Museum of Transport and Technology
The Museum of Transport and Technology is a science and technology museum located in Western Springs, New Zealand. It is located close to Auckland Zoo and the Western Springs Park; the museum has large collections of civilian and military aircraft and other land transport vehicles. An ongoing programme is in place to conserve items in the collections; this work is managed by volunteers many of whom have been associated with MOTAT for upwards of four decades. Since the passing of the Museum of Transport and Technology Act in 2000, new management and the support of full-time professional museum staff and a large number of dedicated long term volunteers have ensured the Museum's future. New public programmes and facilities now promote the collections. MOTAT was established in 1960 by a combination of groups including the Old Time Transport Preservation League, formed in 1957 and preserved trams and railway locomotives. MOTAT was formally opened in 1964. MOTAT 1 was built around the site of a beam engine pump house, which provided Auckland's water supply.
The Council engaged the services of famed engineer, William Errington, to design and construct the Pumphouse and Boiler house to provide the first pressurised water supply to Auckland. Adjacent swampland was excavated creating a 6-foot-deep dammed lake, filled by three natural springs; this area parkland. The engine is a Double Woolf Compound built by John Key and Sons of Kirkcaldy in Scotland, who built the long scrapped Lancashire boilers that provided the steam; the Western Springs Water Works opened in a small ceremony on 10 July 1877. The pumphouse was superseded by Auckland's extensive dam system and reticulation in 1928. Restoration and earthquake strengthening of the building was completed in 2002 and overhaul of the long dormant Beam Engine commenced at the start of 2005. On 11 October 2007 the engine moved under pneumatic pressure for the first time in 79 years and was tested under steam during the evening of 29 November the same year; the Beam engine was re-commissioned in a special public opening on 19 April 2008.
A range of other early steam engines are kept in running order including a 1910 Tangye steam engine, an impressive 1911 triple-expansion engine built by Campbell Calderwood from Paisley, from the ill-fated Sydney Ferry The Greycliffe which sank on 3 November 1927 after being hit by the much larger Union Steam Ship Company’s Royal Mail Steamship Tahiti with the loss of 40 lives. The engine ended its commercial life in the Tirau dairy factory. Steam for the Beam Engine and other artifacts provided by a 1957 Daniel Adamson steam boiler, used at Frankham's Mill, Te Puna. Exhibits include trams, vintage traction engines, cars, buses and trucks fire engines, electrical equipment, space flight exhibits including a Corporal rocket and general science exhibits. There is a'colonial village' of early shops and houses, including a fencible cottage and a blacksmith shop; the MOTAT printery demonstrates type making, type setting and printing on a variety of different manual and mechanical printing presses operated by Volunteers printing giveaways and small publications.
A volunteer bindery group demonstrate their talents and hold classes. In the 1970s visitors to MOTAT were entertained by the MOTAT Chorus, a group of barbershop singers who became the Auckland City of Sails Chorus. The'Pioneers of Aviation' Pavilion holds memorabilia of early aviators; the displays include miscellaneous parts from Richard Pearse's experimental aircraft, a replica of the craft, flown and his third aircraft. The pavilion holds relics from the Walsh Brothers' flights and school, a library and archive of transport resources named in memory of the Walsh Brothers available to all MOTAT visitors and via the MOTAT website for virtual visitors. Celebrated is Charles Kingsford-Smith's trans-Tasman flight in the Southern Cross, Jean Batten's England–New Zealand flight and record breaking efforts; the larger civil aviation exhibits continue over at MOTAT 2 with displays relating to the Pan American Airways and Imperial Airways flying boats of the late 1930s and TEAL flying boats of the 40s and 50s.
