia was divided between his three surviving sons, into Italy and Lower Burgundy; the sons of Emperor Lothair did not have sons of their own, so Middle Francia was divided between the western and eastern branches of the family in 875. The Aquitainian branch, descended from Pepin of Aquitaine, son of Louis the Pious.
Since he did not outlive his father, his sons were deprived of Aquitaine in favor of his younger brother Charles the Bald. Pepin'
Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. It takes its name from the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period. "Burgundy" has referred to numerous political entities, including kingdoms and duchies spanning territory from the Mediterranean to the Low Countries. Since January 2016, the name Burgundy has referred to a specific part of the French administrative region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, an entity comprising four departments: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Nièvre; the first recorded inhabitants of the area that became Burgundy were Celts, who were incorporated in the Roman Empire as Gallo-Romans. During the 4th century, the Burgundians, a Germanic people, who may have originated in Bornholm, settled in the western Alps, they founded the Kingdom of the Burgundians, conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the Franks. Under Frankish dominion, the Kingdom of Burgundy continued for several centuries.
The region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy. The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two becoming the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of Franche-Comté meaning free county. Burgundy's modern existence is rooted in the dissolution of the Frankish Empire. In the 880s, there were four Burgundies, which were the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Burgundy, the duchy and the county. During the Middle Ages, Burgundy was home to some of the most important Western churches and monasteries, including those of Cluny, Cîteaux, Vézelay. Cluny, founded in 910, exerted a strong influence in Europe for centuries; the first Cistercian abbey was founded in 1098 in Cîteaux. Over the next century, hundreds of Cistercian abbeys were founded throughout Europe, in a large part due to the charisma and influence of Bernard of Clairvaux; the Abbey of Fontenay, a UNESCO World Heritage site, is today the best-preserved Cistercian abbey in Burgundy.
The Abbey of Vezelay a UNESCO site, is still a starting point for pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela. Cluny was totally destroyed during the French Revolution. During the Hundred Years' War, King John II of France gave the duchy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold; the duchy soon became a major rival to the crown. The court in Dijon outshone the French court both economically and culturally. In 1477, at the battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle, the Duchy itself was annexed by France and became a province; however the northern part of the empire was taken by the Austrian Habsburgs. With the French Revolution in the end of the 18th century, the administrative units of the provinces disappeared, but were reconstituted as regions during the Fifth Republic in the 1970s; the modern-day administrative region comprises most of the former duchy. The region of Burgundy is both larger than the old Duchy of Burgundy and smaller than the area ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy, from the modern Netherlands to the border of Auvergne.
Today, Burgundy is made up of the old provinces: Burgundy: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, southern half of Yonne. This corresponds to the old duchy of Burgundy. However, the old county of Burgundy is not included inside the Burgundy region, but it makes up the Franche-Comté region. A small part of the duchy of Burgundy is now inside the Champagne-Ardenne region. Nivernais: now the department of Nièvre; the northern half of Yonne is a territory, not part of Burgundy, was a frontier between Champagne, Île-de-France, Orléanais, being part of each of these provinces at different times in history. The climate of this region is oceanic, with a continental influence; the regional council of Burgundy was the legislative assembly of the region, located in the capital city Dijon at 17 boulevard de la Trémouille until its merger to form the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Burgundy is one of France's main wine producing areas, it is well known for both its red and white wines made from Pinot noir and Chardonnay grapes although other grape varieties can be found, including Gamay, Pinot blanc, Sauvignon blanc.
The region is divided into the Côte-d'Or, where the most expensive and prized Burgundies are found, Beaujolais, the Côte Chalonnaise and Mâcon. The reputation and quality of the top wines, together with the fact that they are produced in small quantities, has led to high demand and high prices, with some Burgundies ranking among the most expensive wines in the world. With regard to cuisine, the region is famous for the Burgundian dishes coq au vin, beef bourguignon, époisses de Bourgogne cheese. Tourist sites of Burgundy include the Rock of Solutré, the Tournus cathedral, Brancion, the castles of Cormatin and Couches, the palace of the dukes of Burgundy in Dijon, the Pézanin Arboretum, Vézelay Abbey. Earlier, the southeastern part of Burgundy was industrial, with coal mines near Montceau-les-Mines and iron foundries and crystal works in Le Creusot; these industries declined in the second half of the twentieth century, Le Creusot has tried to reinvent itself as a tourist town. Lecomte, Bernard.
