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Waitakere Ranges

The Waitakere Ranges and its foothills and coasts comprise an area of some 27 720 ha of public and private land located between metropolitan Auckland and the west coast of Waitakere City and Rodney District. The area is of local and national significance; the Waitakere Ranges include a chain of hills in the Auckland Region running 25 km from north to south, 25 km west of central Auckland, New Zealand. The Waitakere Ranges are part of the Waitakere Ranges regional park; the ranges and surrounding areas were traditionally known to local Māori as Te Wao Nui o Tiriwa. The Waitakere Ranges Regional Park, protected at local and national levels, is an area of some 17 000 ha, established over a period of 110 years through gifts, grants and vestings. From 1 May 2018 the forested areas of the Waitakere Ranges Regional Park were closed, with some exceptions while Auckland Council upgraded the tracks to dry foot standard prevent the spread of potential disease and protect tree roots, but many are now marked as permanently closed and their future is uncertain.

The western coastline of the ranges consists of cliffs exceeding 300 m, interspersed infrequently with beaches. The rugged upstanding topography is formed from erosion-resistant ancient volcanic conglomerate and lava flows laid down in eruptions from the large Waitakere volcano to the west 12–25 million years ago; the ranges are covered in native forest, most of, in the process of regeneration since extensive logging and farming in the mid–late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1894 a group led by Sir Algernon Thomas persuaded the Auckland City Council to preserve 3,500 acres in the Nihotupu area of the ranges as a bush reserve. In 1895 the national Government vested the land, several other smaller areas of the ranges, in the City Council as "reserves for the conservation of native flora and fauna"; the Waitakere Ranges Regional Park now contains about 39,500 acres. The area is protected under the Waitakere Ranges Heritage Area Act of 2008. Five reservoirs within the ranges supply water to the Auckland region, including the Waitakere Reservoir and the Lower Nihotupu Reservoir.

Combined, the reservoirs supply 26% of Auckland's potable water demand. The ranges receive an average of over 2,000 mm of rainfall annually while the corresponding rate in the city is less than half that; as weather systems approach across the Tasman Sea, their path is blocked by the ranges causing a small uplift sufficient to trigger orographic rainfall. The area is home to kauri snails and native long-tailed bats. Long-tailed and short-tailed bats are New Zealand's only native land-based mammals. At the northern end of the ranges, Otakamiro Point is the site of one of New Zealand's few mainland gannet breeding colonies. In the bush are many indigenous invertebrates, including kauri snail and oviparous velvet worms with 14 pairs of legs, ovoviviparous species of 15 and 16 pairs of legs in the genus Peripatoides; some of the ranges' main attractions are: the four popular surf beaches, Muriwai, Te Henga, Karekare. A road, aptly named Scenic Drive, runs a good portion of the length of the ranges from Titirangi to Swanson.

Auckland City Council operates an information centre on Scenic Drive, called Arataki Visitor Centre. The beaches are typical of west coast beaches north of Taranaki in that they are all black sand beaches, they have a reputation of being dangerous for swimmers due to large swells. Surf Life Saving Clubs patrol designated areas of the four most popular beaches during the summer months. Piha Surf Life Saving Club is the oldest of these, being founded in 1934. On 11 January 2010, the Auckland Regional Council opened the Hillary Trail, a 77 km trail running south-north from the Arataki Visitor Centre to Muriwai through the Waitakere Ranges, named in honour of the New Zealand mountaineer Sir Edmund Hillary; the Hilary Trail is regarded as one of or maybe the best multi day hike in the north of the country. The Ark in the Park conservation initiative, a partnership between Forest and Bird and the Auckland Council, is working to reintroduce some of the species made extinct in the Cascades Kauri Park section of the ranges.

The project now covers 2,300 hectares. The highest point in the Waitakere Ranges is Te Toiokawharu. Waitakere Ranges Protection Society Waitakere Ranges at the Auckland Council Ark in the Park Hillary Trail - Waitakere Ranges "Waitakere Ranges Heritage Area Act, 2008". New Zealand Law online