The engine from Jean Batten's Percival Gull is displayed at MOTAT 2. The Road transport collection rotationally displays in excess of 100 cars, trucks and emergency vehicles; some of the iconic vehicles in the collection include one of the first Trekka utility vehicles, New Zealand's only homegrown production vehicle built between 1966 and 1973, based on Czechoslovakian Škoda engines and chassis. Other vehicles include a 1960s Cooper Climax race car, an early American Brush Motor Car Company runabout, an International horseless carriage, an Austin Motor Company beer tanker and a wide number of other vehicles. In the collection is one of the Ferguson Company tractors which Edmund Hillary used to lay supply depots for the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition, with which he beat British explorer Dr Vivian Fuchs Sno-Cats to the South Pole on 3 January 1958. MOTAT houses a small collection of Police vehicles, including former New Zealand Transport Department New Zealand Ministry of Transport patrol cars and patrol motorbikes, the road policing duties of which were combined into the New Zealand Police in the early
Urban rail transit
Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail systems providing passenger service within and around urban or suburban areas. The set of urban rail systems can be subdivided into the following categories, which sometimes overlap because some systems or lines have aspects of multiple types. A tram, streetcar or trolley system is a rail-based transit system that runs or along streets, with a low capacity and frequent stops. Passengers board at street- or curb-level, although low-floor trams may allow level boarding. Longer-distance lines are called radial railways. Few interurbans remain, most having been abandoned; the term "tram" is used in most parts of the world. In North America, these systems are referred to as "streetcar" or "trolley" systems. A light rail system is a rail-based transit system that has higher capacity and speed than a tram by operating in an exclusive right-of-way separated from automobile traffic, but, not grade-separated from other traffic like rapid transit is.
Light rail generally operates with multiple unit trains rather than single tramcars. It emerged as an evolution of trams/streetcars. Light rail systems vary in terms of speed and capacity, they range from improved tram systems to systems that are rapid transit but with some level crossings. The term "light rail" is the most common term used, though German systems are called "Stadtbahn". A rapid transit, subway, elevated, metro or Mass Rapid Transit system is a railway—usually in an urban area—with high passenger capacities and frequency of service, full grade separation from other traffic, it is known as "heavy rail" to distinguish it from light rail and bus rapid transit. In most parts of the world these systems are known as a "metro", short for "metropolitan"; the term "subway" is used in many American systems as well as in Toronto. The system in London uses the terms "underground" and "tube". Systems in Germany are called "U-Bahn", which stands for "Untergrundbahn". Many systems in East and Southeast Asia such as Taipei and Singapore are called MRT which stands for Mass Rapid Transit.
Systems which are predominantly elevated may be referred to as "L" as in Chicago or "Skytrain", as in Bangkok and Vancouver. Other less common names include "T-bane" and "MTR". A monorail is a railway in which the track consists of a single rail, as opposed to the traditional track with two parallel rails. A commuter rail, regional rail, suburban rail or local rail system operates on mainline trackage which may be shared with intercity rail and freight trains. Systems tend to operate at lower frequencies than rapid transit or light rail systems, but tend to travel at higher speeds and cover longer distances. Though many European and East Asian commuter rail systems operate with frequencies and rolling stock similar to that of rapid transit, they do not qualify as such because they share tracks with intercity/freight trains or have at grade crossings. For example, S-trains are hybrid systems combining the characteristics of rapid transit and commuter rail systems. S-trains share tracks with mainline passenger and freight trains but distances between stations and service headway resemble Metro systems.
A funicular is a cable-driven inclined railway that uses the weight of descending cars to help pull the ascending cars up the slope. A cable car in the context of mass transit is a system using rail cars that are hauled by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed. Individual cars start by releasing and gripping this cable as required. Cable cars are distinct from funiculars, where the cars are permanently attached to the cable and cable railways, which are similar to funiculars, but the rail vehicles are attached and detached manually. Transit agencies' names for lines do not reflect their technical categorization. For example, Boston's Green Line is referred to despite having street-running portions. Conversely, the Docklands Light Railway in London, Green Line in Los Angeles and some metro lines in China are referred to as "Light Rail" though they qualify as rapid transit because they are grade-separated and provide a high frequency of service. Many cities use names such as subway and elevated railway to describe their entire systems when they combine both methods of operation.