Burgundy, What a Story!. ISBN 978-2-902650-02-6. Davies, Norman. "Ch.3: Burgundia: Five, Six or Seven Kingdoms (c. 411-1
Hunald I spelled Hunold, Hunuald or Chunoald, was the Duke of Aquitaine from 735 until 745. Although nominally he was an officer of the Merovingian kings of Francia, in practice Aquitaine was autonomous when he inherited it, his dukeship corresponds with the lowest point of the Merovingian monarchy, when the kingdom was in fact ruled by the mayors of the palace. Hunald was forced at the outset of his reign to accept the authority of the mayor of the palace Charles Martel, but he tried three times to throw it off in open revolt, he was unsuccessful. In 745, he retired to a monastery, he went to Rome, where he died during an attack on the city. In spite of the opinion of certain historians that Hunald left his monastery to lead Aquitaine again in 768, Hunald I seems to have been a different person from the Hunald II his grandson, who led the revolt that followed the death of Waiofar. Hunald succeeded his father, Duke Odo the Great, after the latter's death in 735, his brother Hatto seems to have acted alongside him.
Hunald, like his father and son, possessed a name of Germanic origin. The Aquitanian province that he inherited had been enlarged by his father to include territory along the Loire that had once been Neustrian and the Auvergne region, Austrasian. In 735, Charles Martel led an expedition into Aquitaine, he occupied the well-fortified city of Bordeaux. He is not recorded as having met any resistance; the purpose of this expedition seems to have been to take advantage of the death of Odo to alter the constitutional status of Aquitaine in the Frankish kingdom by forcing Hunald to recognise his lordship and to remit taxes to the royal government. The show of force worked; the Annales Mettenses priores record that Charles gave the duchy of Aquitaine to Hunald and made him and his brother Hatto give a "promise of faith" to him and his sons, Carloman I and Pippin III, promise to remit taxes. Following this success, Charles did not retain Bordeaux or any other part of Aquitaine, including those, added to it by Odo.
The Vita Pardulfi, the late 8th-century life of Pardulf, records that Hunald succeeded his father as princeps, a term with royal connotations, served Charles as legatus. Despite their promise of faith and Hatto rebelled against Charles in 736. After considerable fighting, Hatto was captured by Charles's forces and handed over to Ainmar, bishop of Auxerre. Hatto subsequently escaped from prison, Charles deposed Ainmar and had him imprisoned, he was killed attempting to escape from prison. Hatto was betrayed by his own brother. Hunald invited him to a meeting at Poitiers, where he imprisoned him in a monastery; the betrayal of Hatto was the price exacted by Charles in exchange for allowing Hunald to keep his duchy. The peace between Hunald and Charles seems to have persisted until Charles's death in 741, although there is some evidence of low-level conflict. In 736–39, Charles Martel and his brother, Childebrand I, led several expeditions against the Umayyad forces occupying parts of Septimania and Provence.
The Annals of Aniane, writing about a date, record that Hunald's son Waiofar harassed the forces of Charles's son Pippin the Short during the latter's siege of Narbonne in 752–59 "as his father had done Charles Martel", implying that Hunald had harassed Charles's forces during the southern campaigns of 736–39. Despite achieving a crushing victory over the Umayyads at the battle of the River Berre in 737, Charles never besieged Narbonne because Hunald was threatening his lines of communication; the most serious of Hunald's revolts was that of 742. This was undertaken in alliance with the dukes of Alemannia. All three dukes sought to regain their old autonomy following the death of Charles Martel; this coincided with an interregnum, since no king had been appointed to succeed Theuderic IV after his death in 737. Having raised an army, the brothers crossed the Loire at Orléans and proceeded to sack the city of Bourges and the fortress of Loches. In the words of the Chronicle of Fredegar: he Gascons of Aquitaine rose in rebellion under Duke Chunoald, son of the late Eudo.
Thereupon the princely brothers Carloman and Pippin united their forces and crossed the Loire at the city of Orléans. Overwhelming the Romans they made for the outskirts of which they set on fire, their next objective, the stronghold of Loches and was razed to the ground, the garrison being taken prisoner. Their victory was complete, they divided out the booty among themselves and took off the local inhabitants to captivity got home about the autumn of the same year... The reference to Gascons indicates that Hunald had Gascon allies, since Gascony was a distinct land from Aquitaine at that time. Before leaving Aquitaine and Pippin met at Vieux-Poitiers to agree on a division of Francia between them, having imprisoned their illegitimate half-brother Grifo; this division did not include Aquitaine in recognition of its continuing autonomy. In the autumn of 742, after Carloman and Pippin had left, Hunald crossed the Loire in support of Duke Odilo of Bavaria's ongoing revolt, he sacked the city of Chartres, where he is said to have burnt the church of Saint Mary to the ground.