1928 in France

Events from the year 1928 in France. President: Gaston Doumergue President of the Council of Ministers: Raymond Poincaré 22 April - Legislative Election held. 29 April - Legislative Election held. 7 July - The French government issues an order limiting the list of private radio stations permitted to continue broadcasting. 27 August - The Kellogg–Briand Pact is signed in Paris - the first treaty which outlaws aggressive war. 17 June - Tour de France begins. 15 July, won by Nicolas Frantz of Luxembourg. 4 January - Maurice Rigobert Marie-Sainte, Martinique Roman Catholic clergyman 6 January - Capucine, actress 17 January - Jean Barraqué, composer 23 January - Jeanne Moreau, film actress 24 January - Michel Serrault, actor 26 January - Roger Vadim, film director 10 February - Jean-Luc Lagardère, engineer and businessman 23 February - André Strappe, international soccer player 1 March - Jacques Rivette, filmmaker 3 March - Pierre Michelot, double bass player 2 April - Serge Gainsbourg, singer-songwriter and director 12 April - Jean-François Paillard, conductor 28 April - Yves Klein, painter 2 May - Georges-Arthur Goldschmidt, French writer, German translator 3 May - Jacques-Louis Lions, mathematician 5 May - Jacques Médecin, politician 28 May - André Schwarz-Bart, novelist 17 June - Jean-Pierre Abbat, joint first person in the US to manufacture polyurethane 29 June - Jean-Louis Pesch, writer 3 July - Georges-Jean Arnaud, author 6 July - Bernard Malgrange, mathematician 10 July - Bernard Buffet, painter 13 July - Jeanne Loriod, musician 30 July - Paul Bisciglia, film actor 6 August Jean-Christophe Averty and radio director Michel Clouscard, Marxist philosopher and sociologist Jean Carrière, writer 14 August Jacques Rouffio, film director and screenwriter Joëlle Bernard and television actress 21 September - Édouard Glissant, writer and literary critic 3 October - Christian d'Oriola, Olympic gold medal winning foil fencer 23 October - Marthe Mercadier, actress 31 October - Jean-François Deniau, diplomat and novelist 13 November - Michel Gauquelin and statistician 17 November - Arman, artist 2 December - Guy Bourdin, photographer 30 December - Christian Millau, food critic and author 31 December - Siné, cartoonist Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel, psychoanalyst Jean-Jacques Millant, bow maker Jacques Poirier, painter 2 January - Yves du Manoir, rugby player 11 February - Émile Basly and trade unionist 22 February - Yves Guyot and economist 7 March - Jules Auguste Lemire and social reformer 28 July - Édouard-Henri Avril and commercial artist September - Paul Ferrier, dramatist 8 September - Jean Bourdeau, writer 23 October - François Victor Alphonse Aulard, historian 18 December Louis-Anne-Jean Brocq, dermatologist Lucien Capet and composer 23 December - Georges Destenave, explorer Achille Maffre de Baugé, poet List of French films of 1928


Pneumatoraptor is a genus of small, paravian dinosaur that lived in Hungary. It is known from a single complete left shoulder girdle found in the Csehbánya Formation of the Iharkút locality in the Bakony Mountains of western Hungary; this formation dates to the late Cretaceous period about 85 million years ago. The type species is Pneumatoraptor fodori, named for Géza Fodor; the genus name Pneumatoraptor refers to the pneumaticity of the bone, the hollow spaces that would have been filled with air sacs in life. The holotype specimen is identified by the catalog number MTM V.2008.38.1. and housed at the Hungarian Natural History Museum in Budapest. Pneumatoraptor differs from other theropods in having a narrow shoulder blade, nearly circular in cross section, as well as having a large opening in the bone to house a hollow air sac cavity; the bone is small, indicating that the animal was only about half the size of the related Sinornithosaurus or 0.73 m. The shoulder girdle is L-shaped, showing it to be a member of the group Paraves, which includes the dromaeosaurids and birds.

While the Pneumatoraptor remains are too incomplete to tell which, if any, of these specific groups it belongs to, many of the bones features are similar to dromaeosaurids. Other paravian remains from the same formation may belong to Pneumatoraptor; these include isolated teeth, tail vertebrae, a partial lower leg bone

Charles Bronson (band)