Less than half of the London Underground's tracks, for example, are underground. A bus does not run on rails. Trolleybuses are buses. Vehicles that can travel both on rails and on roads have been tried experimentally, but are not in common use; the term bus rapid transit is used to refer to various methods of providing faster bus services and the systems which use it have similar characteristics to light rail. Some cities experimenting with guided bus technologies, such as Nancy, have chosen to refer to them as'trams on tyres' and given them tram-like appearances. In a 2006 article, political scientist Ted Balaker and urban planner Cecilia Juong Kim say that public rail transit provides certain benefits for a community, but say the goals of policymakers are not met. They
Helensville is a town in the North Island of New Zealand. It is sited 40 kilometres northwest of Auckland, close to the southern extremity of the Kaipara Harbour. State Highway 16 passes through the town, connecting it to Waimauku 16 km to the south, Kaukapakapa about 12 km to the north-east. Parakai is 2 km to the north-west; the Kaipara River runs into the Kaipara Harbour to the north. The population was 2,532 in the 2006 Census, an increase of 315 from 2001. Helensville is the name of an electorate seat in the Parliament of New Zealand; the current member for Helensville is Chris Penk. The area around Helensville was called Te Awaroa, meaning "The long path" or "The long river valley"; the first European settlers in the district were Scottish timber millers named McLeod but who had come from Nova Scotia to New Zealand. John McLeod built a house which he named "Helen's Villa" in honour of his wife, the name soon became that of the surrounding settlement. Initial development of the town was around the kauri milling industry, but by the start of the 20th century dairying was becoming of increasing importance.
It was becoming somewhat of a tourist centre, owing to the presence of hot springs 3 km to the west of the town at Parakai. A lot of the early history of Helensville is described in the book Men Came Voyaging written by Colleen Sheffield, who lost her life in a bus accident before the book was completed. Helensville had a local government like other suburbs of Auckland at that time; the local government was called Helensville Borough Council, which started in 1947 and merged into Rodney District Council in 1989 being amalgamated into Auckland Council in November 2010. 1947–1950 R. Screaton 1950–1953 Herbert O. Strong 1953–1956 Charles S. West 1956–1961 Lionel M. T. Wotton 1961–1968 Arthur B. West 1968–1974 G. C. Russell 1974–1986 George A. Smith 1986–1989 Eric J. Glavish Although it is no longer a forestry or dairy centre, the town is still a tourist attraction because of its many historic buildings, the hot springs at Parakai and the Parakai Aerodrome, its proximity to Auckland, it has seen positive effects from the nearby wine producing region around Kumeu, 20 km to the south.
There are an increasing number of lifestyle blocks in the area. Kaipara College is a secondary school with a roll of 767 as of August 2018; the school began as Helensville District High School in 1924, changed its name to Kaipara College in 1959. Helensville Primary School is a full primary school with a roll of 510 as of August 2018, it was founded in 1877. Tau Te Arohanoa Akoranga is a satellite campus of the state-integrated Kingsway School, offering a Christian-based education. All these schools are coeducational. Helensville railway station is on the North Auckland Line but the station has been closed since 2009. With the cessation of the passenger train service the only public transport between Helensville and central Auckland is by buses to and from Westgate in west Auckland transfer to another bus route 110 to central Auckland. At rush hours an express bus operates to Downtown. Helensville Primary School Helensville & District Historical Society
Public transport in Auckland
Public transport in Auckland, the largest metropolitan area of New Zealand, consists of three modes: bus and ferry. Services are coordinated by Auckland Transport under the AT Metro brand. Britomart Transport Centre is the main transport hub; until the 1950s Auckland had high levels of ridership. However, the dismantling of an extensive tram system in the 1950s, the decision by William Goosman to not electrify Auckland's rail network, a focus of transport investment into a motorway system led to the collapse in both mode share and total trips. By the 1990s Auckland had experienced one of the sharpest declines in public transport ridership in the world, with only 33 trips per capita per year. Since 2000, a greater focus has been placed on improving Auckland's public transport system through a series of projects and service improvements. Major improvements include the Britomart Transport Centre, the Northern Busway, the upgrade and electrification of the rail network and the introduction of integrated ticketing through the AT Hop Card.