This is the earliest mention of the church of Chartres, to become the cathedral. There is no record of Hunald meeting any opposition. In early 743, Carloman and Pippin placed a kin
A Roman villa was a country house built for the upper class in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, similar in form to the hacienda estates in the colonies of the Spanish Empire. Pliny the Elder distinguished two kinds of villas: the villa urbana, a country seat that could be reached from Rome for a night or two; the villa rustica centered on the villa itself only seasonally occupied. Under the Empire a concentration of Imperial villas grew up near the Bay of Naples on the Isle of Capri, at Monte Circeo on the coast and at Antium. Wealthy Romans escaped the summer heat in the hills around Rome around Frascati. Cicero possessed no fewer than seven villas, the oldest of them, which he inherited, near Arpinum in Latium. Pliny the Younger had three or four, of which the example near Laurentium is the best known from his descriptions; the Empire contained many kinds of villas, not all of them lavishly appointed with mosaic floors and frescoes. In the provinces, any country house with some decorative features in the Roman style may be called a "villa" by modern scholars.
Some were pleasure houses such as those — like Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli— that were sited in the cool hills within easy reach of Rome or — like the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum— on picturesque sites overlooking the Bay of Naples. Some villas were more like the country houses of England or Poland, the visible seat of power of a local magnate, such as the famous palace rediscovered at Fishbourne in Sussex. Suburban villas on the edge of cities occurred, such as the Middle and Late Republican villas that encroached on the Campus Martius, at that time on the edge of Rome, which can be seen outside the city walls of Pompeii; these early suburban villas, such as the one at Rome's Auditorium site or at Grottarossa in Rome, demonstrate the antiquity and heritage of the villa suburbana in Central Italy. It is possible that these early, suburban villas were in fact the seats of power of regional strongmen or heads of important families. A third type of villa provided the organizational center of the large holdings called latifundia, which produced and exported agricultural produce.
By the 4th century, villa could connote an agricultural holding: Jerome translated in the Gospel of Mark chorion, describing the olive grove of Gethsemane, with villa, without an inference that there were any dwellings there at all. By the first century BC, the "classic" villa took many architectural forms, with many examples employing atrium or peristyle, for enclosed spaces open to light and air. Upper class, wealthy Roman citizens in the countryside around Rome and throughout the Empire lived in villa complexes, the accommodation for rural farms; the villa-complex consisted of three parts. The pars urbana where his family lived; this would be similar to the wealthy-person's in the city walls. The pars rustica where the chef and slaves of the villa lived; this was the living quarters for the farm's animals. There would be other rooms here that might be used as store rooms, a hospital and a prison; the villa fructuaria would be the storage rooms. These would be. Storage rooms here would have been used for oil, grain and any other produce of the villa.
Other rooms in the villa might include an office, a temple for worship, several bedrooms, a dining room and a kitchen. Villas were furnished with plumbed bathing facilities and many would have had an under-floor central heating known as the hypocaust. A villa might be quite palatial, such as the villas of the imperial period, built on seaside slopes overlooking the Gulf of Naples at Baiae. Smaller in the countryside non-commercial villas operated as self-supporting units, with associated farms, olive groves, vineyards. Roman writers refer with satisfaction to the self-sufficiency of their villas, where they drank their own wine and pressed their own oil, a used literary topos. An ideal Roman citizen was the independent farmer tilling his own land, the agricultural writers wanted to give their readers a chance to link themselves with their ancestors through this image of self-sufficient villas; the truth was not too far from the image, while the profit-oriented latifundia, large slave-run villas grew enough of all the basic foodstuffs to provide for their own consumption.
The late Roman Republic witnessed an explosion of villa construction in Italy in the years following the dictatorship of Sulla. In Etruria, the villa at Settefinestre has been interpreted as being the centre of one of the latifundia that were involved in large-scale agricultural production. At Settefinestre and elsewhere, the central housing of such villas was not richly appointed. Other villas in the hinterland of Rome are interpreted in light of the agrarian treatises written by the elder Cato and Varro, all of whom sought to define the suitable lifestyle of conservative Romans, at least in idealistic terms. Large villas dominated the rural economy of the Po Valley and Sicily, operated in Gaul. Villas were centers of a variety of economic activity such as mining, pottery factories, or horse raising such as those found in northwestern Gaul. Villas specializing in the s