Charles Bronson was a powerviolence band from DeKalb, existing from 1994 to 1997. Charles Bronson borrowed from the early powerviolence of Infest, who blended youth crew hardcore with the velocity and dissonance of thrashcore. Songs were brief, sometimes punctuated by samples taken from various media. Lyrically, the group tended towards satirical commentary on the hardcore punk scene; the group has been described as a "fast, screaming mess of tall, skinny guys with a lot to say". The group was sometimes criticized for its conceptual take on hardcore and art school tendencies, maintaining a long-standing feud with Felix Havoc of Code 13. Demo Tape – self-released Charles Bronson 7" – Six Weeks Records/Youth Attack Records Charles Bronson / Spazz Split 7" – 625, Evil Noise and Disgruntled Records Charles Bronson / Unanswered split 7" – Trackstar Records Charles Bronson / Ice Nine split 7" – Bovine Records Charles Bronson / Quill split 7" – Nat Records Youth Attack! – Lengua Armada/Coalition Records Complete Discocrappy 2xCD – Youth Attack Records All That and a Bag o Dicks – Disgruntled Records Double Dose of Dicks – Disgruntled Records Speed Freaks – Knot Music Vida Life – Lengua Armada No Royalties – Bad People Records Cry Now, Cry Later Vol. 4 – Pessimiser/Theologian Another Probe 7" with a Girl on the Cover – Probe El Guapo – Same Day Records Possessed to Skate – 625 and Pessimiser Records Deadly Encounters – Agitate 96 and Kill Music Records Bllleeeeaaauuurrrrgghhh!

A Music War – Slap A Ham Records Reality 3 – Deep Six Records Tomorrow will be Worse – Sound Pollution Records Mandatory Marathon – Amendment Records Hurt Your Feelings – Six Weeks Records Chicago's on Fire Again – Lengua Armada Skeletal Festival – self-released Charles Bronson's MySpace


Dobutamine is a medication used in the treatment of cardiogenic shock and severe heart failure. It may be used in certain types of cardiac stress tests, it is given by injection into intraosseous as a continuous infusion. The amount of medication needs to be adjusted to the desired effect. Onset of effects is seen within 2 minutes. Common side effects include a fast heart rate, an irregular heart beat, inflammation at the site of injection. Use is not recommended in those with idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, it works by direct stimulation of β1 receptors, which increases the strength of the heart's contractions. It has little effect on a person's heart rate. Dobutamine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1978, it is available as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom as of 2018 it costs the NHS about 2 pounds per vial, it was made from isoproterenol. Dobutamine is used to treat acute but reversible heart failure, such as which occurs during cardiac surgery or in cases of septic or cardiogenic shock, on the basis of its positive inotropic action.

Dobutamine can be used in cases of congestive heart failure to increase cardiac output. It is indicated when parenteral therapy is necessary for inotropic support in the short-term treatment of patients with cardiac decompensation due to depressed contractility, which could be the result of either organic heart disease or cardiac surgical procedures, it is not useful in ischemic heart disease because it increases heart rate and thus increases myocardial oxygen demand. The drug is commonly used in the hospital setting as a pharmacologic stress testing agent to identify coronary artery disease. Primary side effects include those seen for β1 active sympathomimetics, such as hypertension, angina and tachycardia. Used with caution in atrial fibrillation as it has the effect of increasing the atrioventricular conduction; the most dangerous side effect of dobutamine is increased risk of arrhythmia, including fatal arrhythmias. Dobutamine is a direct-acting agent whose primary activity results from stimulation of the β1-adrenoceptors of the heart, increasing contractility and cardiac output.

Since it does not act on dopamine receptors to inhibit the release of norepinephrine, dobutamine is less prone to induce hypertension than is dopamine. Dobutamine is predominantly a β1-adrenergic agonist, with weak β2 activity, α1 selective activity, although it is used clinically in cases of cardiogenic shock for its β1 inotropic effect in increasing heart contractility and cardiac output. Dobutamine is administered as a racemic mixture consisting of isomers; the administration of the racemate results in the overall β1 agonism responsible for its activity. -Dobutamine has mild β2 agonist activity, which makes it useful as a vasodilator. It was developed in the 1970s by Drs. Ronald Tuttle and Jack Mills at Eli Lilly and Company, as a structural analogue of isoprenaline

Tilly Lucas-Rodd

Matilda Lucas-Rodd is an Australian rules footballer who plays for the St Kilda Football Club in the AFL Women's competition. She was drafted by Carlton with the ninety ninth overall selection in the 2016 AFL Women's draft, making her debut in Round 1, 2017, in the league's inaugural match at Ikon Park against Collingwood. In round 5 she earned a nomination for the 2017 AFLW Rising Star award following her match against Fremantle. Lucas-Rodd finished 2017 having played in all seven of Carlton's matches that season. In April 2019, Lucas-Rodd was delisted by Carlton. However, she was soon picked up by St Kilda and helped lead their impressive maiden season in the VFLW, finishing 2nd on the ladder and making the preliminary final before succumbing to eventual premiers Collingwood, her superb season was capped off by winning the club's best and fairest award, as well as receiving a place in the VFLW Team of the Year. Tilly Lucas-Rodd's profile on the official website of the Carlton Football Club Tilly Lucas-Rodd at