These efforts have led to sustained growth in ridership on the rail network. Between June 2005 and November 2017 total ridership increased from 51.3 million boardings per annum to 90.9 million. Despite those strong gains, the overall share of travel in Auckland by public transport is still quite low. At the 2013 census around 8% of journeys to work were by public transport and per capita ridership in 2017 of around 55 boardings is still well below that of Wellington, Melbourne and most large Canadian cities. Auckland's rapid population growth means that improving the city's public transport system is a priority for Auckland Council and the New Zealand Government. Major improvements planned or underway include the City Rail Link, extending the Northern Busway to Albany, construction of the Eastern Busway between Panmure and Botany, the proposed Auckland Airport Line, a light rail line between the city centre and Auckland Airport. Horse-drawn trams operated in Auckland from 1884 while the Auckland Electric Tram Company's system was opened on 17 November 1902.
The Electric Tram Company started as a private company before being acquired by Auckland City Council. The tram network shaped much of Auckland's growth throughout the early 20th century. Auckland's public transport system was well utilised, with usage peaking at over 120 million boardings during the Second World War though Auckland's population was under 500,000 at the time. Auckland's extensive tram network was removed in the 1950s, with the last line closing in late 1956. Although a series of ambitious rail schemes were proposed between the 1940s and 1970s, the focus of transport improvements in Auckland shifted to developing an extensive motorway system. Passionate advocacy from long-time Mayor of Auckland City Council Dove-Myer Robinson for a "rapid rail" scheme was unsuccessful. Removal of the tram system, little investment in Auckland's rail network and growing car ownership in the second half of the 20th century led to a collapse in ridership across all modes of public transport. From a 1954 average level of 290 public transport trips per person per year, patronage decreased rapidly.
1950s ridership levels were only reached again in the 2010s, despite Auckland's population growing four-fold over the same time period. These decisions shaped Auckland's growth patterns in the late 20th century, with the city becoming a low-density dispersed urban area with a population dependent on private vehicles for their travel needs. By the late 1990s ongoing population growth and high levels of car use were leading to the recognition that traffic congestion was one of Auckland's biggest problems, it has been claimed that the city's public transport decline resulted from, "privatisation, a poor regulatory environment and a funding system that favours roads". On the other hand, NZ Bus claim that increasing passengers and cost control began with privatisation in 1991; as concerns over urban sprawl and traffic congestion grew in the 1990s and early 2000s, public transport returned to the spotlight, with growing agreement of the "need for a substantial shift to public transport". Growing recognition that Auckland could no longer "build its way out of congestion" through more roads alone led to the first major improvements to Auckland's public transport system in half a century: The Britomart Transport Centre was opened in 2003, the first major upgrade of Auckland's rail network since World War II.
This project allowed trains to reach into the heart of Auckland's city centre and acted as a catalyst for the regeneration of this part of downtown Auckland. The Northern Busway was opened in 2008, providing Auckland's North Shore with rapid transit that enabled bus riders to avoid congestion on the Northern Motorway and Auckland Harbour Bridge. A core upgrade of Auckland's rail network between 2006 and 2011, known as Project DART, which included double-tracking of the Western Line, the reopening of the Onehunga Branch line to Onehunga, a rail spur to Manukau City and a series of station upgrades. Electrification of the Auckland rail network and the purchase of new electric trains from Spanish manufacturer CAF. Electric train services commenced in 2014. Implementation of an integrated ticketing and fares system, through the AT HOP card, enabling consistent fares and easy transfers between different bus and ferry operators. Despite these improvements, the lack of investment in Auckland's public transport system throughout the latter part of the 20th century means the city still has much lower levels of ridership than other major cities in Canada and Australia.
Not to be confused with the former Waitakere City. Waitakere is a small rural suburb in the northwest of Auckland, New Zealand. Waitakere City Waitakere Train Station
North Auckland Line
The North Auckland Line is a major section of New Zealand's national rail network, is made up of the following parts: the portion of track that runs northward from Westfield Junction to Newmarket Station. The first section was opened in 1868 and the line was completed in 1925; the line, or sections of it, have been known at various times as the Kaipara Line, the Waikato-Kaipara Line, the Kaipara Branch and the North Auckland Main Trunk.'North Auckland Line' is a designation for the section of track, not a service route. The southernmost portion from Westfield Junction to Newmarket was built as part of the North Island Main Trunk Railway, with Newmarket serving as the junction of the two lines; the North Island Main Trunk was re-routed in 1930 via the Westfield Deviation through Glen Innes and Panmure. Westfield-Newmarket was incorporated into the North Auckland Line, Newmarket-Auckland became the Newmarket Line, which today connects the North Auckland Line to Britomart Transport Centre. Three passenger lines of Auckland's suburban rail network make use of the North Auckland Line.
Southern Line services travel on it between Newmarket Station. Onehunga Line services travel on it between Newmarket Station. Western Line services travel on it between Newmarket Station; the North Auckland Line continued to Opua in the Bay of Islands, with the section from Otiria to Opua sometimes known as the Opua Branch. It is now owned by the Bay of Islands Vintage Railway but regular operations have been suspended since 2001, with resumption on a short section of the line in 2008; the North Auckland Line is under review as part of KiwiRail's turnaround plan. A proposed new branch line, the Marsden Point Branch, would serve Northport, a deepwater port at Marsden Point, by diverging from the North Auckland Line south of Whangarei at Oakleigh. Three branch lines are on the line: The Onehunga Branch line connects with the North Auckland Line at Penrose and forms part of the route of Onehunga Line suburban passenger train services operating between Britomart and Onehunga via Newmarket; the Newmarket Line meets the North Auckland Line at Newmarket and provides a connection with Britomart.
Further north, the Dargaville Branch branches off in Waiotira. The Dargaville Branch boasted of a branch of its own, built by the Kaihu Valley Railway Co, running northwestwards to Kaihu and Donnelly's Crossing; the Okaihau Branch left the North Auckland Line in Otiria and the Riverhead Branch in Kumeu. It took many years to build a complete line to serve the Northland Region, with different sections being developed at different times, it became clear that a main line was required to link these isolated railways to improve transport for both passengers and freight to and from New Zealand's northernmost region, to open up land for greater economic development. However, the construction was not without criticism. In 1910, the Minister of Railways himself criticised the project, arguing that the project of extending it would bring little benefit, as most traffic from north of Auckland was covered by only going as far as Helensville, while country to the north was poor and would not be able to support the line.
Many sections of the line were considered technically challenging the tunnels, construction of, called'notorious' at the time. The first section of what became the North Auckland Line opened as a private industrial line on 2 March 1868 between Kawakawa and a wharf at Taumarere, it was constructed not as a railway, but as a wooden-railed bush tramway to carry coal to the wharf for export, was built to the international standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in. The standard New Zealand track gauge, adopted a few years is 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge, but when the Kawakawa-Taumarere tramway was converted into a metal railway in 1870, it retained its gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in. In 1875, the government converted it to 3 ft 6 in gauge two years later; the second portion of what became. Timber interests around the Kaipara Harbour had poor access to markets in Auckland, so accordingly, a line was built overland from the Kaipara to a wharf in Riverhead for transshipment; the Auckland Provincial Council began construction on 31 August 1871, but on 1 January 1872, the central government took over work.
Due to delays with acquiring rails, construction was delayed and the line did not open until 29 October 1875. The section from the shores of the Kaipara at a station named Helensville South to Kumeu became part of the North Auckland Line; this brief line cut transport costs and time in comparison to a bullock team or lengthy coastal shipping. The discovery of coal in the Kamo area created a need for transportation from the mines to export wharves; the first mine opened in 1872, as the 1870s progressed, mining activity increased and so did pressure for a railway. In 1877, the government approved a tramway, but a preliminary survey the next year found a tramway would be inadequate. Construction began on 10 March 1879, but fell behind schedule due to unstable terrain and slips. On 28 October 1880, the first 7.3 km of line opened, but this featured a temporary 1 km siding to an alternative wharf as the full line was completed to the intended wharf. At 10.64 km, the full line opened on 30 November 1882.
The line in Whangarei was raised, the station moved and level crossings eliminated in 1925–26, when it was linked to the Helensville section. The earliest Auckla
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala